|1.||By the time the Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere in the 1490s, most Native Americans who lived in large civilizations were in which of the following regions?|
|A)||The Caribbean islands|
|B)||Mesoamerica and the western coast of South America|
|C)||The area that is now the United States and Canada|
|D)||The land above the Arctic Circle, including present-day Alaska|
|2.||Which of the following describes the first ancestors of the Native American peoples?|
|A)||This group had always lived in the Western Hemisphere.|
|B)||The first Native Americans migrated by sea from Polynesia.|
|C)||The original group migrated by sea from China.|
|D)||They were migrants who came over land from northeastern Asia.|
|3.||Which of the following describes the first peoples who migrated to the Americas?|
|A)||The first Americans built large, permanent villages.|
|B)||The group consisted of bands of hunters and gatherers.|
|C)||They lived on large, permanent farms.|
|D)||They did little hunting and mostly gathered edible plants.|
|4.||What was the foundation for the prosperous Native American societies in Mexico, Peru, and the Mississippi River Valley?|
|B)||Gold and silver mining|
|C)||Maize and potato cultivation|
|D)||Large, well-fortified cities|
|5.||The Aztecs lived in which of the following present-day locales?|
|6.||The Hohokams, Mogollon, and Anasazi peoples who lived in present-day Arizona and New Mexico around A.D. 1000|
|A)||evolved into the Navajo tribe.|
|B)||declined because of their failure to use irrigation.|
|C)||declined because of soil exhaustion and a long drought after A.D. 1150.|
|D)||employed irrigation to grow four or five crops a year.|
|7.||Which of the following was characteristic of both the Mississippian and Pueblo peoples?|
|A)||Small-scale communities of hunters and farmers|
|D)||Elaborate ceremonial and urban sites|
|8.||Which of the Pueblo peoples built hundreds of miles of straight roads across the desert in the American Southwest to facilitate trade?|
|9.||Which of the following statements describes Native American peoples east of the Mississippi River?|
|A)||They had no single style of political organization.|
|B)||Men made all of the decisions regarding agriculture.|
|C)||They developed elaborate systems of water storage and irrigation.|
|D)||Their standard of living and populations increased dramatically in the century preceding the arrival of the Europeans.|
|10.||Which of the following was a characteristic of the Aztec, Mayan, and Iroquois civilizations?|
|B)||Use of complex irrigation systems|
|C)||A hunter-gatherer economy|
|D)||Reliance on agriculture|
|11.||Which of the following describes the political culture among Native Americans?|
|A)||Many embraced strong European-style monarchies.|
|B)||Powerful leaders redistributed wealth to highlight their authority.|
|C)||Women were often in positions of power.|
|D)||Democracy was the preferred method of governance.|
|12.||Which of the following describes trading relationships among Native Americans in the period before European contact?|
|A)||Every tribe was self-sufficient and avoided trading with other groups.|
|B)||Trade networks consisted only of simple bartering between local tribes.|
|C)||Mesoamerican societies developed trade networks but North Americans did not.|
|D)||Native Americans developed expansive trade networks that spanned great distances.|
|13.||Which of the following features characterized most Native North Americans’ spiritual views and practices?|
|14.||For this question, refer to the following engraving from the 1590s, The Village of Secoton, by John White.
This image best serves as evidence of which of the following?
|A)||The attempts by Native Americans at cultural preservation of their beliefs and worldviews|
|B)||How poorly the Spanish understood Native peoples|
|C)||How new crops from the Americas stimulated European growth|
|D)||How Native peoples adapted to and transformed their diverse environments|
|15.||For this question, refer to the following engraving from the 1590s, The Village of Secoton, by John White.
