INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Memmler’s Structure and Function of the Human Body, 10th ed by Taylor – Cohen
1. Bones store salts of the mineral _______________.
2. The shaft of a long bone is called the ______________.
3. The membrane that lines the marrow cavity of a long bone is called the _____________.
4. The hard bone found in the shafts of long bones is called ___________.
5. The porous bone found in the ends of long bones is called _______________.
6. The ends of long bones contain _________ marrow.
7. The cells that produce bone tissue are called ____________.
8. Most bones develop from a softer type of connective tissue that makes up most of the
embryonic skeleton. This type of connective tissue is called _______________.
9. A sharp projection from the surface of a bone is called a(n)
10. The anatomic name for the cheekbone is the ________________.
11. The skull bone that contains the internal portions of the ear is the _______________.
12. The bone that contains the manubrium and xiphoid process is the _____________.
13. The bone of the lower jaw is the _____________.
14. The soft spots in the infant skull are called the ____________.
15. The __________ curve develops when an infant holds his/her head upright.
16. The lateral bone of the lower leg is the ______________.
17. The medial bone of the forearm is the ________________.
18. The scientific name for the collarbone is the ___________________.
19. The anatomic name for the thigh bone is the ________________.
20. The bones that make up the palm of the hand are the ________________.
21. The bones of the fingers and the toes are the _____________.
22. The pubic symphysis is an example of a cartilaginous, slightly movable joint, or
23. The bands of connective tissue that hold the bones together in a synovial joint are called
24. The small, fluid-filled sacs near some synovial joints are called _____________.
25. Turning the palm down or backward is called ________________.
26. Drawing a large arm circle in the air is an example of the movement ______________.
27. A word part meaning break is ___________________.
28. Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeleton?
A) blood cell production
B) protection of delicate structures
C) sodium storage
D) providing a firm framework for the body
29. A haversian canal is a
A) fiber in dense bone
B) meshwork in spongy bone
C) depression on the surface of a bone
D) channel in dense bone
30. A major component of the intercellular material of bone is the protein
31. Spongy bone is found
A) within the medullary cavity
B) in bone epiphyses
C) surrounding haversian canals
D) exclusively in long bones
32. Red marrow is found in
A) spongy bone
B) compact bone
C) long bone shafts
D) the medullary cavity
33. The cells involved in bone resorption are
34. Bone growth in children occurs in the
A) center of bone shafts
B) epiphyseal plates
C) medullary cavities
D) epiphyseal lines
35. A depression on the surface of a bone is called a
36. An air space within a bone is called a
37. A short channel through a bone is called a
38. The bone that forms the back and part of the base of the skull is the
A) parietal bone
B) temporal bone
C) occipital bone
D) sphenoid bone
39. The bones that form the top and sides of the skull are the
A) parietal bones
B) temporal bones
D) lacrimal bones
40. The bone with winglike extensions located at the base of the skull is the
A) ethmoid bone
B) sphenoid bone
C) vomer bone
D) hyoid bone
41. The bone located between the eyes that forms the nasal cavity roof is the
42. The section of the spinal column that forms part of the bony pelvis is the
B) lumbar region
C) thoracic region
D) cervical region
43. How many pairs of true ribs are found in the adult thorax?
44. Skull bones are united by an immovable joint called a(n)
D) condyloid joint
45. Which bone contains the foramen magnum?
A) temporal bone
B) frontal bone
C) occipital bone
D) parietal bone
46. The large soft spot at the junction of the parietal bones and the frontal bone in the infant
cranium is the
A) anterior fontanel
B) posterior fontanel
C) anterior fossa
D) posterior fossa
47. The secondary spinal curves are the
A) cervical and lumbar curves
B) cervical and thoracic curves
C) thoracic and lumbar curves
D) thoracic and sacral curves
48. How many phalanges are found in each hand?
49. The olecranon is
A) a space between vertebrae
B) the part of the ulna that forms the elbow
C) the lowest portion of the ischium
D) the T-shaped top portion of the sternum
50. A malleolus is found on the
B) tibia and fibula
C) radius and ulna
51. What is the scientific name for the kneecap?
52. Which of the following bones is found in the shoulder girdle?
53. The acetabulum is
A) the joint between the first two cervical vertebrae
B) the socket that holds the head of the humerus
C) the tip of the sternum
D) the socket that holds the head of the femur
54. The greater trochanter is a large projection on the
55. A forensic scientist wants to identify the gender of a skeleton based on the pelvic
structure. Which of the following characteristics would be found in a male pelvis?
