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Child Development 9th Edition by Laura E. Berk – Test Bank
CHAPTER 6COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGETIAN, CORE KNOWLEDGE, AND VYGOTSKIAN PERSPECTIVESMULTIPLE CHOICE1) Research indicates that children’s cognitive immaturity
- A) results from overstimulation during infancy and toddlerhood.
- B) results from a lack of stimulation.
- C) hinders their mastery of basic academic skills.
- D) may be adaptive.
Answer: DPage Ref: 226Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.12) Piaget’s theory is described as a constructivist approach because he
- A) stressed the social and cultural contributions to children’s thinking.
- B) viewed children as discovering virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity.
- C) emphasized how genetic and environmental factors combine to yield more complex ways of thinking.
- D) believed that children construct knowledge through adult training and modeling.
Answer: BPage Ref: 226Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.13) In Piaget’s theory, children move through four stages
- A) during which their exploratory behaviors transform into logical and abstract intelligence.
- B) not always in a sequential manner, depending on the children’s innate intelligence.
- C) sequentially at a rate observed in children everywhere.
- D) in which different cognitive skills follow unique courses of development.
Answer: APage Ref: 226Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.14) In Piaget’s theory, the most powerful __________ are __________ and __________.
- A) schemes; categorization; hierarchical classification
- B) mental representations; images; concepts
- C) operations; hypothetico-deductive reasoning; logical necessity
- D) cognitive skills; private speech; propositional thought
Answer: BPage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.15) According to Piaget’s theory,
- A) the disappearance of schemes marks the transition from sensorimotor to preoperational thought.
- B) environmental, but not genetic, factors can affect the speed with which children move through cognitive stages.
- C) schemes are built through interaction with adults or more skilled peers.
- D) two processes account for the change from sensorimotor to representational schemes.
Answer: DPage Ref: 227Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.16) In Piaget’s theory, adaptation refers to
- A) the back-and-forth movement between equilibration and disequilibration.
- B) the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
- C) a rearrangement and linking together of schemes.
- D) a steady, comfortable cognitive state.
Answer: BPage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.17) Children use current schemes to interpret their world in the process of __________, whereas __________ allows them to create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely.
- A) assimilation; accommodation
- B) adaptation; organization
- C) adaptation; assimilation
- D) equilibration; organization
Answer: APage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.18) When 18-month-old James is given peas for the first time, he picks one up, throws it, and says “ball.” According to Piaget’s theory, James is most likely __________ the pea into his ball scheme.
- A) accommodating
- B) organizing
- C) equilibrating
- D) assimilating
Answer: DPage Ref: 227Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.19) Two-year-old Viola calls her father’s swimming goggles “water glasses.” According to Piaget’s theory, Viola is most likely
Answer: APage Ref: 227Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.110) In Piaget’s theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,
- A) their schemes become disorganized and development is temporarily stalled.
- B) they realize that new information does not match their current schemes.
- C) they are likely to construct inefficient schemes.
- D) their existing schemes are not likely to change very much.
Answer: BPage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.111) According to Piaget’s theory, during periods of rapid cognitive change, children
- A) shift from accommodation to assimilation.
- B) shift from assimilation to accommodation.
- C) equally balance assimilation and accommodation.
- D) are in a state of cognitive equilibrium.
Answer: BPage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.112) In Piaget’s theory, children use organization to
- A) build schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
- B) adjust old schemes and create new ones to fit with the environment.
- C) accommodate the back-and-forth movement between cognitive equilibration and disequilibration.
- D) internally rearrange and link schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
Answer: DPage Ref: 227Skill: RememberObjective: 6.113) Baby Pedro has combined his reaching, grasping, and sucking schemes into one higher-order scheme that allows him to reach for his pacifier and put it into his mouth to suck. In Piaget’s theory, this achievement is an example of
Answer: CPage Ref: 227Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.114) Which of the following behaviors is characteristic of infants in Piaget’s sensorimotor Substage 2?
- A) a baby who drops toys down the steps in varying ways
- B) a baby who accidentally makes a smacking noise while eating and later tries to reproduce the sound
- C) a baby who can push aside a cover to retrieve a hidden toy
- D) a baby who accidentally hits a toy hung in front of her and then tries to repeat this effect
Answer: BPage Ref: 228Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.215) In Piaget’s theory, primary circular reactions are oriented toward __________, whereas secondary circular reactions are oriented toward __________.
- A) the infant’s own body; the surrounding world
- B) involuntary actions; voluntary actions
- C) external actions; internal representations
- D) concrete thought; abstract thought
Answer: APage Ref: 228Skill: RememberObjective: 6.216) According to Piaget, tertiary circular reactions include
- A) the ability to find a hidden object that has been moved while out of sight.
- B) deferred imitation and private speech.
- C) the ability to search in several locations for a hidden object.
- D) make-believe play and social speech.
Answer: CPage Ref: 228Skill: RememberObjective: 6.217) Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six substages based on
- A) anecdotal evidence provided by hundreds of parents.
- B) rigorous laboratory experiments with young children.
- C) observations of his three children.
- D) his research with children in French orphanages.
Answer: CPage Ref: 228Skill: RememberObjective: 6.218) When Baby Carissa “stumbles” onto a new experience, such as making a mobile hanging over her crib move by kicking her feet, engaging in that activity repeatedly will
- A) strengthen Carissa’s response and create a new scheme.
- B) provide Carissa with entertainment until she is better able to explore her world.
- C) lead to the refinement of reflexive schemes.
- D) facilitate cognitive equilibrium.
Answer: APage Ref: 228Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.219) Baby Raja accidentally pushes over a tower of blocks. Each time his sister rebuilds the tower, Raja tries to push it over. In Piaget’s theory, this is an example of a __________ circular reaction.
- A) reflexive
- B) primary
- C) secondary
- D) tertiary
Answer: CPage Ref: 229Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.220) Baby Henry enters Piaget’s Substage 4 of the sensorimotor period when his schemes
- A) are directed toward his body.
- B) are repeated with variation to produce new outcomes.
- C) are coordinated deliberately to solve simple problems.
- D) represent sudden solutions rather than trial-and-error solutions.
Answer: CPage Ref: 229Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.221) __________ and __________ are the two landmark cognitive changes that take place in sensorimotor Substage 4 of Piaget’s theory.
- A) Deferred imitation; make-believe play
- B) Conservation; centration
- C) Dual representation; analogical problem solving
- D) Intentional behavior; object permanence
Answer: DPage Ref: 229Skill: RememberObjective: 6.222) Baby Lakota is shown a ball that is then hidden under a cover. What must Lakota do to retrieve the ball?
- A) Lakota will need to recall the location of the ball.
- B) Lakota must coordinate “pushing aside” and “grasping” schemes to retrieve the ball.
- C) Lakota will not be able to retrieve the ball until she is in Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period.
- D) Lakota will have trouble retrieving the ball until she no longer makes the A-not-B error.
Answer: BPage Ref: 229Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.223) Each time Mr. Chow hides 7-month-old Jana’s doll under her blanket, she retrieves the toy. When Mr. Chow then hides the doll under a pillow near the blanket, Jana continues to look under the blanket for the doll. Jana is demonstrating
- A) the secondary circular reaction.
- B) habituation and recovery.
- C) displaced reference.
- D) the A-not-B search error.
Answer: DPage Ref: 229Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.224) Infants in Substage 5
- A) repeat behaviors with variations.
- B) become skilled at reaching for and manipulating objects.
- C) use their capacity for intentional behavior to try to change events.
- D) arrive at solutions to problems suddenly rather than through trial-and-error behavior.
Answer: APage Ref: 229Skill: RememberObjective: 6.225) Baby Waldo is twisting and turning triangles, circles, and squares to fit them into his shape-sorter toy. According to Piaget, this behavior is best described as a __________ circular reaction.
- A) reflexive
- B) primary
- C) secondary
- D) tertiary
Answer: DPage Ref: 229Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.226) Toddlers in Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period can solve object-permanence problems involving invisible displacement because they have developed the capacity to
- A) engage in goal-directed behavior.
- B) construct mental representations.
- C) carry out means–end action sequences.
- D) understand dual representation.
Answer: BPage Ref: 230Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.227) In the violation-of-expectation method, __________ suggests that Baby Will is “surprised” by a deviation from physical reality.
- A) a lack of attention and unfocused behavior
- B) heightened attention to the unexpected event
- C) smiling rather than crying
- D) quick recovery to a familiar event
Answer: BPage Ref: 230Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.328) Some critics of the violation-of-expectation method
- A) believe that it indicates a conscious awareness of physical events rather than a limited understanding.
- B) argue that wide individual differences in recovery times exist.
- C) believe that it indicates limited, implicit awareness of physical events rather than conscious understanding.
- D) argue that it is an inappropriate task to use with very young infants.
Answer: CPage Ref: 230Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.329) Baillargeon’s violation-of-expectation studies provided evidence that infants have some knowledge of object permanence
- A) between 1½ and 2½ months.
- B) between 2½ and 3½ months.
- C) no earlier than 6 months.
- D) after 12 months.
Answer: BPage Ref: 231Skill: RememberObjective: 6.330) When infants are tested to discover whether they understand the concept of object permanence and are shown two events—one expected and one unexpected—the infants
- A) show no awareness that the events differ from one another.
- B) ignore the unexpected event.
- C) look longer at the unexpected event than the expected event.
- D) show a preference for the expected event.
Answer: CPage Ref: 231Skill: RememberObjective: 6.331) Baby Rina, who is still developing the expertise at motor skills necessary for the search task, is more likely to make the A-not-B search error because
- A) she does not yet understand object permanence.
- B) her short attention span prevents her from thinking beyond A.
- C) her reaching scheme is limited to reflexive actions.
- D) she has little attention left to focus on inhibiting her habitual reach toward A in favor of B.
Answer: DPage Ref: 232Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.332) In Piaget’s theory, infants are unable to mentally represent experience until about _____ months of age.
- A) 3
- B) 9
- C) 12
- D) 18
Answer: DPage Ref: 232Skill: RememberObjective: 6.333) Laboratory research suggests that deferred imitation is present at __________ of age.
- A) 6 weeks
- B) 12 weeks
- C) 6 months
- D) 14 months
Answer: APage Ref: 232Skill: RememberObjective: 6.334) Toddlers’ ability to represent others’ intentions
- A) occurs later than Piaget predicted.
- B) requires the refinement of reflexive schemes.
- C) seems to have roots in earlier sensorimotor activity.
- D) leads to gains in categorization.
Answer: CPage Ref: 233Skill: RememberObjective: 6.335) Categorization helps infants learn and remember by
- A) teaching them how to group abstract stimuli.
- B) enhancing their symbolic understanding.
- C) reducing the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day.
- D) pairing objects with word associations.
Answer: CPage Ref: 233Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.336) Based on habituation and recovery research, Dahlia’s parents know that between 6 and 12 months old, Dahlia will be able to
- A) only sort items into one or two basic categories, such as animals and people.
- B) group objects into an impressive array of categories like food items, furniture, birds, animals, kitchen utensils, and spatial location.
- C) organize her physical world but not yet categorize her emotional and social worlds.
- D) sort familiar and novel items based on color, size, shape, and function.
Answer: BPage Ref: 234Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.337) Some researchers believe that before the end of the first year, babies undergo a fundamental shift from a(n) __________ basis to a(n) __________ basis for constructing categories
- A) logical; abstract
- B) perceptual; abstract
- C) logical; conceptual
- D) perceptual; conceptual
Answer: DPage Ref: 234–235Skill: RememberObjective: 6.338) Jae-Sun is a toddler growing up in Korea where children learn a language in which object names are often omitted from sentences. For that reason, he will most likely develop object-grouping skills __________-speaking counterparts.
- A) later than his English
- B) earlier than his English
- C) at about the same time as his English
- D) earlier than his Spanish
Answer: APage Ref: 235Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.339) Mara is 10 months of age. Research suggests that Mara can
- A) engage in sociodramatic play.
