|Test Bank For Clinical Imaging 3rd Edition by Marchiori – Test Bank|
Chapter 03: Radiographic Positioning
- Which of the following will better demonstrate the lower intervertebral disc spaces on an AP radiograph of the cervical spine?
|a.||Direct the central ray perpendicular to the plane of the film|
|b.||Direct the central ray 15 degrees cephalically|
|c.||Take flexion-extension views|
|d.||Direct the central ray 15 degrees caudally|
- Which of the following best describes the typical protocol of an AP cervical radiographic examination using conventional film/screen technology?
|a.||Collimate to soft tissue, 15 degrees caudal tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film|
|b.||Collimate to film size, no tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film|
|c.||Collimate to film size, 15 degrees cephalic tube tilt, 10- x 12-inch film|
|d.||Collimate to soft tissue, 15 degrees cephalic tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film|
- Which of the following criteria apply to the posterior cervical oblique view?
|a.||Bucky technique, 10- x 12-inch film size, caudal tube tilt|
|b.||Non-bucky technique, 8- x 10-inch film size, cephalic tube tilt|
|c.||8- x 10-inch film size, 72-inch source to image distance, supplemental filtration|
|d.||Bucky technique, 72-inch source to image distance, cephalic tube tilt|
- The standard tube tilt required on the AP sacrum view is __________________.
- Which of the following describes the correct setup for an AP thoracic radiograph using conventional film/screen technology?
|a.||7- x 17-inch film size, compensating filtration, 40-inch source to image distance|
|b.||14- x 17-inch film size, compensating filtration, 40-inch source to image distance|
|c.||7- x 17-inch film size, tube tilt, 40-inch source to image distance|
|d.||14- x 17-inch film size, tube tilt, 40-inch source to image distance|
- The breathing instruction for the AP thoracic is which of the following?
|a.||Suspend breathing on full expiration|
|b.||Breathe in continuously throughout the exposure|
|c.||Suspend breathing on full inspiration|
|d.||Breathe out quickly on initiation of the exposure|
- With which of the following circumstances is a lateral lumbosacral spot film needed?
|a.||The lumbosacral area is not accommodated by the central ray.|
|b.||The lumbosacral area is underexposed.|
|c.||The lumbosacral area is overexposed.|
|d.||The lumbosacral area is magnified.|
- Which of the following is true of the typical technical protocol for a PA chest film?
|a.||Low kVp, producing a short scale of contrast|
|b.||High kVp, producing a short scale of contrast|
|c.||High kVp, producing a long scale of contrast|
|d.||Low kVp, producing a long scale of contrast|
- When taking a PA chest x-ray, the patient’s shoulders are rolled forward to __________.
|a.||bring the heart closer to the film|
|b.||elevate the sternum|
|c.||abduct the scapulae from the lung field|
|d.||elevate the clavicles|
- Which of the following statements best describes the positioning of the central ray in setup for an AP open mouth view?
|a.||Parallel with the plane of the body of the mandible and the base of the occiput|
|b.||Parallel with the plane of the body of the mandible and the external occipital protuberance|
|c.||Parallel with the plane of the body of the mandible and the bottom of the ear|
|d.||Parallel with the plane of the upper occlusal plate and the base of the occiput|
- Which of the following radiographic projections requires an 8- x 10-inch film size, 40-inch focal film distance, cephalic tube tilt with the central ray entering 1-inch below the chin, and a bucky tilt of 45 degrees?
|c.||AP open mouth|
- What film size is routinely used for the AP cervical projection with conventional film/screen technology?
|a.||8- x 10-inch, placed horizontally|
|b.||8- x 10-inch, placed vertically|
|c.||10- x 12-inch, placed vertically|
|d.||10- x 12-inch, placed horizontally|
- Which of the following lumbar spine views best demonstrates the left pars interarticularis?
- Which of the following best describes the correct film placement for an above-the-diaphragm bilateral rib injury?
|a.||Transverse with bottom of film at level of crest.|
|b.||Vertical with bottom of film at level of crest.|
|c.||Transverse with top of film 1.5 inches above the V.P.|
|d.||Vertical with top of film 1.5 inches above the V.P.|
- Which of the following radiographic views requires that the patient’s leg is fully extended and internally rotated until the interalveolar line is parallel to the film?