As a primary source, the image above is best understood as
|A)||a statement by a colonizing European of a belief in white superiority.|
|B)||evidence that some Native societies developed permanent villages.|
|C)||proof of the limited ability of Native Americans to maintain their political and cultural autonomy.|
|D)||representative of the lack of natural resources in the diverse environments faced by Native populations in North America.|
|16.||Which of the following statements describes the status of European monarchs in 1450?|
|A)||They were absolute rulers who controlled every aspect of society.|
|B)||The authority of the monarchs was often challenged by local nobles.|
|C)||Monarchs were figureheads while parliamentary bodies ruled.|
|D)||European kings and princes had little political power at this time.|
|17.||The social order in Europe around 1450 can be described as|
|B)||hierarchical and authoritarian.|
|C)||bureaucratic and regimented.|
|D)||based on clans.|
|18.||Which of the following characteristics did traditional European, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations of the fifteenth century hold in common?|
|A)||Each was a hierarchal society in which authority came from above.|
|B)||In all of these societies, serfdom prevailed.|
|C)||All of these societies punished heresies harshly.|
|D)||Each culture maintained a matrilineal inheritance system.|
|19.||Typically, when an English woman of the fifteenth century married, she|
|A)||owned property jointly with her husband.|
|B)||gave up ownership of her property to her husband.|
|C)||received full control of the family’s property on her husband’s death.|
|D)||lost any claim to all of the family’s property on her husband’s death.|
|20.||Which of following is the name for the European practice whereby the eldest son inherited nearly all of his father’s estate?|
|A)||The dower system|
|D)||The putting out system|
|21.||In 1450, the majority of European men were which of the following?|
|A)||Merchants or artisans|
|22.||On the eve of European colonization of the Americans, most Western Europeans lived in|
|A)||small, relatively isolated rural communities.|
|B)||booming new cities and towns.|
|C)||older cathedral cities.|
|D)||castles that dotted the countryside.|
|23.||The European Renaissance began in 1300 in which of the following countries?|
|24.||Which of the following Renaissance-era ideologies celebrated public virtue and service to the state?|
|25.||Merchants from which of the following countries made inroads in the Arab-dominated trade routes of the Mediterranean in the twelfth century?|
|26.||The rise of commerce in most of Europe in the fifteenth century shifted the balance of power by favoring which of the following groups?|
|B)||The landed nobility|
|27.||Which Europeans were represented by guilds in the fifteenth century?|
|A)||The landed nobility|
|28.||As it gained power in Europe, Roman and medieval Catholicism contended with pre-Christian festivals and the agricultural cycle by|
|A)||integrating them into Christian holy days and biblical teachings.|
|B)||aiming to eradicate these pagan practices completely.|
|C)||replacing pagan traditions with newly devised rites.|
|D)||declaring all pagan customs to be sinful and blasphemous.|
|29.||Why were the Crusades, which took place between 1096 and 1291 A.D., significant in Europe?|
|A)||The expeditions exposed Europeans to Arab trade goods, especially sugar.|
|B)||The series of conflicts restored control of the Holy Land to Europeans, who dominated it throughout the Renaissance period.|
|C)||The Crusades exposed Arab regions to Europeans’ superior scientific and mathematical knowledge.|
|D)||They inspired Arabs to abandon their pagan rituals and favor an advanced European way of life.|
|30.||Which of the following was a result of the Crusades, which took place between 1096 and 1291 A.D.?|
|A)||Christian identity fragmented in Europe.|
|B)||Europeans’ toleration of Jews increased.|
|C)||Western European merchants gained awareness of Asian trade routes.|
|D)||Christian warriors quickly expelled Muslims from most of Europe.|
|31.||The first phase of the Reformation in the 1500s had its greatest success in which of the following countries?|
|32.||Martin Luther advocated which of the following ideas?|
|A)||The Catholic Church was corrupt and in need of reform.|
|B)||Most people required the clergy’s help to read and understand the Bible.|
|C)||People could be saved only by grace, which was a gift from God.|
|D)||People should have the right to change their government if it oppressed them.|
|33.||John Calvin and Calvinist theologians of the 1500s stressed which of the following ideas?|
|A)||God’s compassion and love for all peoples|
|B)||The basic innocence of humans at their births|
|C)||The doctrine of predestination|
|D)||God’s promise of ultimate salvation for all|
|34.||In West Africa, the Ghana Empire (A.D. 800 to 1200), the Mali Empire (1200s to the 1400s), and the fifteenth-century Songhai Empire shared which of the following characteristics?|
|A)||Reliance on hunting and gathering for food|
|B)||The use of gold as the cornerstone of their power|
|C)||The inability to raise livestock due to endemic parasites|
|D)||Adherence to the tenets of Islam|
|35.||Most of the people living in West Africa when European trade began in the early fifteenth century were|
|36.||Which European nation was the first to involve itself in exploration of the Atlantic as a route to Asia and the African slave trade?|