- B) imitate novel behaviors.
- C) engage in analogical problem solving.
- D) appreciate the symbolic nature of pictures.
Answer: CPage Ref: 235Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.340) By the end of the first year, infants
- A) use language to acquire new information about an absent object.
- B) use pictures as vehicles for communicating with others and acquiring new knowledge.
- C) begin to use an object that already has an obvious use as a symbol for another object.
- D) form flexible mental representations of how to use tools to get objects.
Answer: DPage Ref: 235Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.341) Around the first birthday, the symbolic capacity called “displaced reference” emerges, which allows toddlers to
- A) use abstract thought to solve problems.
- B) form initial mental representations that can be used to evaluate further information.
- C) categorize objects on the basis of their physical attributes.
- D) recognize that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present.
Answer: DPage Ref: 235Skill: RememberObjective: 6.342) The capacity to use __________ as a flexible symbolic tool improves from the end of the second into the third year.
- A) make-believe
- B) language
- C) deferred imitation
- D) the circular reaction
Answer: BPage Ref: 236Skill: RememberObjective: 6.343) Before about 9 months of age, how are babies likely to treat a picture of a person or an object?
- A) They touch or manipulate the picture in ways that reveal confusion about the picture’s real nature.
- B) They do not seem to have difficulty distinguishing between the symbol and the referent.
- C) They use it as a tool to modify an existing mental representation.
- D) They treat it as a symbol.
Answer: APage Ref: 236Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.344) Initially, infants respond to videos of people
- A) as make-believe characters.
- B) in a fearful manner.
- C) with indifference, paying little attention to the characters.
- D) as if viewing people directly.
Answer: DPage Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit EffectSkill: UnderstandObjective: 6.345) Gregor just turned 2½. By this age, the video deficit effect
Answer: APage Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit EffectSkill: ApplyObjective: 6.346) Research indicates that amount of TV viewing is negatively related to 8- to 18-month-olds’
- A) motor development.
- B) language process.
- C) analogical problem solving.
- D) visual development.
Answer: BPage Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit EffectSkill: RememberObjective: 6.347) Piaget believed that the major benefit of make-believe play during the preoperational stage is to
- A) strengthen representational schemes.
- B) exercise logical reasoning skills.
- C) build creativity and imagination.
- D) facilitate perspective-taking ability.
Answer: APage Ref: 239Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.448) By the time children reach age 4 or 5, they combine their play schemes with those of peers by creating and coordinating roles in
- A) sociodramatic play.
- B) adult-directed play acting.
- C) secondary circular reactions.
- D) categorization of others’ intentions.
Answer: APage Ref: 240Skill: RememberObjective: 6.449) Research on the development of make-believe play indicates that
- A) girls spend more time in sociodramatic play than boys.
- B) preschoolers who devote more time to sociodramatic play are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.
- C) school-age children are more self-centered in their pretend play than preschoolers.
- D) preschoolers who create imaginary companions are at risk for maladjustment.
Answer: BPage Ref: 240Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.450) Between 25 and 45 percent of preschoolers and young school-age children spend much time in solitary make-believe,
- A) avoiding contact with adults or peers.
- B) which interferes in their ability to form friendships.
- C) which is a sign of maladjustment.
- D) creating imaginary companions.
Answer: DPage Ref: 240Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.451) Because of __________, preschoolers are only able to draw figures in their simplest forms.
- A) limited adult instruction
- B) a lack of motivation
- C) an inability to form detailed mental representations
- D) fine-motor and cognitive limitations
Answer: DPage Ref: 242Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.452) Research conducted on schooled and nonschooled children in the Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea indicates that
- A) nonrepresentational scribbles seem to be a universal beginning in drawing.
- B) schooled children include fewer details in their drawings than nonschooled children.
- C) early drawings of the human figure produced by nonschooled children emphasize the head and face over the hands and feet.
- D) schooling has minimal impact on children’s first representational shapes and forms.
Answer: APage Ref: 242Skill: RememberObjective: 6.453) In one study, 2½-year-olds were unable to use a scale model of a room to find a toy hidden in the room that the model represented. This is because young preschoolers have difficulty with
- A) deferred imitation.
- B) analogical problem solving.
- C) transitive inference.
- D) dual representation.
Answer: DPage Ref: 243Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.454) According to Piaget, preschoolers’ thinking is
- A) flexible.
- B) rigid.
Answer: BPage Ref: 243Skill: RememberObjective: 6.455) According to Piaget, when children first mentally represent the world, they
- A) exhibit thinking that is unlimited and flexible.
- B) are adept at forming mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
- C) assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they do.
- D) are especially adept at distinguishing other people’s symbolic viewpoints from their own.
Answer: CPage Ref: 244Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.456) Five-year-old Sasha is participating in Piaget’s three-mountains problem. When Sasha is asked to choose the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll’s perspective, he will most likely
- A) choose the correct picture, but not be able to explain why he chose that picture.
- B) know that the correct picture is different from his point of view, but not be sure which picture to choose.
- C) choose the picture that shows his own point of view.
- D) choose the correct picture and be able to explain why he chose that picture.
Answer: CPage Ref: 244Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.457) When 3-year-old Gwen explains that her bicycle is sad because it is alone in the garage, she is demonstrating
- A) analogical problem solving.
- B) animistic thinking.
- C) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
- D) propositional thought.
Answer: BPage Ref: 244Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.458) Children in Western nations typically acquire conservation of number, mass, and liquid sometime between __________ years and of weight between __________ years.
- A) 2 and 3; 5 and 6
- B) 4 and 6; 7 and 9
- C) 6 and 7; 8 and 10
- D) 8 and 10; 11 and 12
Answer: CPage Ref: 244Skill: RememberObjective: 6.459) Which of the following helps to explain why preoperational children’s thinking keeps them from being able to understand the idea of conservation?
- A) They tend to spend too much time on reversibility, or mentally reversing the steps in a problem back to the starting point.
- B) They tend to focus more on the dynamic transformation of a situation without giving adequate attention to beginning and ending states.
- C) They have a significant grasp on the idea that appearances can change without changing the fundamental characteristics of the situation.
- D) Their understanding is characterized by centration in which they focus on one aspect of the situation while ignoring other important features.
Answer: DPage Ref: 245Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.460) According to Piaget, 4-year-olds cannot solve a conservation-of-liquid problem because they
- A) focus on the height of the water, failing to realize that changes in width compensate for the changes in height.
- B) do not notice the difference in appearance between the water levels in the two glasses.
- C) have limited experience with the task materials.
- D) do not understand the point of the question, “Which glass holds more water?”
Answer: APage Ref: 245Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.461) The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is
- C) magical thinking.
Answer: APage Ref: 245Skill: RememberObjective: 6.562) Piaget’s famous __________ demonstrates preoperational children’s difficulty with __________.
- A) three-mountains problem; dual representation
- B) three-mountains problem; hierarchical classification
- C) class inclusion task; hierarchical classification
- D) class inclusion task; dual representation
Answer: CPage Ref: 245Skill: RememberObjective: 6.463) During a __________ task, 4-year-old Vanessa is asked whether there are more oranges or fruits in a group of two apples, three bananas, and five oranges. She will most likely say that there are more __________.
- A) class inclusion; fruits
- B) class inclusion; oranges
- C) conservation-of-number; fruits
- D) conservation-of-number; oranges
Answer: BPage Ref: 245Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.464) Three-year-old Dominic calls his toy robot Sam and talks to him as if Sam is another 3-year-old. What explanation do researchers give for Dominic’s behavior?
- A) Dominic actually believes that the robot is alive.
- B) Dominic believes that all people and objects think the same thoughts that he thinks.
- C) Dominic cannot distinguish between animate and inanimate objects.
- D) Dominic has incomplete knowledge about certain objects, including his toy robot.
Answer: DPage Ref: 246Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.565) When 4-year-old Leela wished for her grandmother to come and visit, and the very next day her grandmother arrived at Leela’s house, Leela believed it was
- A) because her grandmother knew every thought Leela had.
- B) nothing out of the ordinary.
- C) because magic accounts for events she cannot otherwise explain.
- D) a special power that only Leela has.
Answer: CPage Ref: 246Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.566) Preschoolers’ understanding that sugar continues to exist when it is dissolved in water is evidence that they
- A) can overcome appearances and think logically in familiar contexts.
- B) can think logically even about unfamiliar topics.
- C) are incapable of logical thought, as Piaget asserted.
- D) do not understand cause-and-effect relationships.
Answer: APage Ref: 246Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.567) Preschoolers seem to use __________ when they must grapple with unfamiliar topics, too much information, or contradictory facts that they cannot reconcile.
- A) illogical reasoning
- B) mental representation
- C) analogical problem solving
- D) logical thought
Answer: APage Ref: 247Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.568) Preschoolers’ impressive skill at categorization is supported by
- A) animistic thinking.
- B) their rapidly expanding vocabularies.
- C) egocentric tendencies.
- D) the use of magical thinking for events they cannot explain.
Answer: BPage Ref: 247Skill: RememberObjective: 6.569) A hallmark of the concrete operational stage is the ability to
- A) understand dual representation.
- B) participate in sociodramatic play.
- C) pass conservation tasks.
- D) engage in animistic thinking.
Answer: CPage Ref: 249Skill: RememberObjective: 6.670) During a conservation-of-water problem, Wanda recognizes that a change in the height of the water is compensated for by a change in its width. This example demonstrates that Wanda is capable of
- D) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
Answer: BPage Ref: 249Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.671) According to Piaget, children who pass class inclusion tasks
- A) can focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time.
- B) have the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse them.
- C) can order items along a quantitative dimension.
- D) are able to recognize more than five separate and distinct categories of items.
Answer: APage Ref: 250Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.672) Ten-year-old Delaney is helping her dad put new shingles on her playhouse in the backyard. Her dad asks her to put the shingles in order from longest to shortest so that he can vary the start of each row. She is able to do this because she
- A) can think abstractly.
- B) can perform seriation tasks.
- C) understands dual representation.
- D) understands conservation.
Answer: BPage Ref: 250Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.673) Elena can mentally represent her neighborhood and describe the space to others. Elena’s mental representation of her neighborhood is known as
- A) a cognitive map.
- B) propositional thought.
- C) reasoning by analogy.
- D) an organized route of travel.
Answer: APage Ref: 250Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.674) Children’s ability to draw a map of a large-scale space improves with age due to
- A) their ability to reason by analogy.
- B) gains in fine-motor development.
- C) an increase in spatial cognition.
- D) better perspective-taking skills.
Answer: DPage Ref: 250Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.675) When his friend’s mom asks him if he wants a ride home from baseball practice, Pele gives her directions using a __________ that helps him imagine the mom’s movements along the route she needs to take between the baseball field and Pele’s house.
- A) conservation technique
- B) “mental walk” strategy
- C) “decentration” method
- D) transitive inference strategy
Answer: BPage Ref: 251Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.676) Melissa and Anjay are both 12 years old. Melissa is from the United States, and Anjay is from India. When asked to draw a map of their neighborhood, Melissa’s map will show __________ than Anjay’s map.
- A) a richer array of landmarks and aspects of social life
- B) a smaller area surrounding her home
- C) a more formal, extended space, highlighting main streets and key directions
- D) fewer features that are actually helpful in providing directions for other people
Answer: CPage Ref: 251Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.677) Children in the concrete operational stage
- A) can think logically when dealing with abstract information.
- B) move along a continuum of acquisition of logical concepts.
- C) master Piaget’s concrete operational tasks all at once.
- D) continue to fail conservation tasks.
Answer: BPage Ref: 252Skill: RememberObjective: 6.678) Opportunities to seriate objects, to learn about order relations, and to remember the parts of complex problems are probably responsible for
- A) the development of the imaginary audience.
- B) improvements in decision-making strategies.
- C) mastery of Piagetian tasks.
