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Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman – Test Bank
Sample Chapter 1
NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS
- People live in dangerous areas for what reasons?
- for the views
- because of cheap land
- because the land is fertile
- for proximity to recreational opportunities
- for all of these reasons
- Catastrophic natural disaster losses in developed countries involve which of the following?
- large numbers of deaths
- large financial costs to individuals and companies
- primarily losses borne by insurance companies
- large numbers of deaths and large financial costs
- primarily losses borne by state governments
- Areas of cities that are subjected to significant natural hazards should be used for which of the following?
- office buildings because they can withstand the effects of the hazard
- inexpensive single-family houses
- parks and natural areas
- shopping malls
- factories and industrial complexes
- When people or government agencies try to control the activities of natural events, the common result is which of the following?
- The effect is the opposite of that intended.
- The effort is wasted because it is impossible to do.
- We have become quite effective at such control.
- This doesn’t happen since the federal government doesn’t permit tampering with nature.
- Our problem with nature is transferred elsewhere, to someone else, or postponed.
- Natural disasters generally involve which of the following?
- events with a single clear-cut cause
- events that involve overlapping natural causes
- events wholly caused by the activities of man
- events that are unaffected by the activities of man
- events that always involve interaction between closely related processes
- Most natural disasters are which of the following?
- cyclic, in that they occur at predictable intervals
- rarely if ever cyclic because there are too many overlapping effects
- completely random in that they involve processes that we cannot hope to understand
- interactions between two closely related events
- processes that start small and build toward a climax at a more-or-less constant rate
- A fractal system is one that involves which of the following?
- numerous intersecting fractures
- similarity in form at a wide range of scales
- completely unrelated processes that interact to produce an event
- closely related processes that interact to produce a larger event
- processes that are unrelated and static
- An insurance company decides on the cost of a policy for a natural hazard by:
- adding up the total cost of the most recent disaster of the type.
- multiplying the probability of the loss by the number of policies sold.
- averaging their probable dollar loss for all disasters that they insure.
- calculating the cost of the probable loss times the probability of that event.
- multiplying the cost of the largest loss of that type times the number of times that loss has
- The costs of catastrophic events continue to increase primarily because:
- more people are moving into more hazardous areas.
- not enough people pay for insurance in hazardous areas to even out the costs.
- insurance companies are not making enough profit to satisfy their shareholders.
- insurance companies are refusing to insure most natural hazard losses.
- natural hazards are becoming more difficult to understand.
- Which of the following is an example of a counterproductive governmental policy to mitigate natural disasters?
- relocating homes to less hazardous regions after an event
- monitoring stream behavior and flow, providing a false sense of security
- providing disaster assistance without a large cost-sharing component
- forbidding uninsured casualty losses from being deducted from a disaster victim’s income taxes
- using computer models to determine risk levels and loss potential
- What kind of natural hazards are NOT normally insurable?
- What is the most common human reaction to a current or potential catastrophe?
- Try to stop ongoing damage.
- Prepare the public through drills.
- Move to a less risky region.
- Wait until the window of opportunity has passed.
- Lobby for additional funding for the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
- What is the normal relationship between the number of a particular type of event and the size of such events?
- There are an equal number of small, medium, and large events of any given type.
- There are few small events, a moderate number of larger events, and many giant events of any given type.
- There are many small events, many medium-size events, but for most hazards no giant events.
- There are many small events, a moderate number of larger events, and few giant events of any given type.
- For most types of natural hazards, there are medium and large events but no small events of equivalent type.
14. When is a large event such as a major earthquake NOT a disaster?
- when it happens in a faraway country that we do not care about
- when it happens to less than 10,000 people
- when it happens to less than 1,000 people
- when it happens in an area without any people
- when it happens in a third-world country in which more than 20% of the population subsists on less than $2 per day
15. Who is most commonly to blame when people incur a significant loss from a natural disaster?
- the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for not building protective structures
- the federal government for not doing something about it
- the people themselves for choosing to live there
- the local county for permitting them to build there
- the realtor for selling them the property
16. What can happen to make a moderate-size event into a large natural disaster?
- cyclic events that tend to get stronger with time
- overlapping events that amplify the effect
- cyclic events that get progressively bigger as each one adds to the next in the series
- the multiplying effect of events of a given type in the same area
- overlapping events that interfere with one another
17. If you erect a barrier for protection against some natural event, what detrimental effect can follow?
- You shouldn’t try to do so because such barriers typically cost more than the structures they are designed to protect.
- National laws require that anything that interfaces with natural processes be done by federal agencies.
- Similar projects by others nearby will make your efforts ineffective.
- Nature is strong enough to immediately overwhelm your efforts, which are then wasted.
- It can have detrimental effects on others nearby.
- Which of the following is an example of a feedback effect?