|37.||Which of the following factors prevented Europeans from seeking to conquer territory in Africa in the fifteenth century?|
|A)||Lack of valuable natural resources in the region|
|B)||The continent’s environment was unsuitable for agriculture|
|C)||Coastal kingdoms were too well-defended|
|D)||The population was too sparse to exploit effectively|
|38.||Which of the following statements describes the Portuguese connection to African slavery in the 1400s?|
|A)||The Portuguese introduced the idea and practice of slavery in Africa.|
|B)||Portuguese traders ousted Arab merchants as the prime African slave merchants.|
|C)||By refusing to trade in slaves, Portugal paved the way for the Dutch slave merchants.|
|D)||Portuguese traders focused on transporting female slaves for work in agriculture.|
|39.||Why was the fifteenth-century marriage of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain significant?|
|A)||Together they completed Spain’s long campaign to oust Muslims.|
|B)||They decided jointly to end the Spanish Inquisition.|
|C)||It created a new basis for female political power.|
|D)||The Catholic Church refused to recognize their arranged union.|
|40.||In October 1492, Columbus, his men, and his ships reached|
|D)||an island in the Bahamas.|
|41.||Why had Christopher Columbus faded from public view by the time he died in 1506?|
|A)||He began the transatlantic trade in slaves.|
|B)||He did not establish successful colonies.|
|C)||He failed to find great treasures or kingdoms.|
|D)||He failed to Christianize the Native Americans.|
|42.||Which of the following motivations drove the Spanish conquistadors who followed Columbus to the Americas in the early sixteenth century?|
|A)||The impulse to spread Christianity, even if it limited their opportunities for wealth and power|
|B)||Their desire to acquire fame by naming the new lands after themselves|
|C)||A wish to create safe havens for Protestant sects that had been persecuted by the Catholic Church in Spain|
|D)||Their thirst for battle and riches as well as land in the conquered territory and titles of nobility|
|43.||Which of the following factors eased the Spaniards’ conquest of the Aztecs in the sixteenth century?|
|A)||The arrival of disease, specifically smallpox, to which the Aztecs were vulnerable.|
|B)||Spain’s superior military technology alone wiped out thousands of the Native population.|
|C)||Montezuma assumed the Spaniards were gods and led no resistance.|
|D)||The internal fighting among warriors over succession to the empire’s throne.|
|44.||The Portuguese settlement of Brazil in the 1500s was based around|
|45.||Why did the number of Indians living in Mesoamerica decline from about 30 million in the fifteenth century to approximately 3 million by 1650?|
|A)||European contact led the Indians to conduct brutal wars among themselves.|
|B)||Most Native Americans fled south to avoid the European raiders.|
|C)||Europeans slaughtered millions of Indians in extremely fierce and long-lasting wars.|
|D)||Disease carried by Europeans decimated most Indian tribes who came into contact with them.|
|46.||Which of the following explorers is correctly matched with his area of exploration?|
|A)||Balboa—rounded the Cape of Good Hope in Africa|
|B)||Cortés—conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico|
|C)||Pizarro—explored the Isthmus of Panama and was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean|
|D)||Díaz—conquered the Mayan city-states in the Yucatán Peninsula|
|47.||Why were the modern-day countries of Mexico and Peru originally Spain’s most significant conquests?|
|A)||Indian agricultural techniques made Spanish farming much more productive.|
|B)||The Aztecs’ knowledge of iron and steel production contributed to Spain’s armory.|
|C)||The Inca, Aztecs, and Mayans had great wealth, particularly in gold.|
|D)||They provided hospitable environments for colonies that attracted Spanish families.|
|48.||Which of the following statements characterizes the legacy of the Spanish conquest in the New World in the sixteenth century?|
|A)||Tribal populations increased in size following the introduction of European technology.|
|B)||The Spanish found much gold but squandered it in their attempt to convert the indigenous peoples.|
|C)||Their presence created only a very small, mixed-blood population because interracial sexual contact was rare.|
|D)||Spanish conquistadors, aided by disease, decimated native peoples.|
|49.||During most of the sixteenth century, which of the following was the wealthiest nation in Europe?|
|50.||How did the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro conquer the Incans by 1535?|
|A)||He had a large force of 1,000 men and 500 horses and easily overwhelmed the Incans.|
|B)||The Spanish forced Atahualpa, the last Inca emperor, to surrender to the Spanish.|
|C)||The Incans were already weakened militarily and divided because of rival claimants to the throne.|
|D)||The Incans were frightened by the Spaniards and did not resist his forces.|
Use the following to answer questions 51-69:
- A) Societies whose members gather food by hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants rather than relying on agriculture or animal husbandry. Because these members of society are mobile, moving seasonally through their territory to exploit resources, they have neither fixed townsites nor weighty material goods.