A) a wide, rounded pelvic opening
B) a long, curved sacrum
C) wide, flared ilia
D) a wide pubic arch
56. Ms. W notices that her great-grandmother is shorter than she used to be. This decrease
primarily reflects changes in the height of the
A) intervertebral disks
57. Freely moveable joints are also called
A) fibrous joints
B) cartilaginous joints
58. The smooth layer of connective tissue protecting the bone surfaces in a synovial joint is
A) articular cartilage
59. Which of the following joint types has the smallest range of motion?
A) pivot joint
B) saddle joint
C) ball-and-socket joint
D) gliding joint
60. The turning of a bone on its own axis is called
61. When a dancer points his toes, his foot is performing the movement called
C) plantar flexion
62. The word part cost/o refers to the
63. Compare and contrast yellow marrow and red marrow. Discuss the location,
constituents, and function of the two types.
64. List the bones found in the bony pelvis, and name the skeletal division (axial or
appendicular) for each.
65. A. List five differences between the male and female pelvis. B. Briefly explain the
benefits of the pelvic adaptations in females.
4. compact bone
5. spongy (cancellous) bone
10. zygomatic bone
11. temporal bone
20. metacarpal bones
63. Yellow marrow is found in the medullary cavity of long bones, whereas red marrow is
found in the spongy bone at the ends of long bones and the middle of other bones.
Yellow marrow is rich in fat, whereas red marrow contains many blood cell precursors.
Red marrow manufactures blood cells, whereas yellow marrow stores fat but usually
does not synthesize blood cells.
64. The pelvis consists of the two ossa coxae (ilium, ischium, and pubis in each) of the
appendicular skeleton and the sacrum and coccyx of the axial skeleton.
65. A. The female pelvis is lighter in weight, the ilia are wider and more flared, the pubic
arch is wider, the pelvic opening is wider and more rounded, the pelvic outlet is larger,
and the sacrum and coccyx are shorter and straighter. B. The adaptations of the female
pelvis permit women to better withstand the weight of the fetus during pregnancy and
permit the fetus to pass out of the pelvis during childbirth.
1. Cardiac and skeletal muscle contain visible bands that are called __________.
2. The muscular layer of the intestine is composed of visceral, or ____________, muscle.
3. The ability of a muscle to transmit electrical current is termed __________.
4. The ability of a muscle to shorten is termed ____________.
5. Binding sites on the actin molecules are covered by troponin and _________________
when the muscle is at rest.
6. The larger of the two filaments forming a cross-bridge is made of a protein called
7. The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is called ____________.
8. The compound that causes the myosin head to detach from actin is called
9. Muscles operating anaerobically are said to be in a state of _____________.
10. The polysaccharide in muscles containing multiple glucose molecules is named
11. The energy-storing compound that is similar to ATP is called ______________.
12. The increase in muscle size resulting from resistance training is termed ______________.
13. A contraction that shortens the muscle but does not increase muscle tension is called
14. Mr. M’s arm muscle is contracted because he is carrying a heavy box. This contraction,
which is associated with an increase in muscle tension, is termed _______________.
15. A muscle that produces a given movement is called the _________________.
16. The muscle that opposes a given action is called the ________________.
17. The more movable attachment point of a muscle is called the ___________.
18. The pivot point of a lever system is called the _________________.
19. Raising a beer glass by flexing the arm at the elbow is an example of a __________-class
20. A term referring to a muscle that decreases the angle at a joint is ______________.
21. An adjective describing muscle fibers running in a straight line is _______________.
22. The dome-shaped muscle used in breathing is the _______________.
23. The large triangular muscle across the back of the neck and shoulders is the
24. The muscle with four origins that covers the front and sides of the thigh bone is the
25. The prime mover in plantar flexion is the _____________.
26. The innermost muscle of the abdomen is the _______________.
27. The triceps brachii _____________ the arm at the elbow.
28. The _______________ tendon is attached to the heel.
29. The cheek muscle used in whistling is the _____________.
30. The muscles located between the ribs are called the _______________.
31. Aging is associated with a gradual decrease in the number of muscle cells, or
32. The word part sarc/o means _____________.
33. The specialized membranes that permit electric impulses to pass between cardiac muscle
cells are called
B) intercalated disks
34. A bundle of muscle fibers is called a(n)
35. The membrane surrounding individual muscle fibers is the
B) deep fascia
36. Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system?