- What are the routine views for a lumbar spine series?
|a.||AP, lateral, and L5-S1 spot|
|b.||AP, lateral, oblique and sacral base|
|c.||AP, lateral, and oblique|
|d.||AP and lateral|
- Which oblique radiographs will visualize the right intervertebral foramen?
|a.||LPO and RAO lumbar|
|b.||RPO and LAO cervical|
|c.||RPO and LAO lumbar|
|d.||LPO and RAO cervical|
- From which of the following is the angle used in the nasium view obtained?
|a.||The angle of the atlas plane line as seen on the lateral view|
|b.||Using the template on the APOM view|
|c.||The angle of the hard palate and external occipital protuberance|
|d.||The angle of the atlas plane line as seen on the AP view|
- On a lateral chest x-ray, which of the following should not be visualized?
|a.||Anterior and posterior chest walls|
- Where is the central ray placed for a dorsoplantar projection of the foot?
|a.||Middle of the phalanges|
|b.||Proximal end of the third metatarsal|
|c.||Middle of the talus|
|d.||Proximal end of the tarsal|
- Which of the following describes the correct setup for a lateral cervical spine radiograph?
|a.||72-inch focal film distance, 8- x 10-inch cassette, any spinal curve toward bucky, central ray through mastoid process|
|b.||72-inch focal film distance, 8- x 10-inch cassette, any spinal curve away from bucky, central ray horizontal through mastoid process|
|c.||72-inch focal film distance, 10- x 12-inch cassette, any spinal curve toward bucky, central ray through mastoid process|
|d.||72-inch focal film distance, 8- x 10-inch cassette, any spinal curve toward bucky, central ray through C3-C4|
- Which of the following criteria apply to the standard procedures for the AP coccyx projection?
|a.||15-degree caudal tube tilt, 10- x 12-inch film size, central ray enters 2 inches below pubis|
|b.||10-degree caudal tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film, central ray enters 2 inches above pubis|
|c.||10-degree cephalic tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film central ray enters 2 inches below pubis|
|d.||10-degree cephalic tube tilt, 8- x 10-inch film, central ray enters 2 inches above pubis|
- An AP axial clavicle requires which of the following?
|b.||5-degree cephalic tube tilt|
|c.||15-degree cephalic tube tilt|
|d.||15-degree caudal tube tilt|
- The central ray for the AP knee is which of the following?
|a.||5-degree caudal tube tilt entering 11/2 inches below the apex of the patella|
|b.||5-degree cephalic tube tilt entering 11/2 inches below the apex of the patella|
|c.||5-degree cephalic tube tilt entering 1/2 inch below the apex of the patella|
|d.||5-degree caudal tube tilt entering 11/2 inches below the apex of the patella|
- Which of the following is included in the standard procedures of a unilateral AP hip projection?
|a.||Film size 10 x 12 inches, 40-inch source-to-image distance, leg is internally rotated 15 degrees|
|b.||Collimation to 8- x 10-inch field, suspended expiration, use of a grid, 40-inch source-to-image distance|
|c.||14- x 17-inch film, suspended expiration, 72-inch source-to-image distance|
|d.||Tube tilt of 5 degrees cephalic, 40-inch source-to-image distance|
- Which statement is correct concerning the Homblad position?
|a.||A central ray enters the popliteal fossa with a 45-degree caudal tube tilt.|
|b.||A central ray enters the popliteal fossa with no tube tilt.|
|c.||A central ray enters the popliteal fossa with a 5-degree cephalic tube tilt.|
|d.||A central ray enters the popliteal fossa with a 20- to 25-degree cephalic tube tilt.|
- Recumbent radiography does which of the following?
|a.||Increases scatter radiation|
|b.||Results in more even penetration|
|d.||Increases image noise|
- On a lateral lumbar radiograph, where should the cross-hairs of the light field be placed?
|a.||1 inch above crest, halfway between ASIS and PSIS|
|b.||1 inch below crest, halfway between the ASIS and PSIS|
|c.||1 inch above crest, 1 inch lateral to the spinous process|
|d.||1 inch above crest, 1 inch posterior to the ASIS|
- Which description of rib views is considered routine for a presenting complaint of right anterior rib pain and trauma sufficient to cause fracture?
|a.||AP, RPO, PA chest|
|b.||PA, RPO, PA chest|
|c.||PA, LPO, lateral|
|d.||PA, LPO, PA chest|
- Of the following cervical views, which would best demonstrate atlas rotation?
|a.||AP lower cervical|
- The patient is recumbent in an oblique position, with his or her anterior iliac crest against the bucky. The central ray is perpendicular to the film, 1 inch above the crest with the vertical ray passing 1 inch lateral to the spinous process. The left pars interarticularis is demonstrated. This view is an ________________________.
- The Caldwell view best demonstrates which of the following?