- B) Societies whose members combine slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting and fishing. These societies often occupy large village sites near their fields in the summer, then disperse during the winter months into smaller hunting, fishing, and gathering camps, regathering again in spring to plant their crops.
- C) A Native American culture complex that flourished in the Mississippi River basin and the Southeast from c. A.D. 850–c. A.D. 1700. Characterized by maize agriculture, moundbuilding, and distinctive pottery styles, these communities were complex chiefdoms usually located along the floodplains of rivers. The largest of these communities was Cahokia, in modern-day Illinois.
- D) A culture area of Native Americans that extends from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the Great Plains, and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. This area can be subdivided into the southeastern and northeastern woodlands. Peoples of this area were generally semisedentary, with agriculture based on maize, beans, and squash. Most, but not all, were chiefdoms.
- E) A Native American language family whose speakers were widespread in the eastern woodlands, Great Lakes, and subarctic regions of eastern North America. This language family should not be confused with the Algonquins, who were a single nation inhabiting the St. Lawrence Valley at the time of first contact.
- F) A Native American language family whose speakers were concentrated in the eastern woodlands. This language family should not be confused with the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, which inhabited the territory of modern-day upstate New York at the time of first contact.
- G) A league of five Native American nations—the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas—probably formed around A.D. 1450. A sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, joined the confederacy around 1720. Condolence ceremonies introduced by a Mohawk named Hiawatha formed the basis for the league. Positioned between New France and New Netherland (later New York), this alliance played a central role in the era of European colonization.
- H) Five enormous, interconnected freshwater lakes—Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior—that dominate eastern North America. In the era before long-distance overland travel, they were the center of the continent’s transportation system.
- I) A broad plateau region that stretches from central Texas in the south to the Canadian plains in the north, bordered on the east by the eastern woodlands and on the west by the Rocky Mountains. Averaging around 20 inches of rainfall a year, these lands are primarily grasslands that support grazing but not crop agriculture.
- J) A high mountain range that spans some 3,000 miles, this area is bordered by the Great Plains on the east and the Great Basin on the west. Native peoples fished, gathered roots and berries, and hunted elk, deer, and bighorn sheep there. Silver mining boomed in this area in the nineteenth century.
- K) An arid basin-and-range region bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Sierra Mountains on the west, all of its water drains or evaporates within the basin. A resource-scarce environment, this region was thinly populated by Native American hunter-gatherers, who ranged long distances to support themselves.
- L) The traditional term for farmworkers in Europe. Some owned land, while others leased or rented small plots from landlords.
- M) A state without a monarch or prince that is governed by representatives of the people.
- N) A religion that holds the belief that Jesus Christ was himself divine. For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church was the great unifying institution in Western Europe, and it was from Europe that this religion spread to the Americas.
- O) A religion that considers Muhammad to be God’s last prophet. Following the death of Muhammad in A.D. 632, the newly converted Arab peoples of North Africa used force and fervor to spread the Muslim faith into sub-Saharan Africa, India, Indonesia, Spain, and the Balkan regions of Europe.
- P) A series of wars undertaken by Christian armies between A.D. 1096 and 1291 to reverse the Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands where Christ had lived.
- Q) The reform movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther’s critiques of the Roman Catholic Church and that precipitated an enduring schism that divided Protestants from Catholics.
- R) A reaction in the Catholic Church triggered by the Reformation that sought change from within and created new monastic and missionary orders, including the Jesuits (founded in 1540), who saw themselves as soldiers of Christ.
- S) A system of production characterized by unfree laborers producing cash crops for distant markets. This system developed in sugar-producing areas of the Mediterranean world and was transferred to the Americas, where it took root in tropical and subtropical areas including Brazil, the West Indies, and southeastern North America. In addition to sugar, the system was adapted to produce tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton.