- D) advanced abstract thinking.
Answer: CPage Ref: 252Skill: RememberObjective: 6.679) Some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks
- A) are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.
- B) emerge spontaneously during middle childhood.
- C) emerge spontaneously during adolescence.
- D) show little variation worldwide.
Answer: APage Ref: 252Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.780) Petra is an average 10-year-old. Research indicates that Petra
- A) is egocentric in her social relationships.
- B) provides clear directions and constructs well-organized cognitive maps.
- C) is in Piaget’s formal operational stage.
- D) grasps the logical necessity of propositional thought.
Answer: BPage Ref: 253Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.781) The capacity for __________ distinguishes the formal operational stage from the concrete operational stage.
- A) conservation
- B) abstract thinking
- C) analogical problem solving
- D) dual representation
Answer: BPage Ref: 253Skill: RememberObjective: 6.882) Once young people enter the formal operational stage, they are able to systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world through
- A) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
- B) animistic thinking.
- C) transitive inference.
- D) analogical problem solving.
Answer: APage Ref: 253–254Skill: RememberObjective: 6.883) In watching two children, Wiley, who is in the concrete operational stage, and Abby, who is in the formal operational stage, solve Piaget’s pendulum problem, what difference would be evident?
- A) Both Wiley and Abby will use similar strategies to solve the problem.
- B) Wiley will systematically test alternative hypotheses.
- C) Abby will intuitively solve the problem without experimentation.
- D) Abby will systematically test alternative hypotheses.
Answer: DPage Ref: 253–254Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.884) During a study, the experimenter tells Kerri, “Either the swan is black or it is not black.” Even though Kerri has never seen a black swan, she judges this statement to be true. This is because Kerri
- A) cannot yet conserve.
- B) is making an A-not-B error.
- C) is engaging in propositional thought.
- D) is egocentric.
Answer: CPage Ref: 254Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.885) In one study, an experimenter hid a poker chip in her hand and asked adolescents to evaluate the truthfulness of the following statement: “The chip in my hand is green and it is not green.” An adolescent who is capable of propositional thought would most likely answer that this statement is
- A) always false, regardless of the color of the poker chip.
- B) false only if the poker chip is not green.
- C) true if the poker chip is green.
- D) always true, regardless of the color of the poker chip.
Answer: APage Ref: 254Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.886) Adolescents are able to ponder the concepts of justice and freedom because they have developed
- A) a moral code.
- B) verbal reasoning about abstract concepts.
- C) idealism and egocentric decision making.
- D) the ability to delay gratification.
Answer: BPage Ref: 254–255Skill: RememberObjective: 6.887) According to Piaget, a form of egocentrism emerges during the formal operational stage in which adolescents have difficulty
- A) distinguishing their own and others’ perspectives.
- B) with day-to-day decision making.
- C) comparing the merit of their accomplishments with that of others.
- D) establishing a sense of self that is independent from their parents.
Answer: APage Ref: 255Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.888) __________ helps explain the long hours adolescents spend inspecting every detail of their appearance and why they are so sensitive to public criticism.
- A) Propositional thought
- B) The imaginary audience
- C) Abstract thought
- D) Hierarchical classification
Answer: BPage Ref: 255Skill: RememberObjective: 6.889) Which of the following statements is true regarding the consequences of abstract thought?
- A) Sense of personal uniqueness eliminates sensitivity to criticism.
- B) Sense of omnipotence is moderately associated with depression and suicidal thinking.
- C) The imaginary audience discourages independence from parents.
- D) The imaginary audience helps teenagers maintain important relationships.
Answer: DPage Ref: 256Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.890) With respect to the personal fable, viewing the self as highly capable and influential helps young people
- A) cope with the “storm and stress” of puberty.
- B) view the imaginary audience more realistically and avoid negative emotions.
- C) cope with the challenges of adolescence.
- D) recognize their vulnerability and decrease their risk-taking behaviors.
Answer: CPage Ref: 256Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.891) As a result of adolescents’ ability to engage in __________, they often construct grand visions of a perfect world that are at odds with adults’ more realistic views.
- A) hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- B) propositional thinking
- C) animistic thinking
- D) abstract thinking
Answer: DPage Ref: 256Skill: RememberObjective: 6.892) Evidence confirms that, when making decisions, adolescents, relative to adults, are
- A) less willing to take risks.
- B) more influenced by the possibility of immediate reward.
- C) more apt to seek advice from others.
- D) more likely to learn from feedback by revising their decision-making strategies.
Answer: BPage Ref: 256Skill: RememberObjective: 6.893) In making decisions, adolescents, more often than adults,
- A) ignore well-learned intuitive judgments.
- B) seek advice from parents or other trusted adults.
- C) fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.
- D) weigh the pros and cons of possible outcomes.
Answer: CPage Ref: 257Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.894) Research on formal operational thought indicates that 6-year-olds
- A) show signs of hypothetico-deductive reasoning on tasks that involve simplified situations.
- B) display hypothetico-deductive reasoning only when assisted by an adult.
- C) only display hypothetico-deductive reasoning during pretend play.
- D) are capable of abstract thinking when presented with real-world problems.
Answer: APage Ref: 257Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.995) Axel, who is younger than age 10, will have difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality or his own beliefs because he is not yet able to
- A) analyze the logic of propositions in situations in which he has had extensive experience.
- B) grasp the logical necessity of propositional thought.
- C) recognize symbolic objects as both objects and symbols.
- D) apply his problem-solving strategies.
Answer: BPage Ref: 257–258Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.996) People are most likely to think abstractly and systematically on tasks in which
- A) they have had extensive guidance and practice in using such reasoning.
- B) hypothetico-deductive reasoning is not required.
- C) the rules of logical thought can be ignored.
- D) logical necessity is required.
Answer: APage Ref: 258Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.997) Miss Caroline, a teacher who uses Piagetian principles in her classroom,
- A) provides extensive instruction in reading and mathematics.
- B) pairs low-ability students with high-ability students to enhance learning.
- C) encourages her students to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with their environment.
- D) forms cooperative groups with two to four students who take turns leading dialogues.
Answer: CPage Ref: 259Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.1098) Piaget’s belief that infants and young children must act on the environment to revise their thinking is
- A) widely accepted by contemporary researchers.
- B) too broad a notion of how learning takes place.
- C) too narrow a notion of how learning takes place.
- D) a major contribution to early intervention research.
Answer: CPage Ref: 260Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.1199) One neo-Piagetian perspective combines Piaget’s stage approach with
- A) ecological systems theory.
- B) information processing.
- D) the core knowledge perspective.
Answer: BPage Ref: 261Skill: RememberObjective: 6.11100) Researchers in diverse theories continue to draw inspiration from Piaget’s view of the child as a(n)
- A) tabula rasa.
- B) active, constructive learner.
- C) passive learner.
- D) social being.
Answer: BPage Ref: 261Skill: RememberObjective: 6.11101) Core knowledge theorists disagree with Piaget’s ideas and argue that
- A) infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems.
- B) cognitive development originates with sensorimotor reflexes.
- C) development occurs in stages with little variations across domains.
- D) development is primarily a matter of cultural and social influences.
Answer: APage Ref: 261Skill: RememberObjective: 6.12102) According to the core knowledge perspective, physical and numerical knowledge
- A) permitted our ancestors to secure food and other resources from the environment.
- B) does not emerge until children start formal schooling.
- C) helps children understand people as agents who have mental states that influence their behavior.
- D) helps children understand certain bodily processes, such as birth, growth, illness, and death.
Answer: APage Ref: 262Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.12103) Core knowledge theorists view development as
- A) simply refining already advanced knowledge systems.
- B) following a strict, stagewise progression.
- C) a sociocultural phenomenon.
- D) domain-specific and uneven.
Answer: DPage Ref: 262Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.12104) Which of the following statements provides support for the core knowledge perspective?
- A) Baby Lisa looks longer at an unexpected physical event than an expected physical event.
- B) Baby Marcus can discriminate quantities up to three and use that knowledge to perform simple arithmetic.
- C) Before entering preschool, Fayola has difficulty with less-than and greater-than number relationships.
- D) Quinn cannot understand the concepts of addition and subtraction until elementary school.
Answer: BPage Ref: 263Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.12105) According to theory theory,
- A) children draw on innate concepts to form explanations of everyday events.
- B) cognitive development is largely due to increases in information-processing capacity.
- C) the child and the social environment collaborate to build cognition in culturally adaptive ways.
- D) by acting directly on the environment, children construct virtually all their knowledge about the world.
Answer: APage Ref: 264Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.12106) More seriously than other perspectives, core knowledge theorists have addressed which of the following questions?
- A) “Why is experience essential for children and the knowledge they are born with?”
- B) “Why does speed of learning differ in children?”
- C) “What allows learning to get off the ground?”
- D) “Do all aspects of cognition develop uniformly, or do some develop at faster rates than others?”
Answer: CPage Ref: 265Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.12107) A criticism of both the core knowledge perspective and Piaget’s theory focuses on
- A) how they ignore children’s independent efforts to construct knowledge.
- B) their inability to explain how heredity and environment jointly produce cognitive change.
- C) how they underestimate the cognitive competencies of children and adolescents.
- D) their inability to account for or explain stagewise change.
Answer: BPage Ref: 266Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.13108) According to Vygotsky, infants are endowed with basic perceptual, attention, and memory capacities that they share with other animals. These develop during the first two years through
- A) stimulating interactions with adults.
- B) direct contact with the environment.
- C) the biological unfolding of genetic structures.
- D) independent exploration of the environment.
Answer: APage Ref: 266Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.14109) Based on Piaget’s view of children’s private speech, which of the following statements is true?
- A) Both Tatiana and her parents engage in private speech.
- B) Taylor’s cognitive development and certain social experiences will bring an end to his private speech.
- C) As Carolina internalizes the perspective of others, she will begin to engage in private speech.
- D) Kaz’s social speech declines in favor of egocentric speech, in which he adapts what he says to his listeners.
Answer: BPage Ref: 267Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.14110) Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that
- A) language often distracts children from thinking about mental activities and behavior.
- B) egocentric speech interferes with children’s attempts at constructing knowledge.
- C) children discover virtually all knowledge about the world through their own activity.
- D) language provides the foundation for all higher cognitive processes.
Answer: DPage Ref: 267Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.14111) Anthony has a learning disability. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Anthony?
- A) Anthony’s private speech is an indication of unhealthy egocentric behavior.
- B) Anthony’s use of self-guiding private speech during a challenging activity will not lead to better task performance.
- C) Anthony’s private speech will only be as good as his communication skills with others.
- D) Anthony uses private speech to help compensate for impairments in cognitive processing.
Answer: DPage Ref: 267Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.14112) Research on private speech suggests thatyoungchildren
- A) are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are too hard.
- B) are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are appropriately challenging.
- C) talk to themselves because they have difficulty taking the perspective of others.
- D) with learning and behavior problems rarely use private speech.
Answer: BPage Ref: 267Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.14113) Vygotsky believed that learning takes place
- A) within the zone of proximal development.
- B) in discrete stages.
- C) primarily through independent exploration.
- D) once children are capable of mental representation.
Answer: APage Ref: 267Skill: RememberObjective: 6.14114) According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be within a child’s zone of proximal development?
- A) Edward is completing a homework assignment with a classmate.
- B) Elise recently mastered a task independently following the assistance of her mother.
- C) Jasira cannot yet handle a specific task on her own, but she can do it with the help of an adult.
- D) Tevan figures out how to accomplish a task through trial and error.
Answer: CPage Ref: 267Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.14115) In Vygotsky’s theory, when two participants to a task each adjust to the perspective of the other in order to create common ground for communication, they are
- A) engaging in scaffolding, but only at a verbal level.
- B) engaging in reciprocal teaching.
- C) stepping outside each other’s zone of proximal development.
- D) contributing to cognitive development through intersubjectivity.