- Which of the following is true concerning a lateral thoracic view?
|a.||Compensating filtration, 72-inch focal film distance, 14- x 17-inch film size|
|b.||Compensating filtration, 40 inch focal film distance, 14- x 17-inch film size|
|c.||14- x 17-inch film size, 40-inch focal film distance, top of film 11/2 inches below VP|
|d.||Top of film 11/2 inches above VP, 40-inch focal film distance, 10- x 12-inch film size|
- In the AP lumbopelvic view, the heart-shaped female gonad shield should be placed ___________________________________________.
|a.||with the widest portion of the shield at the level of the patient’s iliac crests|
|b.||with the tip of the shield located inferior to the patient’s pubic symphysis|
|c.||with the widest portion of the shield just medial and inferior to the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) of the patient|
|d.||With the widest portion of the shield placed 1 inch above the crest|
- At times, a positioning error of the wrist may give a false appearance of a dislocated scaphoid. How should the wrist be placed during the PA view to avoid this problem?
|a.||In radial deviation|
|b.||In a neutral posture|
|c.||In slight wrist flexion|
|d.||In ulnar deviation|
- Which view best demonstrates the sella turcica?
- According to the “10-day rule,” when would be the 10-day optimum period to perform a lumbopelvic x-ray series on a 30-year-old female?
|a.||Ten days after her menstrual period|
|b.||The beginning of the 14th day of her menstrual period|
|c.||Within the 10 days following onset of her menstrual period|
|d.||The beginning of the 14th day of the month|
- Left lateral chest views are routinely performed to __________.
|a.||reduce cardiac magnification|
|b.||reduce the need for lateral thoracic radiographs|
|c.||reduce costophrenic angle distortion|
|d.||reduce retrocardiac space|
- Compensating filtration is routinely employed on all of the following views except which of the following?
|a.||Lateral thoracic view|
|b.||AP thoracic view|
|d.||Lateral cervical view|
- Which of the following views would be most useful in evaluating for small pleural effusions by demonstrating fluid in the pleural space?
|b.||AP lordotic view|
|d.||Lateral decubitus chest|
Chapter 05: Film Interpretation and Report Writing
The majority of the pertinent findings in Figure 5-1 would be described in which paragraph of the radiology report?
- According to Chapter 5, how should the findings section of the radiology report for this patient be formatted?
|c.||Grammatically correct paragraphs|
- The etiology of the disease represented in Figure 5-1 is __________.
- Which of the following is the most important diagnosis to report in the impression section of the report on the image in Figure 5-1?
|a.||Healed slipped capital femoral epiphysis|
|b.||Osteoarthritis of the hips|
|c.||Hereditary multiple exostosis|
|d.||Lumbar degenerative disc disease|
- Patients with this condition should be advised to seek reexamination if there is development of unexplained bone pain due to concern for increased possibility of __________.
|b.||crystal deposition disease|
- Which section of the radiology report should contain information on the patient’s clinical complaint?
- The radiographs in Figure 5-2 should be recorded on the radiology report as __________.
|a.||thoracic spine: anteroposterior (AP), lateral|
|b.||thoracic spine: posteroanterior (PA), lateral|
|c.||chest series: AP, lateral|
|d.||chest series: PA, lateral|
- Which section of the ABCS (alignment, bone, cartilage, soft tissue) should be addressed first in the radiology report for the radiographs in Figure 5-2?
- The major finding in the radiographs in Figure 5-2 is __________.
|b.||accentuated pulmonary interstitial|
|d.||decreased bone density|
- Which section of the radiology report is optional?
- With which of the following conditions, evident in Figure 5-3, is using diagnostic terminology in the findings section appropriate?
- Failure to produce a radiology report on radiology services that were billed globally (for both technical and interpretation compliance) constitutes __________.
|a.||appropriate patient care|
|b.||class A misdemeanor|
- Lack of reporting of imaging studies may result in all of the following except __________.
|c.||loss of data regarding diagnoses|
|d.||decreased risk of unnecessary repeated x-rays|
- A list of differential diagnoses in a radiology report should be limited to no more than __________ diagnoses to maintain relevance to the receiving doctor.
- Normal findings that disprove the presence of an abnormality for which an examination was ordered are known as __________.
If the ABCS of film interpretation and report writing approach is taken in assessing Figure 5-4, in which section of the findings will the salient abnormality be described?
- The five radiographic densities in order from least to most dense are __________.
|a.||air, water, fat, bone, and metal|
|b.||fat, water, air, bone, and metal|
|c.||air, fat, water, bone, and metal|
|d.||bone, metal, water, fat, and air|
- The radiographic density of the salient abnormality in Figure 5-4 is that of __________.
- Follow-up diagnostic ultrasound evaluation of the abnormality in Figure 5-4 would localize the lesion to the __________.