|58.||hunters and gatherers|
|70.||What were the major similarities and differences between the civilizations of Mesoamerica and Mississippian culture in the fifteenth century, just before European contact?|
|71.||How did the climate affect the rise and decline of various Native peoples between about 10,000 B.C.E. and A.D. 1500?|
|72.||How were eastern woodland Indian societies organized and governed around the time European explorers arrived in the New World?|
|73.||What factors explain the different ways in which the Indian peoples of Mesoamerica and North America developed in the era before Europeans arrived in the New World?|
|74.||How did the Renaissance change Western Europe between 1300 and 1600?|
|75.||How did Protestant religious doctrine differ from that of Roman Catholicism at the time of the Reformation in the sixteenth century?|
|76.||Why and how did Portugal and Spain pursue overseas commerce and conquest in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?|
|77.||What factors made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers in the sixteenth century?|
|78.||Why were the leaders of West African ministates eager to participate in trade relationships with Europeans when they began to explore the region’s coast in the mid-1440s?|
|79.||What factors led to the development of the transatlantic trade in African slaves in the 1600s?|
|80.||Compare and contrast the main characteristics of traditional European society and West African society in about the year 1400. How were each similar to and different from Native American societies, and what factors account for the differences?|
|81.||How did Europeans make the transition from barbarians to world leaders who could extend their influence into Africa and across the Atlantic to conquer the Americas in the two-hundred-year period between 1300 and 1500?|
|82.||Compare and contrast the role of religious ideas and practices in Europe, Africa, and American societies in the 1400s. To what degree did religion benefit ordinary people? In what ways did it create suffering?|
|83.||Explain the role of coerced labor in European, African, and American societies in the beginning of the second millennium A.D. How did Europe’s relationship with slavery change between 1400 and 1600? What accounted for the changes?|
|84.||By the early 1500s, Europe had become a major international influence, and its incursions into Africa and the Americas had set world history on a new course. How did Europe’s activity in Africa and North America in the sixteenth century affect each of the three continents? Who were the beneficiaries and who were the victims of Europe’s activities?|
|70.||Answer would ideally include:
– Social and Political Organization: Both formed complex, large-scale societies with large permanent populations based in fortified cities. They practiced advanced farming techniques based on plant domestication and produced agricultural surpluses that led to population increase, class specialization, and city-state formation.
– Economies: Both developed extensive trade networks with neighboring societies. Peasants and farmers paid tribute and taxes (in the form of goods) to support an elite class of nobles and priests who waged wars against neighboring chiefdoms and patronized skilled artisans.
– Religion: Mesoamerican rituals may have influenced the development of Mississippian culture. Examples are Mayan refugees from war-torn Yucatán influencing Mississippi River Valley and Natchez customs of ceremonial burial in mounds. In both areas, farmers built pyramids and large temple mounds at the direction of an elite class of rulers and priests. Both cultures buried remains of their dead in ceremonial mounds.
– Environment: Large populations overburdened the environment, depleting local food supplies and leading to disease. Maya experienced a two-century drought, which produced economic crisis for overburdened peasants and led to migration.
– Geography and Demography: The civilizations inhabited different regions: Central (Meso) America versus North America. Mesoamerica possessed more people: 40 million in Mesoamerica and South America combined, versus 7 million in North America.
– Chronology: Mesoamerica declined earlier (A.D. 800 for Maya and Teotihuacan versus A.D. 1350 for Mississippians) due to the later arrival of farming technology (A.D. 800) and later population increase for Mississippians.
|71.||Answer would ideally include:
– Migration: Climate changes during the last Ice Age enabled Native people to walk across a land bridge over the Bering Strait to North America around 10,000 B.C. The warming of the climate then isolated North American Indians from European migration and diseases until the arrival of Columbus in 1492. Native people succumbed rapidly to European diseases because of their lack of immunity. Climate changes, including drought, shaped the migratory patterns of North American Indians over time.
– Food Production: Climate shaped the development of farming technology in the Americas. Corn, bean, and squash cultivation was concentrated in the warm and moist soil of Mesoamerica; these crops later spread as far north as Canada.
|72.||Answer would ideally include:
– Economic Organization: The societies were comprised of diverse cultures, ranging from larger, more agricultural-based societies to smaller Algonquian and Iroquoian societies that combined hunting and gathering with farming. Eastern woodland societies did not encourage accumulation of material goods and land ownership; resources were shared, which encouraged reciprocity rather than accumulation among people.
– Politics: They were self-governing tribes composed of clans. Clan elders conducted ceremonies and policed societies but did not form a distinct ruling class. Because household and lineage, not hereditary and divinely ordained leadership, was the basis of society, leaders lacked power compared to Mesoamerica and could not compel all people to follow them into war or follow their lead in making other major decisions.
– Social Organization: They inhabited semipermanent settlements surrounded by fields. Lineage and household formed the basis of society. Farming was controlled by women after large-scale societies declined and dispersed into smaller settlements following disease exposure from the 1540s de Soto expedition. A matrilineal inheritance system developed due to control of farming by women; women passed use-rights of fields to daughters. Fathers stood outside the main lines of kinship; primary responsibility of child rearing fell to the mother and brothers, who often lived with sisters rather than wives.