Answer: DPage Ref: 268Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.14116) Two-year-old Maya is building a block tower. Her father begins by pointing to where each block needs to go as Maya piles them up. As Maya’s competence with the task increases, her father gradually withdraws support. This is an example of
- A) transitive inference.
- B) cooperative learning.
- C) reciprocal teaching.
Answer: DPage Ref: 268Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.14117) Lester has learned how to give his dog a bath all by himself from helping his mother give the dog a bath in the past. Lester has learned this skill through
- A) cooperative learning.
- C) guided participation.
Answer: CPage Ref: 268Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.14118) Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as a major source of cognitive development because it __________ in which children advance themselves.
- A) is a zone of proximal development
- B) fosters intersubjectivity
- C) promotes cooperative learning
- D) provides opportunities for private speech
Answer: APage Ref: 269Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.15119) Which of the following would signal to Christie, a toddler, that her mother is engaging in make-believe play with her?
- A) She smiles less and is more serious with Christie.
- B) She uses more “we” talk than she would during the same real-life event.
- C) She always waits for the cues to come from Christie before participating in make-believe play with Christie.
- D) She rarely offers any cues, and so Christie has to learn on her own when her mother is pretending and when she is not.
Answer: BPage Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe PlaySkill: ApplyObjective: 6.15120) Which of the following statements is supported by research on make-believe play?
- A) When adults participate, toddlers’ make-believe play is more elaborate than when they play alone.
- B) In early childhood, make-believe play often occurs with an imaginary companion.
- C) In cultures where make-believe play occurs with older siblings rather than with mothers, the fantasy play of toddlers is hindered.
- D) Children are more likely to combine schemes into complex sequences when engaging in make-believe play with agemates than when they are playing with caregivers.
Answer: APage Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe PlaySkill: UnderstandObjective: 6.15121) Make-believe play is a major means through which children
- A) develop and refine representational schemes.
- B) learn about prejudice and the differences among different racial and ethnic groups.
- C) learn language and its more subtle nuances.
- D) extend their cognitive skills and learn about important activities in their culture.
Answer: DPage Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe PlaySkill: UnderstandObjective: 6.15122) Vygotsky emphasized __________ for preschool children, and then shifting to __________ once formal schooling begins.
- A) independent discovery learning; social context and collaboration
- B) rote memory; make-believe play and reading
- C) meaningful activities in children’s zones of proximal development; literacy activities
- D) a basic skills approach; scaffolding
Answer: CPage Ref: 270Skill: RememberObjective: 6.16123) In her classroom, Kim and small groups of students take turns leading dialogues on the content of various texts. This is an example of
- A) cooperative learning.
- B) reciprocal teaching.
- D) guided participation.
Answer: BPage Ref: 271Skill: ApplyObjective: 6.16124) Elementary and middle school students exposed to reciprocal teaching
- A) tend to experience more conflict and competition.
- B) have dramatically higher IQ scores than children exposed to traditional methods.
- C) show impressive gains in reading comprehension.
- D) are often overly dependent on adults.
Answer: CPage Ref: 271Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.16125) Which of the following approaches is likely to be seen in a Vygotskian classroom?
- A) opportunities for active participation
- B) an emphasis on teacher-directed instruction
- C) activities developed to foster peer collaboration
- D) learning experiences designed to promote independent exploration
Answer: CPage Ref: 271Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.16126) In which of the following situations of cooperative learning would children learn best?
- A) when children have first been trained in make-believe play
- B) when adults provide structured lessons
- C) when groups have more than three children
- D) when their peer partner is an “expert”
Answer: DPage Ref: 271Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.16127) Which of the following statements is true regarding cooperative learning?
- A) The extent to which children achieve independence is key to fostering cooperative learning.
- B) For cooperative learning to succeed, Western children usually require extensive guidance.
- C) A single peer interaction is more beneficial than interactions with multiple peers.
- D) Children’s problem solving improves most when their peer partner has equal expertise on the task.
Answer: BPage Ref: 271Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.16128) In Western societies, the role of equipping children with the skills they need to become competent workers is assigned to
- D) vocational programs.
Answer: APage Ref: 273 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult WorkSkill: RememberObjective: 6.17129) Recent ethnographic research reveals that
- A) young Yucatec Mayan children decide for themselves how much to sleep and eat, what to wear, when to bathe, and when to start school.
- B) Yucatec Mayan children and Western children display impressive similarities in their make-believe play, despite very different cultural and social conditions.
- C) in cultures where parents rarely scaffold their children’s learning, children tend to be delayed in early cognitive skills.
- D) in cultures where parents rarely converse with their children, children tend to frequently display attention-getting behaviors.
Answer: APage Ref: 273 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult WorkSkill: RememberObjective: 6.17130) Critics of Vygotsky argue that his theory __________ in advancing cognitive development.
- A) says little about biological contributions
- B) overemphasizes the importance of children’s independent efforts
- C) assumes a set of experiences common to all cultures
- D) underemphasizes the significance of teaching
Answer: APage Ref: 272Skill: UnderstandObjective: 6.17ESSAY131) Describe Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development, including follow-up research on Piaget’s ideas.Answer: According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called schemes, change with age. At first, schemes are sensorimotor action patterns. Sensorimotor—the name of the stage—reflects Piaget’s belief that infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities mentally.The circular reaction involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby’s own motor activity. It provides a special means of adapting her first schemes. The reaction is “circular” because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance strengthens into a new scheme. She starts to gain voluntary control over her actions through the primary circular reaction, by repeating chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs. This leads to some simple motor habits. Through the secondary circular reaction, she tries to repeat interesting events—through intentional, or goal-directed, behaviors—in the surrounding environment that are caused by her own actions. As she begins to master object permanence and imitation, the tertiary circular reaction, or repeated behaviors with variation, emerges.In Piaget’s theory, infants lead purely sensorimotor lives. Yet research indicates that, beginning at 8 to 10 months, babies can recall the location of hidden objects, indicating that babies construct mental representations of objects and their whereabouts. And in studies of deferred imitation, categorization, and problem solving, representational thought is evident even earlier. Researchers disagree on how babies arrive at these impressive attainments. One view holds that older infants and toddlers categorize more effectively because they become increasingly sensitive to fine-grained perceptual features and to stable relations among these features. An alternative view is that before the end of the first year, babies undergo a fundamental shift from a perceptual to a conceptual basis for constructing categories.Consistent with Piaget’s ideas, sensorimotor action helps infants construct some forms of knowledge. Yet we have also seen evidence that infants comprehend a great deal before they are capable of the motor behaviors that Piaget assumed led to those understandings.Page Ref: 226–238132) Compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on children’s make-believe play.Answer: Piaget believed that through pretending, children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes. However, today, Piaget’s view of make-believe as mere practice of representational schemes is regarded as too limited. Play not only reflects but also contributes to children’s cognitive and social skills. Sociodramatic play has been studied most thoroughly. Compared with social nonpretend activities (such as drawing or putting puzzles together), during sociodramatic play preschoolers’ interactions last longer, show more involvement, draw more children into the activity, and are more cooperative.Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development in which children advance themselves as they try out a wide variety of challenging skills. In Vygotsky’s theory, make-believe is the central source of development during the preschool years, leading development forward in two ways. First, as children create imaginary situations, they learn to act in accord with internal ideas, not just in response to external stimuli. While pretending, children continually use one object to stand for another—a stick for a horse, a folded blanket for a sleeping baby—and, doing so, change the object’s usual meaning. Gradually they realize that thinking (or the meaning of words) is separate from objects and that ideas can be used to guide behavior.Second, the rule-based nature of make-believe strengthens children’s capacity to think before they act. Pretend play, Vygotsky pointed out, constantly demands that children act against their impulses because they must follow the rules of the play scene. For example, a child pretending to go to sleep obeys the rules of bedtime behavior. A child imagining himself as a father and a doll as his child conforms to the rules of parental behavior. Through enacting rules in make-believe, children better understand social norms and expectations and strive to follow them.Vygotsky questioned Piaget’s belief that make-believe arises spontaneously in the second year of life. Vygotsky argued that, like other higher cognitive processes, the elaborate pretending of the preschool years has social origins.Page Ref: 239–240, 269133) Discuss the limitations of preoperational thought from Piaget’s point of view.Answer: For Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is egocentrism—failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own. He believed that when children first mentally represent the world, they tend to focus on their own viewpoint and to assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they do. Egocentrism is responsible for preoperational children’s animistic thinking—the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. Piaget argued that young children’s egocentric bias prevents them from accommodating, or reflecting on and revising their faulty reasoning in response to their physical and social worlds.Piaget’s famous conservation tasks reveal several deficiencies of preoperational thinking. Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. The inability to conserve highlights several related aspects of preoperational children’s thinking. First, their understanding is centered, or characterized by centration. They focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is irreversibility. Reversibility—the ability to go through a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point—is part of every logical operation. Preoperational children also have difficulty with hierarchical classification—the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.Page Ref: 244–245134) Discuss the two major features of Piaget’s formal operations stage.Answer: Piaget believed that at adolescence, young people become capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world. This form of problem solving begins with possibility and proceeds to reality.A second important characteristic of Piaget’s formal operational stage is propositional thought—adolescents’ ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances. In contrast, children can evaluate the logic of statements only by considering them against concrete evidence in the real world.Although Piaget did not view language as playing a central role in cognitive development, he acknowledged its importance in adolescence. Formal operations require language-based and other symbolic systems that do not stand for real things, such as those in higher mathematics. Secondary school students use such systems in algebra and geometry. Formal operational thought also involves verbal reasoning about abstract concepts. Adolescents show that they can think in this way when they ponder the relations among time, space, and matter in physics or wonder about justice and freedom in philosophy.Page Ref: 253–255135) Describe the core knowledge perspective of cognitive development.Answer: According to the core knowledge perspective, infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems referred to as core domains of thought. Each of these “prewired” understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition. Core knowledge theorists argue that infants could not make sense of the multifaceted stimulation around them without having been genetically “set up” in the course of evolution to comprehend its crucial aspects.Two core domains have been studied extensively in infancy. The first is physical knowledge—in particular, understanding of objects and their effects on one another. The second is numerical knowledge—the capacity to keep track of multiple objects and to add and subtract small quantities. Physical and numerical knowledge permitted our ancestors to secure food and other resources from the environment.Rather than regarding development as a general process, core knowledge theorists see it as domain-specific and uneven, with each core domain developing independently. And although initial knowledge is assumed to be innate, that knowledge becomes more elaborate as children explore, play, and interact with others.Page Ref: 261–262136) Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on children’s private speech, and evaluate each on the basis of research findings.Answer: Piaget called preschoolers’ utterances egocentric speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others. Their talk, he said, is often “talk for self” in which they express thoughts in whatever form they happen to occur, regardless of whether a listener can understand. Piaget believed that cognitive development and certain social experiences eventually bring an end to egocentric speech. Specifically, through repeated disagreements with peers, children see that others hold viewpoints different from their own. As a result, egocentric speech declines in favor of social speech, in which children adapt what they say to their listeners.Vygotsky disagreed strongly with Piaget’s conclusions. Because language helps children think about mental activities and behavior and select courses of action, Vygotsky saw it as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes, including controlled attention, deliberate memorization and recall, categorization, planning, problem solving, abstract reasoning, and self-reflection. In Vygotsky’s view, children speak to themselves for self-guidance. As they get older and find tasks easier, their self-directed speech is internalized as silent, inner speech—the internal verbal dialogues we carry on while thinking and acting in everyday situations.Over the past three decades, almost all studies have supported Vygotsky’s perspective. As a result, children’s self-directed speech is now called private speech instead of egocentric speech. Children use more of it when tasks are appropriately challenging (neither too easy nor too hard), after they make errors, or when they are confused about how to proceed. With age, as Vygotsky predicted, private speech goes underground, changing into whispers and silent lip movements. Furthermore, children who freely use self-guiding private speech during a challenging activity are more attentive and involved and show better task performance than their less talkative agemates.Page Ref: 267137) Describe how Vygotsky’s ideas influence trends in education today.Answer: Vygotsky’s theory offers new visions of teaching and learning—ones that emphasize the importance of social context and collaboration. Vygotskian classrooms accept individual differences and provide opportunities for children’s active participation, but they go beyond independent discovery to promote assisted discovery. Teachers guide children’s learning with explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts, tailoring their interventions to each child’s zone of proximal development. Assisted discovery is aided by peer collaboration, as children work in groups, teaching and helping one another.Vygotsky’s educational message for the preschool years is to provide socially rich, meaningful activities in children’s zones of proximal development and a wealth of opportunities for make-believe play—the ultimate means of fostering the self-discipline required for later academic learning. Once formal schooling begins, Vygotsky emphasized literacy activities.Vygotsky-based educational innovations include reciprocal teaching, in which a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage. Within the dialogues, group members apply four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting.Today, peer collaboration is widely used, but evidence is mounting that it promotes development only under certain conditions. A crucial factor is cooperative learning, in which small groups of classmates work toward common goals. Conflict and disagreement seem less important than the extent to which peers achieve intersubjectivity—by resolving differences of opinion, sharing responsibilities, and providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings.Teaching through cooperative learning broadens Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development, from a single child in collaboration with an expert partner (adult or peer) to multiple partners with diverse forms of expertise stimulating and encouraging one another.Page Ref: 269–272 CHAPTER 7COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: AN INFORMATION-PROCESSING PERSPECTIVEMULTIPLE CHOICE
- 1) A central goal of the information-processing approach is to
- A) uncover mechanisms of change.
- B) develop applications for classroom learning.
- C) describe the normative course of cognitive development.
- D) refine and revise Piaget’s theory.
Answer: APage Ref: 277Skill: RememberObjective: 7.12) The information-processing approach focuses mainly on
- A) genetic contributions to intellectual development.
- B) core domains of thought.
- C) the encoding, recording, and decoding of information.
- D) how schemes change with age.
Answer: CPage Ref: 278Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.13) As an information-processing researcher, Tim finds diagrams and flowcharts useful for
- A) recording stimulus–response associations.
- B) mapping the exact series of steps children and adults follow when faced with a task or problem.
- C) documenting the role of reinforcement in cognitive development.
- D) building computers with humanlike circuitry.
Answer: BPage Ref: 278Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.14) The store model of information processing focuses on __________ as information flows __________.
- A) general units of cognitive functioning; sequentially
- B) mechanisms of cognitive change; arithmetically
- C) Piaget’s stages; in an evolutionary manner
- D) the evolutionary perspective; sequentially
Answer: APage Ref: 278Skill: RememberObjective: 7.15) In the store model of the information-processing system, we use mental strategies to
- A) direct the flow by coordinating information coming from the environment with information already in the system.
- B) refer to networks of concepts and relations that permit us to think about a wide range of situations in more advanced ways.
- C) prevent internal and external distracting stimuli from capturing our attention and cluttering working memory with irrelevant information.
- D) operate on and transform information, increasing the chances that we will retain it, use it efficiently, and think flexibly.
Answer: DPage Ref: 278Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.16) In the store model, input in the information-processing system
- A) enters the sensory register and is stored momentarily.
- B) simply flows on its own through the various stores.
- C) is automatically transferred into long-term memory.
- D) enters the sensory register and is stored for days or weeks.
Answer: APage Ref: 278Skill: RememberObjective: 7.17) Which of the following statements is true regarding working memory?
- A) Working memory is the conscious, reflective part of our mental system.
- B) The capacity of working memory is far more restricted than that of the sensory register.
- C) Most school-age children can hold 10 to 12 items in their working memory.
- D) The capacity of working memory is far greater than that of the long-term memory store.
Answer: BPage Ref: 279Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.18) In the store model of the information-processing system, the central executive __________ the mental system.
- A) directs the flow of information in
- B) is the unconscious part of
- C) operates on and transforms information in
- D) is the initial storage site of information in
Answer: APage Ref: 279Skill: RememberObjective: 7.19) The more information we process in working memory and the more effectively we process it, the more likely it will transfer to
- A) long-term memory.
- B) the central executive.
- C) the sensory register.
- D) the short-term memory store.
Answer: APage Ref: 280Skill: RememberObjective: 7.110) Long-term memory
- A) stores information temporarily.
- B) is the conscious part of the cognitive system.
- C) is unlimited in capacity.
- D) directs the flow of information in the cognitive system.
Answer: CPage Ref: 280Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.111) Mario sees a familiar face at the mall, but he cannot recall the person’s name. Mario is having problems with
Answer: DPage Ref: 280Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.112) The store model of the information-processing system suggests that the aspects of __________ and __________ improve with age.
- A) basic capacity; executive function
- B) processing speed; overall capacity
- C) retrieval accuracy; processing speed
- D) metacognitive skills; strategy use
Answer: APage Ref: 280Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.113) Seven-year-old Carlos is presented with a verbatim digit span task. Carlos should be able to recall _________ digits.
- A) 1 or 2
- B) 2 or 3
- C) 4 or 5
- D) 6 or 7
Answer: CPage Ref: 280Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.114) Individual differences on working-memory tasks are of particular concern because working-memory capacity
- A) is dependent on long-term memory capacity.
- B) predicts academic achievement in adolescence.
- C) is essential for any automatic processes.
- D) determines sensory register effectiveness.
Answer: BPage Ref: 280Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.1 15) Cassandra’s working-memory capacity is enhanced following age-related gains in her
- B) ability to scaffold.
- C) processing speed.
- D) cognitive self-regulation.
Answer: CPage Ref: 281Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.116) Similarity in development of processing speed across diverse tasks in several cultures
- A) is most likely due to a decrease in the level of neurons and their connections.
- B) implies a fundamental change in efficiency of the information-processing system.
- C) indicates irregular levels of synaptic pruning.
- D) is unrelated to increased capacity of working memory.
Answer: BPage Ref: 281Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.117) The set of cognitive operations and strategies necessary for self-initiated, purposeful behavior in relatively novel, challenging situations is known as
- A) automatic processes.
- B) the central executive.
- C) system inputs.
- D) executive function.
Answer: DPage Ref: 281Skill: RememberObjective: 7.118) Early childhood is a vital time for laying the foundations of executive function, which includes
- A) adaptive responses to simple cognitive processes.
- B) refinement and reorganization of existing cognitive schemes.
- C) controlling information as it flows from the central executive to the short-term memory store.
- D) controlling attention, suppressing impulses in favor of adaptive responses, and flexibly redirecting thought and behavior.
Answer: DPage Ref: 281Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.119) Theresa is in a period of the most energetic development of her executive function. What is her age range?
- A) She is in the preschool years.
- B) She is in her school years.
- C) She is in late adolescence.
- D) She is an emerging adult.
Answer: BPage Ref: 282Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.120) Heritability evidence suggests that individual differences in working-memory capacity and attentional processing
- A) are seldom found within a given culture.
- B) cannot be determined with any degree of reliability.
- C) are influenced by substantial genetic contributions.
- D) rely almost exclusively on external or environmental factors.
Answer: CPage Ref: 282Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.121) __________ optimal development of executive components and their eventual synthesis into planning, flexible strategic thinking, and self-regulation.
- A) Reorganization of cognitive schemes is required for
- B) Supportive parenting and educational experiences are essential for
- C) A transition from concrete to abstract thinking is necessary for
- D) A focus on visual tracking and problem solving is the key to
Answer: BPage Ref: 282Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.122) Case’s neo-Piagetian theory attributes movement from one stage to the next to increases in the efficiency with which children use their limited
- B) cognitive self-regulation.
- C) working-memory capacity.
- D) phonological awareness.
Answer: CPage Ref: 283Skill: RememberObjective: 7.223) According to Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, the early childhood stage involves
- A) internal representations of events and actions.
- B) complex transformations of representations.
- C) simple transformations of representations.
- D) sensory input and physical actions.
Answer: APage Ref: 283Skill: RememberObjective: 7.224) According to Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, __________ relaxes working memory for other activities.
- A) cognitive self-regulation
- B) synaptic pruning
- C) accommodation
- D) automization of schemes
Answer: DPage Ref: 283Skill: RememberObjective: 7.225) According to Case, __________ impose(s) a systemwide ceiling on cognitive development.
- A) plasticity
- B) biology
- C) environmental influences
- D) children’s mental strategies
Answer: BPage Ref: 283Skill: RememberObjective: 7.226) Children generate central conceptual structures when schemes
- A) predominate over assimilation.
- B) are consolidated into an improved representational form.
- C) are subject to disequilibration.
- D) are separated into distinct categories.
Answer: BPage Ref: 283Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.227) According to Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, if Maribelle has begun to tell coherent stories with a main plot and several subplots, she is most likely age
- A) 4 to 6.
- B) 7 to 9.
- C) 9 to 11.
- D) 12 to 14.
Answer: CPage Ref: 283Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.228) Five-year-old Louis can conserve liquid, but not volume. According to Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, one explanation for Louis’s differential success would be that
- A) he has more experience manipulating volume than he does manipulating liquid.
- B) he lives in a culture that does not encourage mastery of conservation.
- C) the processing demands of a conservation-of-volume task are greater than those of a conservation-of-liquid task.
- D) familiar glasses were used in the liquid problem, whereas less familiar glasses were used in the volume problem.
Answer: CPage Ref: 283–284Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.229) Siegler’s model of strategy applies a(n) __________ perspective to children’s cognition.
- A) Piagetian
- B) evolutionary
- C) psychoanalytic
- D) behaviorist
Answer: BPage Ref: 284Skill: RememberObjective: 7.230) When solving basic addition problems, 5-year-old Sid sometimes counts on his fingers, sometimes starts with the lowest digit, or sometimes starts with the highest digit. According to Siegler’s model of strategy choice,
- A) Sid has problems with cognitive self-regulation.
- B) Sid has a control deficiency.
- C) Sid is not yet skilled at cognitive inhibition.
- D) Sid’s variability in strategy use is adaptive.
Answer: DPage Ref: 284–286Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.231) According to Siegler’s model of strategy choice,
- A) before the age of 9 or 10, children fail to use even basic strategies efficiently.
- B) speed does not play a central role in children’s decisions about strategy use.
- C) children often discover faster, more accurate strategies by using more time-consuming techniques.
- D) children consistently use new, more adaptive strategies as soon as they discover them.
Answer: CPage Ref: 284Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.232) According to Siegler’s model of strategy choice, if Manuel is given the same problems over a short time interval, he may, in fact,
- A) show a maladaptive variation in strategy use.
- B) be unable to recognize successful strategies.
- C) regress from more advanced to less advanced approaches.
- D) always use the most adaptive strategy to solve a problem.
Answer: CPage Ref: 284Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.233) According to Goldin-Meadow, children who produce speech–gesture mismatches on addition-based equivalence problems
- A) are in a transitional state.
- B) have a learning disorder in math computation.
- C) employ a trial-and-error approach to problem solving.
- D) are less likely to benefit from teaching than children who produce speech–gesture matches.
Answer: APage Ref: 285 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Speech–Gesture Mismatches: Using the Hand to Read the MindSkill: RememberObjective: 7.234) Research on addition- and multiplication-based equivalence problems shows that correct strategies appear first in __________ and only later in __________.
- A) school settings; everyday settings
- B) private speech; nonverbal mental activities
- C) cognitive-processing tasks; problem-solving skills
- D) gesture; speech
Answer: DPage Ref: 285 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Speech–Gesture Mismatches: Using the Hand to Read the MindSkill: RememberObjective: 7.235) Siegler’s model of strategy choice
- A) reveals that most children follow one approach to problem solving.
- B) fails to explain diversity and continuous change in children’s thinking.