A) skeletal movement
B) heat generation
D) body cooling through evaporation
37. A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates comprise a(n)
A) neuromuscular junction
B) motor end plate
C) motor unit
38. The two filaments that form cross-bridges are
A) actin and troponin
B) tropomyosin and myosin
C) actin and myosin
D) troponin and tropomyosin
39. Which of the following events occurs during muscle relaxation?
A) Calcium is pumped into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
B) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft.
C) The actin binding sites are exposed.
D) The action potential travels to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
40. The ion that binds the troponin/tropomyosin complex is
41. The compound that binds myosin and provides the energy for the power stroke is
A) creatine phosphate
42. A substance produced during oxygen debt is
A) lactic acid
B) calcium phosphate
43. The compound that stores oxygen in muscle cells is
C) creatine phosphate
44. Exercise results in
A) dilation of blood vessels
B) a decrease in the number of mitochondria
C) muscle atrophy
D) an increase in the resting heart rate
45. The partial contraction observed in resting muscle is called
A) muscle tone
B) isometric contraction
C) isotonic contraction
46. Pushing the feet against the floor is an example of a(n)
A) isometric contraction
B) muscle tone
C) isotonic contraction
D) isometric and isotonic contraction
47. A muscle that steadies body parts during a movement is called a(n)
C) prime mover
D) extrinsic muscle
48. In anatomic lever systems, the fulcrum is the
49. A term referring to a ring-shaped muscle is
50. A muscle that raises a body part is a(n)
51. In naming muscles, the suffix –ceps means
B) attachment points
D) direction of fibers
52. Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the head?
53. Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the abdomen?
A) internal oblique
B) transversus abdominis
D) rectus abdominis
54. A muscle that moves the head is the
C) serratus anterior
D) rotator cuff
55. The levator ani is found in the
56. A muscle located at the angle of the jaw used for chewing is the
57. The muscle that closes the lips is the
A) orbicularis oris
B) orbicularis oculi
58. An antagonist to the adductor group of the thigh is the
A) gluteus maximus
B) gluteus medius
D) peroneus longus
59. An antagonist to the gastrocnemius is the
D) tibialis anterior
60. The hamstring muscles act to
A) extend the leg
B) flex the leg
C) flex the thigh
D) adduct the thigh
61. Any word containing the part brachi/o probably refers to the
62. The main flexor of the forearm is the
D) triceps brachii
63. Compare the location and function of the three types of muscle tissue.
64. A new drug blocks the release of acetylcholine from neuron endings. The mad scientist
Dr. C takes the drug and then tries to move her arm. What will happen? Discuss the role
of acetylcholine in muscle contraction in your answer.
65. JL is sitting in a chair wearing very heavy boots. She slowly straightens her leg, raising
her boot. A. Is this an isotonic or isometric contraction? B. Name the prime mover and
antagonist participating in this action. C. Discuss the mechanics of this action, naming the
class of lever and the names and relative positions of the fulcrum, resistance, and effort.
9. oxygen debt
11. creatine phosphate
15. prime mover
24. quadriceps femoris
26. transversus abdominis
63. Smooth muscle makes up the walls of the hollow body organs, the blood vessels, and the
respiratory passageways. It moves involuntarily, producing the wavelike motions of
peristalsis that move substances through a system. Cardiac muscle makes up the wall of
the heart. It moves involuntarily to pump blood out of the heart. Skeletal muscle is
usually attached to bones and moves the skeleton. It is controlled voluntarily.
64. Dr. C will not be able to move her arm because acetylcholine will not be released.
Normally, acetylcholine is released subsequent to an action potential in the motor neuron.
It binds receptors in the motor end plate of the muscle, initiating an action potential that
initiates a muscular contraction.
65. A. isotonic B. The quadriceps femoris is the prime mover, the hamstring group is the
antagonist. C. This action is an example of a third-class lever. The weight of the boot is
the resistance, the knee joint is the fulcrum, and the effort is generated in the front of the
thigh (quadriceps femoris). The effort is exerted between the resistance and the fulcrum.