- a landslide caused by a sudden precipitation event
- an increase in the cost of gasoline that causes people to drive less
- global warming that causes more rapid melting of Arctic sea ice that results in further sea ice melting
- when a feature looks the same across a wide range of scales
- an earthquake that occurs in a developing nation that causes health, social, and economic problems
- Which of these natural hazards causes the LEAST amount of fatalities in the United States annually?
- heat and drought
- winter weather
- Which is NOT a way that government policy mitigates natural hazards?
- using research and studies to predict storms and floods
- congress funding expensive Army Corps of Engineers projects to build levees along rivers
- relocating natural disaster victims to more stable areas
- utilizing computer systems to determine risk levels
- organizing central emergency management agencies to bring order to chaotic relief efforts
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. Why are people who live on coastal beaches so poorly aware or concerned about hazards in those environments?
ANSWER: Most of them, including developers, real estate people, and governmental employees, have never experienced a hurricane or major flood.
2. What kind of natural hazards are not normally insurable?
ANSWER: Landslides, most mudflows, ground settling, or swelling soils.
3. Which natural hazard causes the LEAST amount of fatalities in the United States annually?
4. What is the normal relationship between the number of occurrences of a particular type of event and the size of such events?
ANSWER: Numerous small events, many fewer large events, and only a rare giant event.
5. When is a large event such as a major earthquake not a disaster?
ANSWER: When it happens in a remote area and does not affect anyone.
6. Which natural hazard causes the GREATEST amount of fatalities in the United States annually?
ANSWER: Heat and drought.
7. What can happen to make a moderate-size event into a large natural disaster?
ANSWER: Overlapping events that amplify the effect.
8. If you erect a barrier for protection against some natural event, what detrimental effect can follow?
ANSWER: It can affect people in other locations (such as downstream).
- How does government policy sometimes act counterproductively in reference to mitigating natural hazards?
ANSWER: Congress funds losses but does not act to change the causes of natural disasters: The Small Business Association subsidizes credit to finance rebuilding in hazardous locations, and so on. Government is reactive to disasters instead of proactive.
- A natural disaster is fractal. Explain what this means and how it provides insight into larger events.
ANSWER: A natural disaster looks the same across a wide range of scales. Small events today may provide insight into huge ones from historical time.
CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY QUESTIONS
- You are on the zoning board for a small town near an active fault line. The board is deciding how to efficiently accommodate a larger student body by either choosing to (1) renovate the town’s existing high school or (2) build a new school for the same cost on cheap land closer to the fault line. Explain why it would be better to renovate the school at the current location than to build a new school for the same price.
ANSWER: Building on cheap land close to a natural hazard is more dangerous; the town would be better off renovating the existing structure.
- Your mother, who has lived in central Ohio for her entire life, really wants to purchase a beach house along the Gulf coast of the southeastern United States because of the natural beauty of the area. Explain to her why this is not a financially or safety-related decision.
ANSWER: Your mother is probably not aware of the dangers of coastal storms, and local realtors and government from coastal areas might not publicize the dangers of the natural hazards in coastal regions.
- Would you rather live in an area that has historically experienced a natural hazard, a natural disaster, or a catastrophe? Is there any environment in which these processes do not exist?
ANSWER: A natural hazard would be the least threatening of the three processes, but given changing population densities and infrastructure, a situation that was once considered a hazard could later be considered a catastrophe. Very few places are free of all natural hazards, but efforts can be made to minimize the people living in the most hazardous areas.
- After a hurricane devastates a coastal community, you are a part of a team of people going in to help victims cope with the disaster and rebuild their lives. One victim is very set on rebuilding his home in the exact same location as before the disaster. What would you say to that victim and what advice would you give him?
ANSWER: Natural disasters can be cyclic and repeat over time. Even though it is inexpensive to rebuild in the same location, it would be a reaction to the disaster and not a proactive solution to future disaster events.
- When you are buying a home, what types of landscapes can you look for to determine if the home you are looking into purchasing is potentially susceptible to natural disasters?
ANSWER: Ash or mud deposits from volcanoes, lumpy landscapes from landslides, sinkholes from underlying geologic processes, meanders from meandering streams, or undercut sea cliffs from storm waves.
PLATE TECTONICS AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS
- What direction is the Pacific Plate currently moving, based on the chain of Hawaiian Islands with only the easternmost island active?
- to the northeast
b. to the northwest
c. to the southeast
d. to the southwest
- It is not moving; the chain of islands is not related to the active one.
- Before people understood plate tectonics, what evidence led some scientists to believe in continental drift?
- Rocks on the ocean floor are oldest in the center, becoming progressively younger toward each continent.
- Rocks on the continents can be traced through the ocean floor to the other side.
- Anthropologists have found human carvings in Africa that match those in Brazil.