- C) primarily utilizes cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
- D) captures periods of high variability in children’s strategy use.
Answer: APage Ref: 286Skill: RememberObjective: 7.236) Which of the following statements is true regarding sustained attention?
- A) A greater slowing of heart rate while focused on complex stimuli is a physiological indicator of sustained attention.
- B) Children are not capable of intentional, goal-directed sustained attention until they enter elementary school.
- C) Improved language development is responsible for gains in sustained attention.
- D) Environmental factors have minimal impact on the development of sustained attention.
Answer: APage Ref: 286Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.337) Findings show that selective attention improves sharply between ages __________, with gains continuing into adulthood.
- A) 2 and 4
- B) 5 and 7
- C) 6 and 10
- D) 11 and 15
Answer: CPage Ref: 287Skill: RememberObjective: 7.338) Children who are skilled at cognitive inhibition have the ability to
- A) produce a variety of strategies when faced with a novel task.
- B) control internal and external distracting stimuli.
- C) continuously monitor progress toward a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
- D) think out a sequence of acts and allocate attention accordingly to reach a goal.
Answer: BPage Ref: 287Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.339) The children in Ramon’s preschool class perform considerably better in situations in which they must follow some commands but not others, as in the game “Simon Says.” This is an example of
- A) analytical problem solving.
- B) deficiencies in frontal lobe functioning.
- C) age-related gains in inhibition.
- D) Sigeler’s model of strategy choice.
Answer: CPage Ref: 288Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.340) Mora is in kindergarten and has a control deficiency, which means that she
- A) fails to use previously learned mental strategies.
- B) is unable to consistently execute strategies effectively.
- C) cannot focus her attention long enough to find appropriate strategies.
- D) uses inappropriate mental strategies in all situations.
Answer: BPage Ref: 288Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.341) Seven-year-old Liz executes attentional strategies consistently, but her performance does not improve. This is an example of a __________ deficiency.
- A) utilization
- B) control
- C) production
- D) distraction
Answer: APage Ref: 289Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.342) Which of the following three deficiencies precede children’s effective strategy use in attentional and memory tasks?
- A) minimal, location, and relevance deficiencies
- B) optimization, process, and categorization deficiencies
- C) relevant, selective, and object deficiencies
- D) production, control, and utilization deficiencies
Answer: DPage Ref: 288–289Skill: RememberObjective: 7.343) When researchers showed 2-month-olds a series of pictures that alternated in a predictable left–right sequence, the babies learned to shift their focus to the location of the next stimulus before it appeared. These findings indicate that the seeds of __________ are present in infancy.
- A) metacognition
- B) rehearsal
- C) planning
- D) semantic memory
Answer: CPage Ref: 289Skill: RememberObjective: 7.344) Eight-year-old Romeo went with his father to buy some fruit. His father kept walking up and down each aisle. Romeo took his father’s hand and steered him on a shorter route to get to the produce aisle. Romeo was effectively using
Answer: APage Ref: 290Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.345) Which of the following statements is true about young children and planning?
- A) Even when young children do plan, they succeed only on tasks with a small number of steps.
- B) Planning places heavy demands on long-term memory skills.
- C) Children’s working memory is better equipped to monitor the success of each step if they have not encountered the problem before.
- D) By age 3, children are able to plan effectively.
Answer: APage Ref: 290Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.346) Research on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that
- A) girls are diagnosed with ADHD more frequently than boys.
- B) all children with ADHD are hyperactive.
- C) ADHD often does not become evident until adolescence or early adulthood.
- D) executive-function deficiencies underlie ADHD symptoms.
Answer: DPage Ref: 290 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderSkill: UnderstandObjective: 7.347) A common theme characterizing the diverse symptoms of ADHD is
- A) intense focus to detail.
- B) an impaired capacity to inhibit action in favor of thought.
- C) a disorganized home life.
- D) nonstop loud talking.
Answer: BPage Ref: 290 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderSkill: RememberObjective: 7.348) Which of the following is a limitation of using stimulant medication to treat ADHD?
- A) These drugs cause a number of dangerous medical conditions.
- B) Prolonged use results in extreme hyperactivity.
- C) Drugs cannot teach children to compensate for inattention and impulsivity.
- D) Children rapidly build a tolerance to these drugs.
Answer: CPage Ref: 291 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderSkill: UnderstandObjective: 7.349) Eight-year-old Akemi needs to memorize names of the continents and the oceans. She makes a list and keeps repeating the information to herself. Akemi is using the strategy of
Answer: DPage Ref: 292Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.450) Younger children are more likely than older children to organize by
- A) sorting items alphabetically.
- B) grouping items by their everyday association.
- C) placing items into taxonomic categories.
- D) repeating an entire list of items backwards.
Answer: BPage Ref: 292Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.451) Studies of memory strategy use by younger children show that
- A) control and utilization deficiencies disappear once they enter elementary school.
- B) once a strategy is learned, they tend to use it consistently.
- C) their rehearsal strategies are especially clear and organized at an early age.
- D) their use of multiple memory strategies has little impact on performance.
Answer: DPage Ref: 293Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.452) To learn the words “chef,” “pasta,” and “sauce,” 12-year-old Harris imagines himself wearing a chef’s hat and pouring a special sauce over a plate of pasta. Which of the following memory strategies is Harris using?
- A) rehearsal
- B) elaboration
- C) organization
- D) utilization
Answer: BPage Ref: 293Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.453) Which of the following types of media multitasking do U.S. teenagers report engaging in most frequently?
- A) watching television while listening to music and doing homework
- B) listening to music while doing homework
- C) talking on the phone while surfing the Internet
- D) text-messaging while doing homework
Answer: BPage Ref: 293 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Media Multitasking Disrupts LearningSkill: RememberObjective: 7.454) Frequent media multitaskers, who are accustomed to continuously shifting their attention between tasks,
- A) experience greater activity in the hippocampus, which plays a vital role in explicit memory.
- B) experience no difficulty applying their learning to new problems.
- C) have a harder time filtering out irrelevant stimuli when they are not multitasking.
- D) have an easier time ignoring irrelevant stimuli when they are not multitasking.
Answer: CPage Ref: 293 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Media Multitasking Disrupts LearningSkill: UnderstandObjective: 7.455) Research shows that __________ strongly motivate(s) use of memory strategies.
- A) interactions between peers and siblings
- B) parental pressure to excel in school
- C) experience with Piagetian tasks
- D) tasks requiring children to remember isolated bits of information
Answer: DPage Ref: 294Skill: RememberObjective: 7.456) Researchers believe that Guatemalan Mayan children were better able to remember the placement of 40 familiar objects in a play scene than their U.S. agemates because Mayan children
- A) were more adept at relying on techniques such as spatial location and arrangement of objects.
- B) have better memory skills in practical, everyday situations.
- C) have better long-term memory.
- D) applied elaboration more effectively.
Answer: APage Ref: 294Skill: RememberObjective: 7.457) Cross-cultural research on memory reveals that
- A) children in non-Western cultures who have no formal schooling benefit greatly from instruction in memory strategies.
- B) children who have no formal schooling do as well on list memory tasks as formally educated children.
- C) the development of memory strategies is partly a product of task demands and cultural circumstances.
- D) American children easily refrain from rehearsing object names when it is more effective to keep track of spatial relations.
Answer: CPage Ref: 294Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.458) Stimulus recognition
- A) depends on a deliberate search of long-term memory.
- B) is the simplest form of retrieval.
- C) requires the generation of a mental representation of an absent stimulus.
- D) does not emerge until the preschool years.
Answer: BPage Ref: 294Skill: RememberObjective: 7.459) Because __________ appears early and develops rapidly, it is probably a fairly automatic process.
- A) rehearsal
- B) recovery
- C) recognition
- D) elaboration
Answer: CPage Ref: 294Skill: RememberObjective: 7.460) Recall is more difficult than recognition because it
- A) involves noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced.
- B) is a fairly automatic process.
- C) involves remembering a stimulus that is absent.
- D) does not involve a deliberate search of long-term memory.
Answer: CPage Ref: 294Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.461) At his class reunion, Cesar recognizes a number of familiar faces, but he has trouble remembering their names. This is because __________ is easier than __________.
- A) recognition; recall
- B) recall; reconstruction
- C) recognition; reconstruction
- D) reconstruction; recall
Answer: APage Ref: 294Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.462) Improvement in recall over the preschool years is strongly associated with
- A) mastery of conservation.
- B) understanding of false belief.
- C) language development.
- D) advanced perspective-taking skills.
Answer: CPage Ref: 295Skill: RememberObjective: 7.463) Constructive processing takes place during
- A) initial encoding only.
- B) the retrieval phase only.
- C) short-term storage only.
- D) any phase of information processing.
Answer: DPage Ref: 295Skill: RememberObjective: 7.464) When young children recall and retell a story, they often recall certain important features while forgetting unimportant ones, reorder the sequence of events in more logical fashion, and even include new information that fits with a passage’s meaning. This demonstrates that young children
- A) have poor metacognitive skills.
- B) reconstruct information based on their everyday experiences.
- C) often fail to employ appropriate memory strategies.
- D) are not yet adept at cognitive self-regulation.
Answer: BPage Ref: 295Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.465) As children construct and reconstruct information,
- A) they rarely account for new information.
- B) the information loses coherency.
- C) they often “delete” important retrieval cues in their memory.
- D) the information becomes more coherent and memorable.
Answer: DPage Ref: 295–296Skill: RememberObjective: 7.466) According to fuzzy-trace theory, __________ preserve(s) essential meaning without details, whereas __________ memory contains precise details.
- A) scripts; autobiographical
- B) recognition memory; recall
- C) semantic memory; episodic
- D) gists; verbatim
Answer: DPage Ref: 296Skill: RememberObjective: 7.467) According to fuzzy-trace theory, we have a bias toward gist memory compared to literal versions because it
- A) interferes with cognitive processing.
- B) decays more rapidly.
- C) requires less space in working memory.
- D) is less likely to undergo constructive processing.
Answer: CPage Ref: 296Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.468) Kate tells Kim that she has six fish, four hamsters, and two dogs. Later, when asked if Kate has more fish or more dogs, Kim does not remember the exact numbers, but is able to answer correctly because she relied on her __________ memory.
- A) gist
- B) numerical
- C) verbatim
- D) recognition
Answer: APage Ref: 296Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.469) Which of the following statements is true regarding fuzzy-trace theory?
- A) Gist memories decay more rapidly than verbatim memories.
- B) Gist memory requires more mental effort than verbatim memory.
- C) Children under the age of 5 show little ability to answer verbatim-dependent questions.
- D) School-aged children are better able than preschoolers at answering gist-dependent questions.
Answer: DPage Ref: 296Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.470) Research shows that __________ heighten(s) the chances of reporting false items consistent with the fuzzy meaning of an experience.
- A) autobiographical narratives
- B) theory of mind
- C) gists
- D) infantile amnesia
Answer: CPage Ref: 296Skill: RememberObjective: 7.471) When Chi compared the performance of child chess experts and adult chess novices on a task involving memory for the layout of chess pieces on a chessboard, she found that the children
- A) outperformed the adults because the children were very bright and had exceptional memories.
- B) performed as well as the adults, suggesting that knowledge can compensate for memory limitations.
- C) performed as well as the adults when there were fewer than eight pieces on the chessboard.
- D) outperformed the adults because their knowledge base contributed to memory performance.
Answer: DPage Ref: 297Skill: RememberObjective: 7.472) Schneider’s and Bjorklund’s study of children soccer experts versus soccer novices demonstrated that compared to novices, expert children are more likely to
- A) rely on gist rather than verbatim memories.
- B) have better organized lists during recall.
- C) rehearse the test items during encoding.
- D) engage in reconstructive processing during storage.
Answer: BPage Ref: 297Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.473) High levels of organization at retrieval suggest that very knowledgeable children’s recall of items in their area of expertise is
- A) based largely on verbatim memory.
- C) the result of their exceptional metacognitive skills.
- D) based largely on gist memory.
Answer: BPage Ref: 297Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.474) __________ knowledge contributes vitally to the development of __________ memory, or recollections of personally experienced events that occurred at a specific time and place.
- A) Long-term; short-term
- B) Autobiographical; semantic
- C) Semantic; episodic
- D) Gist; verbatim
Answer: CPage Ref: 297Skill: RememberObjective: 7.575) When asked to tell what happens at preschool, Hope says, “You have circle time, eat a snack, take a nap, and then play outside.” This is an example of
- A) verbatim memory.
- B) biographical retrieval.
- C) a script.
- D) semantic knowledge.
Answer: CPage Ref: 298Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.576) According to research on scripts, both children and adults have difficulty recalling specific instances of __________ events.
- A) one-time
- B) repeated
- C) distinctive
- D) unfamiliar
Answer: BPage Ref: 298Skill: RememberObjective: 7.577) Once formed, scripts can
- A) hinder memory for events that are highly distinctive.
- B) facilitate recall of single occurrences of repeated events.
- C) prevent forgetting of one-time events.
- D) be used to predict what will happen on future similar occasions.
Answer: DPage Ref: 298Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.578) Autobiographical memory refers to representations of
- A) what occurs generally and the specific time frame in which it occurs.
- B) fuzzy information that preserves essential content without specific details.
- C) one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning.
- D) the vast, intricately organized knowledge system in long-term memory.
Answer: CPage Ref: 298Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.579) Aaron’s memory of his family’s vacation to Yellowstone National Park resides in his __________ memory.
- A) semantic
- B) eyewitness
- C) short-term
- D) autobiographical
Answer: DPage Ref: 298Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.580) To create autobiographical memories that persist for a lifetime, children must
- A) have a well-developed language system and a repertoire of memory strategies.
- B) have a clear self-image and learn to structure significant memories in narrative form.
- C) be attentive to routines and embed novel events into their long-term memory of those routines.
- D) possess metacognitive awareness and an elaborative style of talking about experiences.
Answer: BPage Ref: 298Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.581) Research on building memory suggests that
- A) children learn how to structure personally significant memories in narrative form by conversing about them with adults.
- B) fuzzy traces are more likely than verbatim memories to be forgotten.
- C) children begin to talk about the past with others sometime during their third year.
- D) scripts often clutter long-term memory with unimportant information.
Answer: APage Ref: 298Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.582) After returning from a cousin’s birthday party, Malik asks his 4-year-old son, “What was the first thing you did at the party?” “Why didn’t Jarrod open his presents before you ate cake?” “I thought the clown was really funny. What did you think?” Malik is using a(n) __________ narrative style.
- A) repetitive
- B) utilization
- C) elaborative
- D) emergent
Answer: CPage Ref: 299Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.583) Fatima wants her 3-year-old son Jamal to tell his grandfather about his recent trip to the beach. To elicit his recall, Fatima asks, “What did we do at the beach?” “What did you play with?” “What did we do there?” This represents a(n) __________ narrative style.
- A) deliberative
- B) repetitive
- C) reconstructive
- D) elaborative
Answer: BPage Ref: 299Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.584) Which of the following statements is supported by research on memory?
- A) Boys tend to produce better organized and more complex personal memories than girls.
- B) Preschoolers who experience the repetitive style produce more organized and detailed personal stories than preschoolers who experience the elaborative style.
- C) Preschoolers who experience the elaborative style recall more information about past events than preschoolers who experience the repetitive style.
- D) Asian adults report their first memory, on average, earlier than Western adults.
Answer: CPage Ref: 299Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.585) Research on infantile amnesia suggests that events that happened during the first few years of life are not remembered because
- A) most adults repress their early memories.
- B) memories are not formed during this time period.
- C) early memories erode with the passage of time.
- D) early nonverbal memories cannot be translated into language.
Answer: DPage Ref: 301 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Infantile AmnesiaSkill: UnderstandObjective: 7.686) Studies of infantile amnesia suggest that the advent of __________ contributes to the end of infantile amnesia.
- A) implicit memory
- B) automization
- C) a clear self-image
- D) phonological awareness
Answer: CPage Ref: 301 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Infantile AmnesiaSkill: RememberObjective: 7.687) Research on eyewitness memory suggests that younger children are prone to memory errors because they
- A) are more likely than older children to disagree with a yes-or-no question.
- B) tend to report gist rather than verbatim information about their experiences.
- C) have trouble recalling highly stressful events.
- D) are especially poor at source-monitoring.
Answer: DPage Ref: 300Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.688) Six-year-old Nafiz is giving testimony about domestic violence he witnessed. Which of the following techniques is most likely to result in response consistency and accuracy in his testimony?
- A) The prosecutor interrupts Nafiz’s denials about certain events.
- B) The prosecutor suggests incorrect “facts” about what actually occurred.
- C) The prosecutor uses a nonconfrontational questioning style.
- D) The prosecutor reinforces Nafiz for giving the desired answers.
Answer: CPage Ref: 300Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.689) Which of the following statements or questions is most likely to be used by a legal professional to increase children’s accurate reporting?
- A) “You’re doing great.”
- B) “She took your clothes off, didn’t she?”
- C) “You said there was a man. Was he tall and scary looking?”
- D) “Tell me what happened.”
Answer: DPage Ref: 302Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.690) Research on children’s eyewitness testimony shows that
- A) most preschoolers are unable to disclose forensically relevant details without the use of leading questions.
- B) a warm, supportive interview tone fosters accurate recall.
- C) preschoolers almost always provide false information in their testimonies.
- D) children who go to “court school” are at high risk for being misled by a biased interviewer.
Answer: BPage Ref: 302Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.691) Most investigations into theory of mind address children’s ability to
- A) detect their own and other people’s perceptions, feelings, desires, and beliefs.
- B) keep track of the sources of information in memory.
- C) monitor progress toward a goal and redirect unsuccessful efforts.
- D) use mnemonic strategies on tests of memory.
Answer: APage Ref: 303Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.792) Sasha says, “I better put my homework in my backpack so that I don’t forget to take it in the morning.” This demonstrates the successful application of Sasha’s
- A) short-term memory.
- B) cognitive inhibition.
- C) metacognitive knowledge.
- D) cognitive self-regulation.
Answer: CPage Ref: 303Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.793) Theory of mind research indicates that by age 3, children realize that
- A) doing well on a task depends on focusing attention.
- B) a person reading a book or looking at pictures is thinking.
- C) thinking takes place inside their heads.
- D) if you “know” something you are more certain than if you “guessed.”
Answer: CPage Ref: 303Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.794) Which of the following statements is true about preschoolers?
- A) They are often confused by subtle distinctions between mental states, such as “know” and “forget.”
- B) They believe their mental activity is busiest while they wait, look at pictures, listen to stories, or read books.
- C) They understand that when a person shows no obvious cues that he or she is thinking, mental activity is still occurring.
- D) They focus on the process of thinking rather than on the outcomes.
Answer: APage Ref: 303Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.795) Research has shown that most preschoolers
- A) do not use the words “think,” “remember,” or “pretend.”
- B) have a complete grasp of cognitive processes.
- C) believe that an event can be known without being directly observed.
- D) often insist that they have always known information they just learned.
Answer: DPage Ref: 303Skill: RememberObjective: 7.796) By age 10, most children
- A) reach a broad understanding and awareness of the ways that knowledge is acquired.
- B) are unable to consistently make mental inferences.
- C) distinguish mental activities on the basis of certainty of knowledge.
- D) grasp the interrelatedness of cognitive processes.
Answer: CPage Ref: 303Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.797) Preschoolers view the mind as a(n)
- A) symbol-manipulating system through which information from the environment flows.
- B) tool for reconstructing isolated bits of information.
- C) extension of their parents’ mind.
- D) passive container of information.
Answer: DPage Ref: 304Skill: RememberObjective: 7.798) Which of the following statements is true regarding metacognitive knowledge?
- A) Children younger than age 6 pay attention to the process of thinking rather than the outcomes of thought.
- B) Children use private speech to help them acquire academic skills.
- C) Children typically rate “good” reasoning as based on weighing of possibilities and gathering of evidence.
- D) Children who use private speech during difficult tasks rarely execute effective mental strategies.
Answer: CPage Ref: 304Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.799) Nine-year-old Kael has difficulty putting what he knows about thinking into action because he is not yet proficient at
- B) cognitive self-regulation.
- C) constructing mental inferences.
- D) constructing a theory of mind.
Answer: BPage Ref: 304Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.7100) Ten-year-old Martine is reading a story. When she gets to a difficult section, she does not slow down. Martine has not yet mastered
- A) cognitive self-regulation.
- B) theory of mind.
- D) cognitive inhibition.
Answer: APage Ref: 304Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.7101) Effective self-regulatory skills
- A) are weakly correlated with academic success.
- B) sometimes interfere with children’s task performance.
- C) foster a sense of academic self-efficacy.
- D) develop rapidly during the preschool years.
Answer: CPage Ref: 305Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.7102) Which of the following strategies promotes children’s cognitive self-regulation?
- A) Encourage children to check progress toward their learning goals through self-monitoring.
- B) Administer a mental test and show children their scores.
- C) Assign age-appropriate tasks to children and then compare their performance to their agemates’ performance.
- D) Parents and teachers cannot foster self-regulation; children must attain this independently.
Answer: DPage Ref: 305Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.7103) Autobiographical memory emerges, episodic memory becomes more elaborate, and familiar events are remembered in scripts at __________ years.
- A) 2 to 5
- B) 4 to 7
- C) 6 to 10
- D) 11 to 13
Answer: APage Ref: 306Skill: RememberObjective: 7.7104) Between the ages of 6 and 10, children
- A) view the mind as a passive container of information.
- B) view the mind as an active constructive agent.
- C) no longer demonstrate control and utilization deficiencies.
- D) execute most memory strategies as effectively as adolescents and adults.
Answer: BPage Ref: 306Skill: RememberObjective: 7.7105) Kendrie’s preschool class changes the calendar at the beginning of class every day and looks at words that tell the month and day. This activity contributes to Kendrie’s
- B) emergent literacy.
- C) fuzzy-trace theory.
- D) autobiographical memory.
Answer: BPage Ref: 307Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.8106) Emergent literacy refers to
- A) the automatic retrieval of word meanings in long-term memory during reading and writing tasks.
- B) children’s active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences.
- C) a method of reading instruction that parallels children’s natural language learning.
- D) an approach to beginning reading instruction that emphasizes phonics.
Answer: BPage Ref: 307Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8107) Studies of literacy development show that
- A) phonological awareness is a strong predictor of emergent literacy knowledge.
- B) even young preschoolers are able to distinguish drawing from writing.
- C) the best method to teach children to read is the phonics approach.
- D) children should learn to read independently.
Answer: APage Ref: 308Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8108) On average, a preschooler from a low-income family is read to for a total of _____ hours during early childhood, a middle-income child for _____ hours.
- A) 25; 1,000
- B) 100; 500
- C) 500; 2,500
- D) 1,000; 10,000
Answer: APage Ref: 308Skill: RememberObjective: 7.8109) When adults ask children open-ended questions about story events, explain the meaning of words, and point out features of point, they are engaging in
- A) literacy modeling.
- B) phonological awareness.
- C) emergent literacy.
- D) interactive reading.
Answer: DPage Ref: 309Skill: RememberObjective: 7.8110) Educators who advocate a whole-language approach to reading argue that
- A) reading instruction should focus on phonics.
- B) from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form.
- C) children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given reading material.
- D) children should learn to write before beginning to read.
Answer: BPage Ref: 309Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8111) Educators who advocate a phonics approach to reading argue that
- A) children should be coached on the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given complex reading material.
- B) from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form.
- C) reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural-language learning.
- D) as long as reading is kept whole and meaningful, children will be motivated to discover the specific skills they need.