- Which of the following is not a clinical red flag for serious spinal pathology?
|a.||Short-term corticosteroid use|
|b.||Age older than 50 years|
|d.||Pain that worsens when the patient is lying down|
Chapter 09: Arthritides
- The most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of arthropathy, partly because it is relatively inexpensive and rapidly obtained, is __________.
|a.||magnetic resonance imaging|
|b.||plain film radiography|
- The most common inflammatory arthritide is __________.
|b.||juvenile idiopathic arthritis|
|c.||systemic lupus erythematosus|
- Which of the following statements is false regarding rheumatoid arthritis?
|a.||Men are affected more than women.|
|b.||Joint involvement is typically bilateral and symmetrical.|
|c.||Primary sites include synovial tissues of the hands and feet.|
|d.||The peak incidence occurs between 40 and 70 years of age.|
- The first imaging finding of rheumatoid arthritis is usually __________.
|c.||fusiform periarticular soft tissue swelling|
|d.||bilateral acetabular protrusion|
- The osseous erosions of rheumatoid arthritis, occurring at areas where panus has direct contact with bone, are found at the __________.
|a.||distal tufts of the phalanges|
|b.||intraarticular bare areas|
|c.||metadiaphysis of long bones|
|d.||epiphysis of long bones|
- The classic joint distribution of rheumatoid arthritis in the hands involves the __________.
|a.||MCP and DIP articulations|
|b.||PIP and DIP articulations|
|c.||MCP and PIP articulations|
|d.||MCP and carpal articulations|
- Which of the following deformities is best described as hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joints with hyperflexion of the distal interphalangeal joints?
- The most common radiographic abnormality encountered in the cervical spine due to rheumatoid arthritis is __________.
|b.||atlantoaxial subluxation or instability|
- Which of the following arthritides has a metabolic etiology?
|b.||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
- Which of the following statements concerning juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is incorrect?
|a.||Features include periostitis and growth abnormalities.|
|b.||It has a greater predilection for small joint involvement.|
|c.||It is the most common childhood arthritis.|
|d.||It is an inflammatory disease of unknown cause.|
- Which of the following inflammatory arthritides would reveal antibodies directed against cell nuclei on blood laboratory evaluation?
|b.||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
- A patient presenting with a malar “butterfly” rash, arthralgia, and ulcers in the nose and mouth is most likely suffering from __________.
|b.||systemic lupus erythematosus|
- Which of the following conditions typically spares the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints?
|a.||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
- The progressive thickening of the skin from increased collagen deposits is characteristic of ___________.
|d.||systemic lupus erythematosus|
- Which of the following statements accurately characterizes polymositis?
|a.||It affects more men than women.|
|b.||It has bilateral, symmetrical muscle involvement.|
|c.||It is a suppurative inflammatory disorder.|
|d.||It involves the cardiac muscle after rheumatic fever.|
- What type of rash, associated with polymyositis, presents as a bluish-purplish discoloration on the upper eyelids?
- Radiographic features of polymyositis may include all of the following except __________.
|a.||soft tissue calcification|
|b.||swan-neck deformity of the digits|
|c.||soft tissue swelling|
- Which of the following arthritides is associated with nonerosive, reversible joint deformities of the hands and feet?
- Jaccoud’s arthropathy should be mentioned in the differential diagnosis for __________.
- Which of the following arthropathies is seropositive?
- Which of the following best differentiates a seropositive from a seronegative arthropathy?
|b.||Bilateral joint involvement|
|c.||An increased ESR|
- The most common seronegative spondyloarthropathy is __________.
- Which joints are classically involved first in ankylosing spondylitis?
- Radiographic features of ankylosing spondylitis include all of the following except __________.
|a.||central joint erosions|
|c.||shiny corner sign|
- The arthritide associated with disorders of the gut and most commonly related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is __________.
- The classic triad associated with Reiter’s syndrome includes arthritis, urethritis, and __________.
- A patient presents with physical examination findings of nail pitting, skin lesions, and soft tissue swelling of an entire digit. Which arthritide is most likely?
- Which of the following disorders is associated with monosodium urate crystal deposition in various tissues?
- Which of the following explains the correct chronological order of the four stages of gout?
|a.||Acute arthritic, chronic tophaceous, asymptomatic, intercritical|
|b.||Asymptomatic, intercritical, acute arthritic, chronic tophaceous|
|c.||Acute arthritic, chronic tophaceous, intercritical, asymptomatic|
|d.||Asymptomatic, acute arthritic, intercritical, chronic tophaceous|
- The joint most commonly affected by gout is the __________.