- Glaciers near the mouth of the Amazon River in Brazil carried distinctive rocks into South Africa, demonstrating that those countries were once connected.
- Ages of bedrock formations match across the Atlantic Ocean.
- Which of the following was NOT used as early evidence for continental drift?
- ages of bedrock formations that match across the Atlantic Ocean
- match of coastlines across the Atlantic Ocean
- match of rock formations across the Atlantic Ocean
- match of ages of continental rocks across the Atlantic Ocean
- the fact that the magnetic pole shifts from north to south
- Which of the following is true?
- The mantle is denser than the lithosphere.
- The lithosphere is denser than the mantle.
- The asthenosphere is the more rigid equivalent of the mantle.
- The asthenosphere is the more plastic part of the mantle.
- The mantle is everywhere more rigid than the crust.
- Which of the following is true?
- Oceanic rift zones are found only in the center of the oceans.
- Rift zones are found only in the ocean basins.
- Rift zones are areas where oceanic crust is formed.
- Rift zones are the oldest parts of the oceanic crust.
- Rift zones mark the boundaries between oceanic and continental crust.
- Which of the following is NOT true?
- Subduction zones are areas where ocean floor descends into the mantle.
- Subduction zone activity includes very large earthquakes.
- Subduction zone activity leads to active volcanoes.
- Subduction zones are areas where ocean floor rocks are formed.
- Subduction zones are marked as the deepest parts of the oceans.
- Which of the following is true?
- Transform faults show dominantly vertical movement.
- Transform faults are only in the ocean basins.
- Transform faults are areas of spreading and new crustal generation.
- Transform faults change with time from horizontal to vertical motion.
- Transform fault motion typically ends abruptly at both ends.
- What does oceanic lithosphere consist of?
a. basalt on top of peridotite
- only basalt
- only peridotite
- basalt and peridotite in layers of variable thickness, in some places above, in others below
- partly basalt and partly granite
- Along which type of lithospheric plate boundaries are earthquakes common?
a. only convergent (subduction zones)
b. only divergent (spreading zones)
c. only transform
d. only divergent and transform
e. convergent, divergent, and transform
- Near which type of lithospheric plate boundary are andesite stratovolcanoes most common?
- rift zones on continents
- collision zones between continental plates
- subduction zones between oceanic and continental plates
- subduction zones between two continents
- transform fault boundaries between oceanic and continental plates
- Why does oceanic lithosphere almost always sink beneath continental lithosphere at convergent plate boundaries?
- Oceanic lithosphere moves so slowly that it can only sink.
- Oceanic lithosphere is at the bottom of the ocean, so it can’t float high enough to ride over a continent.
- Oceanic lithosphere is almost twice as dense as the underlying mantle.
d. Oceanic lithosphere is denser than continental lithosphere.
- Oceanic lithosphere is partly liquid, so it floats on the solid continental lithosphere.
- If the Atlantic Ocean floor is getting wider, why is the Earth not becoming larger?
a. Actually, the Atlantic Ocean floor is not getting wider.
b. Old ocean floor sinks at subduction zones (trenches).
- It is becoming denser, so it takes up no more space.
- It becomes part of the edge of the adjacent continent.
- It melts at oceanic transform faults.
- Which of the following is true?
- Earth’s crust is denser than the mantle.
- Earth’s crust is thicker than the mantle.
- Earth’s crust is part of the asthenosphere and equivalent to it in composition.
- Earth’s crust is part of the mantle and forms the upper part of it.
- Earth’s crust is less dense than the mantle.
- Why do many oceanic volcanoes occur as long lines of volcanoes that are active at only one end?
- The lithosphere moves over a stable hotspot in the mantle.
- The mantle convection cell under the crust carries the magma source from one end of the line of volcanoes to the other.
- The mantle plume that feeds the volcano rotates around the Earth’s core, tracing new volcanoes as it does.
- The spreading lithosphere pushes the underlying magma source across the ocean floor.
- The active volcanoes are gradually moving away from the oceanic ridge.
- The San Andreas Fault is:
- a normal fault.
- the subduction zone bordering the Pacific Plate.
- a rift zone running the length of California.
- a reverse fault.
- a transform fault.
- Along which type(s) of lithospheric plate boundary are basalt-flow eruptions abundant?
- oceanic rift zones
- continental rift zones
- continental collision zones
- transform faults
- mantle plumes
- What is a transform fault characterized by?
- lithospheric plates sliding past each other
- the movement of one plate over another
- the movement of plates away from each other
- the movement of one plate down against another
- earthquakes but no plate movement
- The magnetic stripes of the seafloor are considered evidence of seafloor spreading and:
- subduction in the rift valleys.
- spreading centers in the trenches.
- changes in the Earth’s axis of rotation.