Answer: APage Ref: 309–310Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8112) Studies of early reading show that
- A) a whole-language approach is the best method to teach reading.
- B) children learn beginning reading best with a basic-skills approach.
- C) kindergartners benefit from an emphasis on phonics, with a gradual emphasis on whole language.
- D) too much emphasis on basic skills may cause children to lose sight of the goal of reading.
Answer: DPage Ref: 310Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8113) Which of the following statements is supported by research on reading?
- A) Around age 7 or 8, a major shift occurs from “reading to learn” to “learning to read.”
- B) Children who read aloud fluently without registering meaning know little about effective reading strategies.
- C) Children who receive whole-language instruction are more accurate spellers than children who are taught phonics only.
- D) When reading is kept meaningful, children are motivated to participate in classroom discussions.
Answer: BPage Ref: 310Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8114) Which of the following statements is supported by research on mathematics?
- A) Older preschoolers establish an accurate one-to-one correspondence between number words and the items they represent.
- B) The principle of cardinality is attained before the principle of ordinality.
- C) A beginning grasp of ordinality is displayed between 14 and 16 months of age.
- D) Most 1-year-olds grasp the principle of cardinality.
Answer: CPage Ref: 310Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8115) When children grasp the principle of cardinality, they understand that
- A) attainment serves as the basis for more complex understandings.
- B) the last word in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set.
- C) adding and subtracting the same number leaves the original quantity unchanged.
- D) the most efficient addition strategy is to start with the highest digit and count on.
Answer: BPage Ref: 311Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8116) Studies of mathematical reasoning indicate that
- A) the principle of cardinality develops universally in many cultures around the world.
- B) exposure to arithmetic in everyday activities does not speed up children’s understanding of numerical concepts.
- C) only children who have been formally schooled grasp the concept of cardinality.
- D) by 6 months of age, infants demonstrate a beginning understanding of cardinality.
Answer: APage Ref: 311Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8117) In learning basic math, poorly performing students
- A) use drill in computing rather than “number sense.”
- B) are often unable to learn how to compute numbers by rote.
- C) try to retrieve answers from memory too soon.
- D) use simplistic techniques.
Answer: CPage Ref: 311Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8118) Yolanda has learned how to solve math problems by rote, which means she
- A) seldom makes errors on new problems.
- B) understands why certain strategies are essential for solid mastery of basic math.
- C) often invents successful strategies to solve new problems.
- D) cannot apply the procedure to new problems.
Answer: DPage Ref: 312Skill: ApplyObjective: 7.8119) In a German study, the more teachers emphasized __________, the more children gained in math achievement from second to third grade.
- A) strategy experimentation
- B) conceptual knowledge
- C) computational drills
- D) numerical understanding
Answer: BPage Ref: 312Skill: RememberObjective: 7.8120) Compared with the United States, math lessons in Asian classrooms
- A) devote less time to exploring math concepts and strategies and more to drill and repetition.
- B) devote more time to exploring math concepts and strategies and less to drill and repetition.
- C) are taught over and over again so that all students master the content.
- D) are geared more toward girls than boys, since girls need extra support to master the content.
Answer: BPage Ref: 313Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8121) Kuhn’s research suggests that young children often have difficulties with scientific reasoning because they
- A) rely on induction.
- B) pit evidence against their theories.
- C) rely on deduction.
- D) blend theory with evidence.
Answer: DPage Ref: 313Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.8122) A major strength of the information-processing approach is
- A) its explicitness and precision in breaking down complex cognitive activities into their components.
- B) that it offers a comprehensive theory of cognitive development.
- C) its exclusive focus on linear and logical aspects of cognition.
- D) its emphasis on the biological bases of cognitive development.
Answer: APage Ref: 314Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.9123) The principal limitation of the information-processing perspective is that
- A) it contradicts Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
- B) its components are difficult to reassemble into a broad, comprehensive theory of development.
- C) it provides an imprecise account of the mechanisms of cognitive development.
- D) it does not offer applications for teaching techniques that advance children’s thinking.
Answer: BPage Ref: 315Skill: UnderstandObjective: 7.9ESSAY124) The store model suggests that several aspects of the cognitive system improve with age. What are these aspects, and what improvements do they undergo?Answer: Short-term and working-memory spans increase steadily with age—on working-memory tasks, from two to about four to five items from early childhood to early adulthood. Still, individual differences are evident at all ages, and they are of particular concern because working-memory capacity predicts intelligence test scores and academic achievement in diverse subjects in middle childhood and adolescence. Developmental increases in working-memory capacity in part reflect gains in processing speed. Efficient processing releases working-memory resources to support storage of information. The faster children can repeat to-be-learned information either out loud or silently to themselves, the larger their memory spans. Increased processing speed enables older children and adults to scan information more quickly, to transform it more rapidly, and therefore to hold more information in working memory at once. Efficient cognitive processing influences academic achievement indirectly—by augmenting working-memory resources and, thus, supporting many complex cognitive activities.The central executive is the overall supervisor of the cognitive system, managing its activities to ensure that we attain our goals. Early childhood is a vital time for laying the foundations of executive function: Preschoolers make strides in focusing attention, inhibiting inappropriate responses, and thinking flexibly—developments that parallel rapid synapse formation followed by synaptic pruning in the prefrontal cortex. During the school years—a time of continued synaptic pruning and maturing of the prefrontal cortex—executive function undergoes its most energetic period of development. Children handle increasingly difficult tasks that require the integration of working memory, inhibition, planning, flexible use of strategies, and self-monitoring and self-correction of behavior. And executive function improves further in adolescence, when the prefrontal cortex attains an adult level of synapses.Page Ref: 280–282125) Describe and evaluate Siegler’s model of strategy choice.Answer: Siegler’s model of strategy choice uses an evolutionary metaphor—“natural selection”—to help us understand cognitive change. When given challenging problems, children generate a variety of strategies, testing the usefulness of each. With experience, some strategies are selected; they become more frequent and “survive.” Others become less frequent and “die off.” Like the evolution of physical traits, children’s mental strategies display variation and selection, yielding adaptive problem-solving techniques—ones best suited to solving the problems at hand.To study children’s strategy use, Siegler used the microgenetic research design, presenting children with many problems over an extended time period. He found that children experiment with diverse strategies on many types of problems—basic math facts, numerical estimation, conservation, memory for lists of items, reading first words, telling time, spelling, and even tic-tac-toe.Siegler found that strategy use for basic math facts—and many other types of problems—follows an overlapping-waves pattern. Performance tends to progress from a single incorrect approach, to a highly variable state in which children try different strategies, to use of a more advanced procedure.Siegler’s model reveals that no child thinks in just one way, even on a single task. A child given the same problem on two occasions often uses different approaches. Strategy variability is vital for devising new, more adaptive ways of thinking, which “evolve” through extensive experience with solving problems.Page Ref: 284–286126) Describe how memory strategies develop, and explain how cultural circumstances influence memory performance.Answer: As attention improves, so do memory strategies—deliberate mental operations we use to increase the likelihood of retaining information in working memory and transferring it to our long-term knowledge base. During the first two years, memory for objects, people, and events—as assessed in operant conditioning, habituation, and deferred-imitation studies—undergoes dramatic gains. With age, babies remember more information over longer periods. But relative to children and adults, infants and toddlers engage in little effortful, strategic memorizing. For the most part, they remember unintentionally, as part of their ongoing activities. And when memory strategies emerge in early childhood, they are not very successful at first. Not until middle childhood do these executive techniques take a giant leap forward.Tasks that require children to remember isolated bits of information, which are common in school, strongly motivate use of memory strategies. In fact, Western children get so much practice with this type of learning that they do not refine techniques that rely on cues available in everyday life, such as spatial location and arrangement of objects. For example, Guatemalan Mayan 9-year-olds do slightly better than their U.S. agemates when told to remember the placement of 40 familiar objects in a play scene. U.S. children often rehearse object names when it would be more effective to keep track of spatial relations. The development of memory strategies, then, is not just a matter of a more competent information-processing system. It is also a product of task demands and cultural circumstances.Page Ref: 292–294127) Describe how semantic knowledge and the use of memory strategies support one another.Answer: Our vast, taxonomically organized and hierarchically structured general knowledge system, consisting of concepts, language meanings, facts, and rules, is often referred to as semantic memory. Children’s expanding knowledge promotes improved memory by making new, related information more meaningful so that it is easier to store and retrieve. Greater organization at retrieval suggests that highly knowledgeable children apply memory strategies in their area of expertise with little or no effort—by rapidly associating new items with the large number they already know. Such automatic recall lets experts devote more working-memory resources to using recalled information to reason and solve problems.Knowledge, though powerfully influential, is not the only important factor in children’s strategic memory processing. Children who are expert in an area are usually highly motivated as well. Faced with new information, they ask themselves, “What can I do to learn this more effectively?” As a result, they not only acquire knowledge more quickly but also actively use what they know to add more. In contrast, academically unsuccessful children fail to ask how previously stored information can clarify new information. This, in turn, interferes with the development of a broad knowledge base.Page Ref: 296–297128) What are scripts, and how do they influence memory and understanding in everyday life?Answer: Scripts are general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. Scripts are a special form of reconstructive memory. When we experience repeated events, we fuse them into the same script representation. Then any specific instance of a scripted experience becomes difficult to recall. Scripts help prevent long-term memory from being cluttered with unimportant information.Scripts help children (and adults) organize and interpret everyday experiences. Once formed, they can be used to predict what will happen on similar occasions in the future. Children rely on scripts to assist recall when listening to and telling stories. They also act out scripts in make-believe play. And scripts support children’s earliest efforts at planning as they represent sequences of actions that lead to desired goals. Some researchers believe that the general event structures of scripts provide a foundation for organizing memory for unique events.Page Ref: 298129) How can adults influence children’s autobiographical narratives?Answer: Adults use two styles to elicit children’s autobiographical narratives. In the elaborative style, they follow the child’s lead, discussing topics of interest to the child, asking varied questions, adding information to the child’s statements, and volunteering their own recollections and evaluations of events. In contrast, adults who use the repetitive style keep repeating the same questions regardless of the child’s interest, providing little additional information. Preschoolers who experience the elaborative style recall more information about past events, and they also produce more organized and detailed personal stories when followed up 1 to 2 years later.As children talk with adults about the past, they not only expand their autobiographical recollections but also create a shared history that strengthens close relationships and self-understanding. In line with these ideas, parents and preschoolers with secure attachment bonds engage in more elaborate reminiscing than those with insecure bonds, who generally limit themselves to the repetitive style. And children of elaborative-style parents describe themselves in clearer, more consistent ways.Page Ref: 299130) Explain how the development of information processing affects children’s mastery of academic skills.Answer: Reading makes use of many skills at once, taxing all aspects of our information-processing system. Becoming a proficient reader is a complex process that begins in the preschool years. Children’s active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences are called emergent literacy.The more informal literacy experiences preschoolers have, the better their language and emergent literacy development and their later reading skills. Gains in processing speed foster school-age children’s rapid conversion of visual symbols into sounds.Mathematical reasoning, like reading, builds on informally acquired knowledge. Between 14 and 16 months, toddlers display a beginning grasp of ordinality, or order relationships between quantities. Sometime in the third year, children begin to count, followed quickly by a grasp of cardinality—that the last word in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set. Over the early elementary school years, children acquire basic math facts through a combination of frequent practice, reasoning about number concepts, and teaching that conveys effective strategies.The capacity to reason like a scientist improves with age, but young participants often discount obviously causal variables, ignore evidence conflicting with their own initial judgments, and distort evidence in ways consistent with their theory. Children—instead of viewing evidence as separate from and bearing on a theory—often blend the two into a single representation of “the way things are.” The ability to distinguish theory from evidence and use logical rules to examine their relationship improves from childhood through adolescence, continuing into adulthood.Page Ref: 307–314