– Culture: Religious rituals centered on an annual agricultural cycle, for example, the green corn and strawberry festivals of the Iroquois.
|73.||Answer would ideally include:
– Food Production: Farming technology (corn, beans, and squash) developed earlier in Mesoamerica; settled agriculture arrived later (A.D. 800) in North America. This factor produced a larger population and large cities earlier and in greater numbers in Mesoamerica than in North America. Greater use of mixed hunting/gathering and farming in North America stemming from the later development of farming technology produced smaller-scale and more self-governing societies.
– Population: Smaller populations in North American societies produced less diversity of occupations and social classes, lower levels of state formation and territorial competition, and fewer large-scale cities than in Mesoamerica. Greater development of dispersed and small settlements compared to Mesoamerica gave women more economic power within North American societies. The larger Mesoamerica population produced greater state control, urbanization, and more social classes compared to North American societies.
|74.||Answer would ideally include:
– European Economy: The Renaissance brought wealth to Italian city-states and later other European countries through trade with Arabia and the Far East. Banking, manufacturing, and technological innovation were spurred by the enormous profits made through international trade.
– Ideology and Politics: The ideology of civic humanism, which praised public virtue and service to the state, was adopted in Italian city-states and later influenced European and American notions of government.
– Culture: The Renaissance led to a flowering of art and culture that is still widely appreciated.
|75.||Answer would ideally include:
– Approaches to Salvation: Luther rejected the doctrine that Christians could win salvation through good deeds. He argued that people could be saved only by grace, a free gift from God. John Calvin preached the doctrine of predestination, the idea that God had chosen certain people for salvation even before they were born, condemning the rest to eternal damnation.
– Religious Authority: Catholics believed that priests were the ultimate authority, necessary to convey religious doctrine and mediate between God and people. Luther downplayed the role of the clergy and the pope as mediators between God and the people. He argued that believers must look to the Bible and not church doctrine as the ultimate authority in matters of faith.
– Church Government: Protestants wanted to purify the Catholic Church of ostentatious display, the sale of indulgences, and other forms of corruption.
|76.||Answer would ideally include:
– Why: Portugal and Spain pursued overseas commerce and conquest to acquire new lands for the monarchy and nation-state, to find a western route to Asian resources, to serve a Christian god, to enrich private investors, and to fulfill the process of mercantilism.
– How: The Portuguese and Spanish accomplished this by state-sponsored exploration led by determined monarchs and private individuals, utilization of Arab sailing technology, use of private investors and mercantilism to finance voyages, and extermination and enslavement of the Native population of the Americas.
|77.||Answer would ideally include:
– Lack of Political Unity: For example, the Aztecs had many enemies from within their own tribes as a result of territorial competition, wealth acquisition, and the sacrifice of captives taken in war. Cortés exploited Indian political rivalries to his advantage, forming alliances with enemy tribes of the Aztecs. In contrast, the Spanish possessed a highly unified society.
– Technology: Native Americans possessed copper but did not smelt iron. Spanish metal armor, swords, and lances inflicted devastating wounds on Aztec warriors armed with cotton armor and obsidian-tipped spears and arrows. Besides the penetrating power and devastating wounds, the use of guns and crossbows, though limited, inflicted psychological shock on Native American people. Aztecs fought on foot and had no wheeled carts or cavalry, unlike the Spanish, who also possessed attack dogs.
– Lack of Immunity to European Diseases: Although tuberculosis was known among Native Americans before the arrival of Europeans, isolation from Eurasia for thousands of years prevented the buildup of immunity to common European diseases. For example, in 1500, the Mesoamerican population equaled 30 million, but it was reduced to only 3 million by 1650; in Hispaniola, 300,000 Indians were wiped out in a few decades; and a smallpox epidemic lasted twenty days in Aztec Tenotchtitlán in 1521, facilitating Cortés’s victory. Before Pizarro landed in Peru in 1524, smallpox had reduced the Inca population by half (18 million to 9 million), which ignited an internal native fight over succession to rule and weakened the Inca militarily. Influenza and measles also has a severe impact on Native populations, producing both a population loss and a psychological shock that facilitated power decline.
|78.||Answer would ideally include:
– Limited Local Economies: Most of the ministates were small, and the tropical ecosystem prevented them from raising livestock. They cultivated yams and gathered food resources from the region’s rivers and coasts. There was little market for their products in the West African and North African empires. Their location south of the Sahara made trade with other regions difficult.