- periodic reversals in the polarity of Earth’s magnetic field.
- periodic collapses of Earth’s gravitational field.
19. How does rhyolite magma form in the line of arc volcanoes like the Cascades?
a. Rhyolite is not found in the Cascades volcanoes.
b. Basalt magma rising from above the subducted slab rises to melt continental crust to form the rhyolite.
c. The subducted slab gets hot enough at depth that it melts to form rhyolite.
d. Friction at the top of the subducted slab heats the mantle to form rhyolite.
e. Water rising from the subducted slab causes melting of the Earth’s mantle to form rhyolite.
20. Why do the Hawaiian Islands form a chain of volcanoes?
a. The mantle below flows slowly to the east, creating new volcanoes as it goes.
b. The Hawaiian Islands are not part of a chain. They are over a stationary hotspot in the lithosphere.
c. The crack in the lithosphere is progressively splitting eastward, permitting magma to rise along a line.
d. The top of the basalt plume in the deep mantle is dragged eastward by moving lithosphere.
e. The lithosphere carrying Hawaii slowly moves over a hotspot feeding basalt magma to the overlying volcano.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
- Distinguish between Earth’s crust and mantle.
ANSWER: Crust overlies mantle. It is basalt composition under the ocean basins and granitic composition in the continents.
- Do tectonic plates consist of crust, mantle, or some combination of crust and mantle, and if so, what part or parts of each?
ANSWER: All of the crust and part of the upper mantle.
- What keeps the Appalachians standing as a mountain range even though they have been continuously eroding since they formed hundreds of millions of years ago?
ANSWER: Isostacy. As material is eroded off the range, it floats higher, just as removing ice from the top of an iceberg causes it to float higher.
- Why do many oceanic volcanoes occur as long lines of volcanoes that are active at only one end? How does the process work?
ANSWER: They are hotspot volcanoes. A hot plume of magma rising through the mantle burns through the overlying lithosphere to erupt as a volcano. Since the lithosphere moves over the deeper mantle, new volcanoes form progressively in a line over the deep plume.
- Distinguish between Earth’s lithosphere and asthenosphere in terms of both location and properties.
ANSWER: The lithosphere overlies the asthenosphere. It is rigid, and the asthenosphere deforms plastically.
6. Along which type(s) of lithospheric plate boundary are basalt-flow eruptions abundant? Provide a real example (name or location).
ANSWER: Spreading (Iceland/oceanic ridge).
7. In what tectonic environment that is not at a plate boundary are major volcanoes found? Identify one of these in an ocean basin and one on a continent.
ANSWER: Hotspots or mantle plumes, Hawaii (in ocean basin) and Yellowstone (on a continent).
8. List the three main tectonic environments for large earthquakes in western North America and name a specific example of each.
ANSWER: Tectonic environment Name or specific location
Subduction zone Pacific Coast trench (Cascadia trench)
Spreading zone Basin and Range
Transform fault San Andreas Fault
9. What was the primary reason why Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift was rejected?
ANSWER: He had no mechanism for moving continental crust through strong basaltic oceanic crust.
10. In the line of arc volcanoes, like the Cascades of Washington and Oregon, over an active subduction zone, a series of events leads to the magmas that erupt at the surface. What magma forms first, and where and how does it form?
ANSWER: Basalt magma forms at (just above) the subduction zone below the volcano, when water forming by dehydration of hydrous minerals in the descending slab causes melting of the mantle peridotite above.
CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY QUESTIONS
- Discuss the evidence that proves that continental drift exists.
ANSWER: Similar fossil life forms, ancient rocks, and mountain ranges across the Atlantic Ocean, grooves from glaciers that match up across Antarctica, India, eastern South America, and Australia, and magnetic reversals.
- How did scientists use the scientific method to support Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift?
ANSWER: They used data and analysis of that data to prove the hypothesis.
- Why do volcanoes occur near some plate boundaries but not near others?
ANSWER: Different processes occurring at different types of boundaries cause volcanoes. Volcanoes occur along divergent boundaries such as rift zones as basaltic magma rises to the surface. They also occur along convergent boundaries such as subduction zones as oceanic crust subducts, becomes molten, rises through the crust, and creates stratovolcanoes.
- Discuss the three types of plate boundaries included in this chapter and provide examples of each.
ANSWER: Convergent (Himalayas), divergent (Mid-Atlantic Ridge), and transform (San Andreas Fault).
- Explain why people living near the San Andreas Fault are at a huge risk of experiencing a natural disaster.
ANSWER: The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault, so it has a high potential to create large numbers of earthquakes. In the past, earthquakes in the San Francisco area have caused many casualties and a lot of property damage. Today, given the increasing population in this area, an earthquake would be even more disastrous and damaging than past ones.