INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Answers Exercises Exercise 1
- I /am going to the
- The clown /amused
- Is this /the place?
- /Come here. (See number 2 directly )
- We/ were amused by the clown. (See number 2 directly )
- In d., the subject of the sentence is understood as you. Sentence e is a passive. The object of the verb in the active sentence of Exercise 1b (us) becomes the subject of the passive sentence (we) in terms of word order. However, from a meaning (semantic) point of view it could be argued that the clown is still the subject of the sentence in that it is still the clown that is doing the action (amusing).
- A free morpheme can stand by itself as a word and an independent clause can stand by itself as a simple sentence. A bound morpheme has to be attached to another morpheme to have meaning and a dependent clause has to be attached to an independent clause to complete the meaning of a complex or compound-complex sentence.
- the beautiful furniture NP →Det Adj N
- a cow NP →Det N
- the most educated people NP →Det Adv Adj N
- six pens NP →Det Noun (Noun is written out, because it can be broken down further and the next line will be written Noun → N pl
- those pens NP →Det Noun
- Jill’s house—subject
the market—object of the preposition
- All guns—subject
Shane—subject of the dependent clause dinner—object of the preposition
- You (understood)—subject home—object of the verb
- large cars—subject
more gas—object of the verb
- Proper names and some abstract names do not take
- ran after the car
- will buy the fish
- has taken five tests
- There was a mistake in the book. This exercise said to explain all of the verb phrases in Question 7 in terms of a formula. It should have said: Question
- ran after the car VP→Verb PP
- died VP→Verb
- will buy the fish VP→Verb NP
- has taken five tests VP→Verb NP
- the blue
- a fat yellow
- quite upset
- He arrived at noon. (See 12 )
- She usually gets up
- The farmer harvested the corn with a machine. (See 12 )
- We are going to take a vacation before the prices go up. (See 12 )
- The teachers all showed up to support the students.
- at noon
- with a machine
- before the prices go up
- The cat a jumped over the highly fence.
Word order and the form of the modifier are wrong. There is also an extra article. Sentence should read: The cat jumped over the high fence.
- You can’t put too much water on those plants. There is subtle ambiguity in this sentence. It can mean either: Don’t put too much water on those plants. Or it can mean: There is no amount of water that is too much for those
- Not that is dog. The sentence is incomplete and the word order is wrong. Should be: That is not a
- The jail was near the bank. This sentence is lexically ambiguous. It could be rewritten as: The jail was near the bank of the river. Or it could be rewritten as: The jail was near the bank that had been robbed (or anything that indicates that the bank is financial institution).
- He saw the light. Again this is lexical ambiguity. Light can refer to inspiration or actual physical light and the sentence would have to be written to clarify the meaning.
- Steve Tom at looked. Word order is wrong. Sentence should be: Steve looked at Tom or Tom looked at Steve.
- They intend to buy. This is an incomplete sentence. The verb to buy takes an object so it should say what “they” intend to buy, such as: They intend to buy a
- Into he house ran. The word order is wrong and the sentence is incomplete. It should be: He ran into the house.
- structural ambiguity—Does the prepositional phrase in my pajamas refer to the speaker or to the elephant?
- lexical ambiguity—Bear could mean “give birth to” or “tolerate.”
- structural ambiguity—Does the adjective hot also apply to turkey?
- part-of-speech ambiguity—Polished could be an adjective describing Bill’s shoes or a verb referring to Bill’s action in the
- part-of-speech ambiguity—Are shoots and leaves nouns referring to the food that the panda eats or are they verbs referring to the actions of the panda after eating? This ambiguity is made clearer in writing by the use of
- The biology student drew blood. This is lexically ambiguous because the word
drew can mean to draw a picture or to take as to cause someone to bleed.
- There is a big earring sale today. This is structurally ambiguous because the word
big could be modifying either sale or earring.
- You can freeze chicken for a year, but when you defrost it, it will be /fawl/. This might be stretching the concept a little, but in speech the word /fawl/ (foul or fowl). So, when spoken it might create lexical ambiguity. It could mean that when you defrost your freezer the chicken will still be a bird (fowl) or it could mean that the chicken will be spoiled (foul). In writing the meaning would be
- He likes to eat raw vegetables and meat. This is structural ambiguity. It could mean that: He likes to eat raw vegetables and raw Or it could mean that: He likes to eat raw vegetables and meat (whether cooked or not)
- Want Ad: We need a violinist and pianist, male or female. Response: Hear you need a violinist and pianist, male or female; being both, I offer my services. This again is structural ambiguity. Is the respondent both a violinist and a pianist or is the person both male and female? The response would have to be worded in a way that would clarify this. Of course, this is the basis for a
- Students are to provide their own examples, so answers will
The sentences of each pair mean essentially the same thing (they may have different shades of meaning), therefore they are essentially synonymous sentences. The first set just substitutes words that are synonymous the second set just changes the voice from active to passive.
- Fluent speakers of a language have an enormous subconscious Adj Noun Prep Det N Verb Det Adj Adj
knowledge of the rules of their language.
N Prep Det Noun Prep Det Noun
- The rabbit quickly jumped into the big hole. Det N Adv Verb Prep Det Adj N
|c. We||visited our good||friend and||took in the sights on our|
|Pro||Verb Adj Adj||N conj||Verb Prep Det Noun Prep Adj|
- The boy who broke the window promised to pay for it to be Det N Pro Verb Det N Verb Prt VB Prep Pro Prt Aux repaired.
- See book for examples of phrase markers.
- Phrase structure rules specify how constituents of an utterance are arranged and what constituents can occur as parts of other constituents (the hierarchical structure of a sentence).
S →NP VP
NP→ Det N VP→ Verb PP Verb →Aux V Aux → tense Tense → past PP→ prep NP
S → NP VP NP→ N
VP→ Verb Verb →Aux V Aux → tense Tense → past
S → NP VP
NP→ Det N conj Det N VP→ Verb NP
Verb →Aux V Aux → tense Tense → future
S → NP VP
Noun → N pl VP→Aux Verb NP Aux → tense Tense → past
- insertion and movement
- substitution and deletion
- deletion and movement
- a-c Answers will
- imperative transformation
- There is an adjective movement transformation, and a relative pronoun deletion transformation.
- optional (both)
- optional (both)
- Yes, “the dog” from the second
- Yes, “and” as a conjunction to combine the two sentences.
- The dog with big teeth bit the ball and ran into the
- Check student’s answers with the information in the
- Answers will