– Attractiveness of European Goods: European traders provided a new source for goods that had previously been unavailable.
|79.||Answer would ideally include:
– European Factors: Crusades in Europe during the Middle Ages brought Europe closer to North Africa and increased the desire of European monarchs to take advantage of Arab Muslim slave trade with sub-Saharan Africa. Renaissance economic expansion influenced European monarchs to increase commerce with Africa and Asia in an attempt to remove Arab Muslim control from world trade. Profits from increasing trade created powerful merchant and banking interests that promoted further world exploration. Africa, geographically close to southern Europe, was within easy reach due in part to advances in ship design (the caravel) and the compass. When European monarchs’ sponsorship of exploration led to Africa, Portuguese monarchs and traders militarily overwhelmed Arab middlemen and took control of trade (e.g., the building of the first slave-trading post at Elmina in 1482). Consequently, they created a sugar plantation system in the Cape Verde islands, the Azores, and Madeira based on West African slave labor. By 1550, the Atlantic slave trade expanded enormously to supply new sugar plantations in Brazil and the West Indies.
– African Factors: West Africans had previous experience with domestic slavery in African societies. People became slaves as prisoners of war and as security for debts, and some were sold by relatives in times of famine. The large population of Africans and a high degree of African warfare with little political unity in the continent made a great number of people available for the slave trade. West African societies engaged in the African slave trade with Arab Muslim traders of North Africa before the Portuguese arrived in the mid-1400s. West African slaves were sold as agricultural workers from one kingdom to another or carried overland in caravans by Arab traders to North Africa. This history indicates that African leaders’ participation in the Atlantic slave trade with Europeans was chosen and not involuntary.
|80.||Answer would ideally include:
– European Society: Similarities: Europe had an agriculturally based, pagan culture combined with monotheism. The peasant classes lived in relative poverty, and peasants lived in small villages with extended families. It was a male-ruled society, with a multiplicity of languages. The majority of people lived in hierarchical societies ruled by princes.
– West African Society: Differences: There was a more unified religion in Europe based on Christianity; Europeans made more widespread use of iron; Europeans were sailing societies; Europeans were more politically united; Africans practiced slavery; many Africans lived in tribal societies.
– Similarities Between Native Americans and West Africans/Europeans: Agriculturally based, small communities as well as large kingdoms; society based on kinship, with extended families living in one large household; multiplicity of languages.
– Differences Between Native Americans and West Africans/Europeans: Native American societies gave more power to women, succumbed to European diseases more readily due to lack of immunity, produced relatively smaller population levels, practiced paganism universally, and did not possess sailing technology.
|81.||Answer would ideally include:
– Thumbnail of Europe in 1300: Western Europeans in the 1300s lived in a patchwork of kingdoms, duchies, and republics reliant on subsistence agriculture, isolated from the rest of the “civilized” world. Hierarchy and patriarchy were organizing features. Most of the population labored in the service of others as peasants and faced disease, famine, poverty, and uncertainty. The Roman Catholic Church served as both a key state institution and a unifying cultural force. Europeans used technological innovations derived by Arab inventors in navigation, weaponry, map making, and communication.
– Crusades: Crusades developed Europeans’ militaries and paved the way for military supremacy over Muslims in Spain, Africa, and ultimately the Americas. They intensified Europe’s Christian identity and introduced Western European merchants to trade routes into Asia and the Mediterranean. The introduction of Eastern products provided incentive for the expansion of European trade and enterprises. The Crusades also introduced a cultural ethos of competition that further fed the region’s economic expansion, which would ultimately spread to the Americas.
– Renaissance: Italian merchants pushed their way into the Arab-dominated trade routes of the Mediterranean during the Crusades and came to dominate European markets. Profits from commerce created wealthy merchants, bankers, and textile manufacturers, and also spurred innovations in technology, communication, and navigation. This economic revolution spread slowly into northern and western Europe and modernized politics, culture, and social organization.
Exploration of the Atlantic and the search for new routes to Asia created opportunities for participation in the slave trade, and spurred greater European interest in gold, sugar, and plantation agriculture.
|82.||Answer would ideally include:
– Americas: Native Americans in North America were animists who believed the natural world was suffused with spiritual power. They sought to understand the world by interpreting dreams and visions; the rituals were intended to ensure successful hunts and general good fortune. There were many local variations of this core form. Native American conceptions of female power linked women’s reproductive functions with the fertility of the earth. Men’s spiritual power was closely related to hunting and war, and success in these areas was interpreted as a sign of sacred protection and power. Native North Americans’ religious practices were about understanding and protection and, in that sense, were comforting. In South American and Mesoamerican societies such as Aztec Mexico, priests and warriors used ritual murders and other forms of sacrifice to ensure fertile fields and the daily return of the sun. Kings claimed divine status and ruled empires by demanding tribute. Both of these practices, motivated by religion, provided benefits in the form of social and political organization, and suffering through exploitation and ritual murder.
– Europe: By the 1400s, Western Europeans were Roman Catholics. That religion provided a common understanding of God and human history. The Church was fully integrated with the state, and provided both the benefits and disadvantages that came with a strong state. Every locality had churches and shrines that served as points of contact with the sacred world. Church dogma about sin and Satan served as instruments of social control, but piety and devotion to God also provided order and comfort. The Church was founded on hierarchy, authority, and patriarchy and offered ordinary people a measure of security in a dangerous and unpredictable world. Events like the Crusades were harmful for Muslims in Spain and North Africa. The emphasis on doctrine and heresy also became dangerous for anyone who questioned the Church’s authority.
– Africa: Some Africans in the 1400s were Muslims, and Islamic commercial centers became important locations for learning and instruction. Most African communities practiced animist religions, however. They had wise men and women in charge of manipulating animistic forces. Ancestor worship was important, as were rituals that celebrated male virility and female fertility.
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– America: Rulers in Andean and Aztec empires ruled over millions of people, and their politically complex societies were hierarchical. These empires were ruled by priests and warriors who led aggressive bureaucratic states. Subject peoples, who engaged in agriculture and produced various goods, paid tribute to their leaders, which supported their extravagant lifestyles, monumental architecture, and bureaucracy. Tribute, then, was the product of subjected peoples’ labor that flowed from local centers of power to the imperial core. Mississippian societies, like Cahokia, were similar in that they had powerful rulers who benefited from the work of their people. American societies in the eastern woodlands, Great Lakes, Great Plains, Southwest, and Pacific Coast, however, were more egalitarian and had more cooperative work arrangements.
– Africa: Slavery was widespread in Africa. Some Africans were held in bondage as security for debts, while others were sold into servitude by their families in exchange for food. Slaves were a key commodity of exchange, sold as agricultural laborers, concubines, or military recruits. The trans-Saharan trade depended on slaves as well. Female slaves were used for domestic service or concubinage in North Africa, Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire. Sometimes slave status applied only to individuals, but in other situations slavery was a hereditary condition. Between A.D. 700 and 1900, about 9 million Africans were sold in the trans-Saharan slave trade.
– Europe Under Feudalism: Coerced labor in hierarchal Europe consisted of serfdom. Many Europeans were peasants who lived on manorial lands where they received farming rights in exchange for labor on the lord’s estate. Kings and princes who owned vast tracts of land also forcibly conscripted men for military service.
– Europe’s Changing Relationship with Slavery: Before their encounters with Africa, European elites relied on coerced labor from serfs. After European exploration in Africa, however, Portugal took on a leading role in the African slave trade. The Portuguese traded in slaves and used Africans to work on their sugar plantations in Cape Verde, the Azores, and Madeira. Slaves were never used in Europe, but they became very important on European sugar plantations in Brazil and the West Indies after 1550. Eventually both the slave trade and slavery became central in the American colonies as well.
|84.||Answer would ideally include:
– Europe: Europe’s involvements in Africa and North America benefited Europe greatly. In Africa, it gained access to new commodities and markets that brought not only greater commercial development and cultural flowering, but great wealth and power for some. Europeans did not make inroads into Africa, but they carried out gold, slaves, and various profitable products. In the Americas, they eventually gained the riches of the Aztec and Inca empires, massive quantities of land that would soon produce profitable staple crops, and a new market for slaves. European incursions into Africa and the Americas helped to transform Europe from a political and cultural backwater to a dominant world power.
– Africa: Europe’s advancement into Africa in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries probably altered Europe more than it did Africa in that period. Africans welcomed European traders because they brought a variety of goods that had not been available previously. To obtain such goods, African slave traders participated willingly and enthusiastically in human trafficking with Europeans. Africa helped to build Europe’s wealth and power. African slaves who were forcibly removed to European colonies were victimized by the process.
– North America: Europe’s incursions into North America benefited Europe and caused a great deal of harm to the region’s native people and empires. Europe gained tremendously, while native people suffered terribly from death, disease, religious conversion efforts, enslavement, and property loss. Aztec, Inca, and North American societies that had existed before Europeans’ arrival would never be the same.