- All of the following are common presentations of calcium dehydrate (CPPD) crystal disease except __________.
- Which of the following is a major site of involvement with hydroxyapatite deposition disease?
|a.||Supraspinatus tendon of the shoulder|
|b.||Quadriceps tendon of the knee|
|c.||Trochanteric bursae of the hip|
|d.||Extensor tendons of the wrist|
- Basic calcium phosphate crystals deposited in the periarticular soft tissues, especially the tendons, describes __________.
- Joint space narrowing, subchondral bone sclerosis, intraarticular loose bodies, subchondral cysts, and joint deformity are common radiographic findings of __________.
|a.||diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis|
|c.||degenerative joint disease|
- Vacuum phenomena and Schmorl’s nodes are radiographic features of __________.
|b.||degenerative joint disease|
|c.||diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis|
- Intervertebral disc herniation is more common among __________.
|a.||45-year-old to 65-year-old patients|
|b.||25-year-old to 45-year-old patients|
- Altered bowel and bladder function, impotence, progressive muscle atrophy, and saddle paresthesia are seen with __________.
|b.||cauda equina syndrome|
- What is the most common disc level to exhibit herniation?
- What is the term for a free fragment of a herniated disc?
- Which of the following arthritides is radiographically marked by ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament with relative maintenance of intervertebral disc height, absence of posterior joint fusion, and lack of sacroiliac joint involvement?
|a.||Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis|
- The most common cause for neuropathic arthropathy in the foot and ankle is __________.
|b.||congestive heart failure|
- Swan-neck, boutonniere, and hitchhiker are some characteristic deformities seen with which inflammatory joint disease?
|a.||Juvenile idiopathic arthritis|
|c.||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
- A patient presents with nonerosive, reversible joint deformity of the digits of the hands. Which of the following diseases likely preceded this condition?
|c.||Chronic diabetes mellitus|
- Which of the following joints is classically the first to demonstrate erosive changes seen with ankylosing spondylitis?
- Spinal fusion associated with ankylosing spondylitis is often associated with dystrophic calcification in which structure?
- Ossification of only the supraspinous ligament is responsible for which sign observed in ankylosing spondylitis?
- In what percent of patients with inflammatory bowel disease would you expect to see sacroiliitis?
|a.||3% to 18%|
|b.||19% to 25%|
|c.||26% to 40%|
|d.||41% to 60%|
- Which of the following findings of psoriatic arthropathy is not present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis?
|a.||Proximal interphalangeal joint involvement|
|c.||Normal bone density|
- A 22-year-old male patient presents with foot pain. Radiographic examination reveals fluffy periosteal new bone formation at the origin of the plantar fascia and Achilles insertion. Which infectious organism is most likely linked to triggering this reaction?
- A 58-year-old male patient presents with history of intermittent severe pain and redness of the right first metatarsophalangeal joint and elevated blood levels of serum urate. Which sign may be expected on radiographic examination?
|a.||Pencil in a cup deformity|
|b.||Rat bite erosions|
- Which condition is marked by radiographic findings of severe joint degeneration along with chondrocalcinosis of hyaline and fibrocartilage?
|d.||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
- How is hemochromatosis treated?
- Radiographic findings of hemochromatosis most closely resemble those of __________.
|a.||hydroxyapatite deposition disease|
|b.||calcium pyrophosphate disease|
- Which of the following radiographic findings best differentiates hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD) from calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD)?
|a.||Bare area erosions|
|b.||Juxtaarticular soft tissue swelling|
|d.||Periarticular soft tissue calcification|
- Which of the following joints is most likely a site of nontraumatic osteoarthritis?
- What type of signal intensity is expected in the nucleus pulposus of a dessicated intervertebral disc on magnetic resonance imaging examination?
|a.||High on STIR|
|b.||Low on T2|
- Which of the following types of acquired spinal stenosis would be best evaluated with contrast-enhanced MRI?
|a.||Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament|
- Which of the following causes of spinal stenosis is more common in women?
- The posture most commonly associated with neurogenic claudication can best be described as a combination of ___________.
|a.||trunk flexion, hip and knee extension|
|b.||trunk, hip, and knee extension|
|c.||trunk, hip, and knee flexion|
|d.||trunk and knee flexion, hip extension|
- Purely productive (nonerosive) enthesopathic hyperostosis involving the pelvis, calcaneus, and patella is associated with which of the following conditions?
|b.||Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis|
- Radiographic examination of the shoulder in a 34-year-old female reveals complete resorption of the proximal humerus with a sharp transverse demarcation at the proximal metadiaphysis. Which of the following conditions is the most likely cause?
|b.||Spinal cord trauma|
|c.||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis|