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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 11TH EDITION BY WOOLFOLK – TEST BANK
Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
- A) development.
- B) nature over nurture.
- C) observable actions.
- D) thinking.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Behavioral theories emphasize external events or observable actions. They ignore or de-emphasize internal events such as thinking. The key element is whether the behavior can be directly observed.Page Ref: 198Skill: KnowledgeP: .75D: .32 2) The principle of contiguity involves an association between
- A) a negative and a positive stimulus.
- B) emotion and behavior.
- C) two events through pairing.
- D) two events through reinforcement.
Answer: CExplanation: C) The principle of contiguity involves an association between two events through pairing. For example, the response “stopping” and the stimulus “red light” become associated by being paired. When the driver subsequently sees a red light, the stopping response is the one likely to be selected. (For some drivers, unfortunately, stopping is not always the strongest response in that situation.)Page Ref: 200Skill: KnowledgeP: .70D: .37 3) During music class, Lisa enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, “Lisa, please…you sound like an owl in a torture chamber.” Lisa turns bright red. The next week she feels ill when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an example of
- A) an unconditioned stimulus.
- B) classical conditioning.
- C) cognitive learning.
- D) social learning.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Lisa’s reaction most clearly illustrates classical conditioning. Evidently, she is now associating music class with embarrassment due to the earlier pairing of her singing (and music class) with the teacher’s public criticism of her performance.Page Ref: 200Skill: UnderstandingP: .61 / D: .304) In the above example involving Lisa, feeling ill at the prospect of going to the music class served as the
- A) conditioned response.
- B) conditioned stimulus.
- C) unconditioned response.
- D) unconditioned stimulus.
Answer: AExplanation: A) For Lisa, feeling ill at the prospect of going to music class served as the conditioned response. This response did not occur naturally, but was produced by the teacher’s inadvertent pairing of the previously neutral stimulus, music class, with feelings of embarrassment.Page Ref: 201Skill: Understanding 5) In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be
- A) dependent upon reward.
- B) equivalent stimuli.
- C) in a contiguous relationship.
- D) in a noncontiguous relationship.
Answer: CExplanation: C) In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (e.g., tuning fork tone) and unconditioned stimulus (e.g., meat powder) must be in a contiguous relationship. Such a relationship means they occur together, with the CS appearing immediately prior to the UCS.Page Ref: 200Skill: KnowledgeP: .81D: .36 6) Which of the following is a practical implication of contiguity theory?
- A) Avoid the use of punishment whenever humanly possible.
- B) Make sure that the last response to a stimulus is the correct response.
- C) Use continuous reinforcement rather than intermittent reinforcement.
- D) Use intermittent reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Contiguity theory views learning as dependent on the association of a response with a stimulus. By making sure that the last response is correct, the probability is increased that the correct response will be the one associated and emitted the next time that the same stimulus occurs.Page Ref: 200Skill: Understanding 7) A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that brings about an unconditioned response. Through repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the
- A) conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response.
- B) neutral stimulus will come to be ignored.
- C) unconditioned response will become extinct.
- D) unconditioned response becomes its own stimulus.
Answer: AExplanation: A) A neutral stimulus (e.g., a tuning fork tone) is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., meat powder) which brings about an unconditioned response (e.g., salivating to food). The likely result is that the neutral stimulus will trigger a conditioned stimulus that brings about a conditioned response (e.g., salivating in response to the tone). This process is called classical conditioning.Page Ref: 201Skill: UnderstandingP: .56D: .448) In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener’s operation and food, any time the can opener is used, the subject salivates. The conditioned response in this study is the
- A) can opener.
- B) food.
- C) salivation to the can opener.
- D) salivation to the food.
Answer: CExplanation: C) The conditioned response (CS) in this experiment would be salivation to the can opener. Prior to the pairing of the neutral stimulus, can opener, with the unconditioned stimulus, food, this response did not occur. It needed to be learned or “conditioned.”Page Ref: 201Skill: UnderstandingP: .94D: .15 9) Ray’s temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her “wits’ end.” Ray’s mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
- A) classical conditioning.
- B) discrimination.
- C) extinction.
- D) shaping.
Answer: CExplanation: C) By ignoring Ray’s tantrums, his mother is using extinction. This approach involves withholding reinforcement (attention) for behavior, resulting in the behavior decreasing in frequency and intensity.Page Ref: 205Skill: UnderstandingP: .60D: .28 10) The law of effect in Thorndike’s theory of learning is related to the concept of
- A) antecedents.
- B) consequences.
- C) patterns.
- D) punishments.
Answer: BExplanation: B) A behavior that produces satisfying consequences in a given situation will tend be repeated given a repeat of the same situation. This statement refers to Thorndike’s law of effect. In Skinner’s approach, Thorndike’s law of effect would be reflected as a consequence of a behavior and the relationship is expressed as antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C).Page Ref: 201Skill: Knowledge 11) B. F. Skinner is to ________, as Ivan Pavlov is to ________.
- A) classical conditioning; cognitive learning
- B) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
- C) cognitive learning; classical conditioning
- D) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
Answer: DExplanation: D) B.F. Skinner is to operant conditioning as Ivan Pavlov is to classical conditioning. Each scientist is associated with the development of the respective behavioral theories.Page Ref: 200, 201Skill: Understanding12) Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by
- A) dealing primarily with reflexive types of responses.
- B) focusing on animal behavior to a much greater extent than on human behavior.
- C) focusing on the consequences of voluntary behavior.
- D) treating learners as passive rather then active agents.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning by focusing on goal-directed actions and the consequences of behavior. Learners, therefore, respond in order to obtain or avoid certain consequences (e.g., rewards and punishments, respectively).Page Ref: 201-202Skill: KnowledgeP: .86D: .29 13) A consequence is defined by Skinner as a reinforcer or a punisher depending on whether it
- A) increases or decreases the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
- B) is designed to promote desirable behavior or suppress undesirable behavior.
- C) is pleasurable or uncomfortable for the subject receiving the consequence.
- D) occurs antecedent to or as a consequence of the behavior.
Answer: AExplanation: A) According to Skinner, whether a stimulus is a reinforcer or a punisher depends on whether the stimulus increases or decreases the behavior that it follows. If the consequence increases the behavior that it follows, it is a reinforcer. If the consequence decreases or suppresses the behavior, the consequence is a punishment.Page Ref: 201-202Skill: UnderstandingP: .48D: .47 14) Mr. Lynch always uses his “mean” face to stop undesirable behavior in his first-period class. However, even though he looks at Tommy with his mean face each time Tommy talks out of turn, Tommy is talking out of turn more and more frequently. For Tommy, the mean face is apparently a
- A) cue.
- B) model.
- C) negative reinforcer.
- D) positive reinforcer.
Answer: DExplanation: D) For Tommy, the mean face of Mr. Lynch is a positive reinforcer. A reinforcer is a stimulus or event that increases the tendency to make a particular response. In this case, Mr. Lynch’s mean face reinforces Tommy’s talking out of turn.Page Ref: 203Skill: UnderstandingP: .63D: .3315) Removing an aversive stimulus to increase the frequency of a behavior exemplifies
- A) negative reinforcement.
- B) positive reinforcement.
- C) presentation punishment.
- D) removal punishment.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Removing an aversive stimulus to increase the frequency of a behavior is negative reinforcement. The key element is “reinforcement,” that occurs in this case by taking something “negative” away.Page Ref: 203Skill: Knowledge 16) You finally take out the garbage in order to get your father to stop pestering you. Your behavior is being influenced by
- A) negative reinforcement.
- B) positive reinforcement.
- C) presentation punishment.
- D) removal punishment.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Your behavior is being influenced by negative reinforcement. By taking out the garbage, you are removing a negative stimulus (father’s nagging).Page Ref: 203Skill: UnderstandingP: .59D: .37 17) The essential difference between negative reinforcement and punishment is that
- A) negative reinforcement decreases misbehavior rather quickly.
- B) punishment decreases the behavior while negative reinforcement increases it.
- C) punishment is more effective in bringing about a positive change in behavior.
- D) punishment is presented after, and reinforcement before, the behavior has occurred.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The essential difference between negative reinforcers and punishment is that punishment decreases behavior while negative reinforcement increases it (by removing an aversive stimulus). Negative reinforcement is a reinforcing, not punishing, condition.Page Ref: 204Skill: Knowledge 18) 17-year-old Kelly receives a ticket for speeding. Her parents take away the privilege of using the car. Her parents are using
- A) negative reinforcement.
- B) positive reinforcement.
- C) presentation punishment.
- D) removal punishment.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Kelly’s parents are using removal punishment, which is defined as taking something positive (car use) away as a consequence for misbehavior (the speeding ticket).Page Ref: 204Skill: Understanding19) Mr. Smith uses a token economy system in his history class. Whenever Bill breaks a rule, he lose a “chip.” If the infraction is major, Bill loses several chips. This is an example of
- A) cueing.
- B) presentation punishment.
- C) removal punishment.
- D) satiation.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Bill is experiencing removal punishment. Mr. Smith takes a positive stimulus (a chip) away as a consequence of Bill’s rule infraction.Page Ref: 204Skill: UnderstandingP: .83D: .22 20) Yancey turns on the water faucet to get a drink. What schedule of reinforcement typically prevails?
- A) Continuous
- B) Fixed-interval
- C) Variable-interval
- D) Variable-ratio
Answer: AExplanation: A) When Yancey turns on the faucet to get a drink, a continuous schedule of reinforcement typically prevails. (It is probably rare that the faucet would fail to produce the water.)Page Ref: 204Skill: Understanding 21) Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement?
- A) Fixed-interval
- B) Fixed-ratio
- C) Variable-interval
- D) Variable-ratio
Answer: DExplanation: D) Slot machines use a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement by rewarding the gambler after a variable (indeterminate) number of plays that change rapidly and consistently from trial to trial. This schedule will motivate many gamblers to respond consistently, a very reinforcing schedule for casinos!Page Ref: 205Skill: UnderstandingP: .84D: .33 22) What schedule of reinforcement is most likely to be involved when teachers give “pop” quizzes?
- A) Fixed-interval
- B) Fixed-ratio
- C) Variable-interval
- D) Variable-ratio
Answer: CExplanation: C) Pop quizzing employs a variable-interval schedule. Students never know when the time for the quiz will be. This schedule fosters consistent responding: studying each night for a possible quiz the next day.Page Ref: 205Skill: UnderstandingP: .75D: .2623) Mr. Saunders hates sending in his income tax forms each year and constantly worries that his return will be the “one” selected for auditing. Therefore, he completes the forms carefully and honestly in order to avoid a possible penalty, but he continues to worry about being audited. What reinforcement schedule is most likely to be involved?
- A) Fixed-interval
- B) Fixed-ratio
- C) Variable-interval
- D) Variable-ratio
Answer: DExplanation: D) A variable-ratio schedule is affecting Mr. Saunders because Internal Revenue tax audits occur randomly. Mr. Saunders’ income tax return could be one that is selected in any given year, but he doesn’t know if or when it might be selected. Because the schedule is unpredictable, Mr. Saunders remains honest in case he is chosen for an audit.Page Ref: 205Skill: Understanding 24) The schedule of reinforcement that is the most appropriate to use in the classroom because it encourages persistence and high rates of response is what type of schedule?
- A) Fixed-interval
- B) Fixed-ratio
- C) Variable-interval
- D) Variable-ratio
Answer: DExplanation: D) A variable-ratio (VR) schedule encourages persistence and high rates of response. Consequently, teachers are advised to use a variable-ratio schedule whenever reinforcement is needed. A variable-interval schedule also encourages persistence but is predictable when the individual figures out the interval timing.Page Ref: 205Skill: UnderstandingP: .43D: .43 25) Persistence in responding is increased by what type of reinforcement schedule?
- A) Fixed
- B) Interval
- C) Ratio
- D) Variable
Answer: DExplanation: D) Persistence in responding is likely to be most directly strengthened by variable schedules (both ratio and interval types). Variable schedules, especially variable-ratio schedules, are unpredictable and consequently “keep you on your toes.” You never can be certain when the reinforcement or punishment may be coming.Page Ref: 205Skill: Knowledge26) Bart uses an old cigarette lighter that has become unreliable. It usually takes from one to 10 flicks to make it work. When the lighter is out of fluid, it will not work at all. By the time that Bart figures out the problem, he has tried flicking it 15 to 20 times. This situation illustrates the principle that
- A) fixed-reinforcement schedules will produce the fastest performance.
- B) intermittent-reinforcement schedules will aid prior learning.
- C) interval-reinforcement schedules will produce the fastest performance.
- D) variable-reinforcement schedules will produce the greatest persistence.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Variable-reinforcement schedules produce the greatest persistence. Bart has learned not to expect the lighter to work every time. Thus, if he flicks it and it doesn’t light, he is conditioned to continue to flick it until it does.Page Ref: 204-205Skill: UnderstandingP: .70D: .28 27) Kathy frequently makes faces at her classmates. Instead of punishing her for making faces, the teacher has the students totally ignore Kathy. This example illustrates the teacher’s attempt at
- A) cuing.
- B) extinction.
- C) modeling.
- D) shaping.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The teacher is attempting to extinguish Kathy’s making faces behavior by ignoring her behavior. If the students as well as the teacher can ignore Kathy long enough, their attempt at extinction should be successful.Page Ref: 205Skill: UnderstandingP: .65D: .25 28) Which one of the following statements is an example of cueing?
- A) “Please remember to put your name on each page.”
- B) “Today’s lesson was much too noisy.”
- C) “Why didn’t you remember to do your homework?”
- D) “Why didn’t you clean up before you left?”
Answer: AExplanation: A) Cueing is providing an antecedent stimulus before a behavior should occur. It is used in classroom management to help students remember the behavior. An example is “Please remember to write your names on each page.”Page Ref: 206Skill: UnderstandingP: .89D: .1829) During the first few days of class, Mr. Brackman noticed some isolated instances of minor misbehavior such as talking out of turn. His initial approach to dealing with this should probably be to use
- A) praise-and-ignore techniques.
- B) prompting and cueing.
- C) response cost.
- D) shaping.
Answer: AExplanation: A) A general rule for teachers such as Mr. Brackman is to employ the least restrictive, least disruptive strategies first. Therefore, praise-and-ignore techniques are recommended as an initial response to minor misbehavior.Page Ref: 208Skill: UnderstandingP: .30D: .31 30) The teacher says to Marty, “Good job,” but frowns as he looks at her. According to O’Leary and O’Leary, the teacher’s praise is NOT
- A) believable.
- B) contingent.
- C) identified with the behavior.
- D) salient.
Answer: AExplanation: A) O’Leary and O’Leary (1977) proposed that praise must be believable in order for it to be effective. Frowning at Marty while saying “good job” to Marty would clearly lack this quality.Page Ref: 208Skill: Understanding 31) The Premack Principle states that
- A) a less-preferred activity is postponed until after a preferred activity.
- B) a preferred activity is withheld until rewards are earned.
- C) a preferred activity is a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity.
- D) less-preferred activities can be very effective as punishment activities.
Answer: CExplanation: C) The Premack Principle uses a preferred activity as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity. An example is, “Clean your room and then you can watch T.V.”Page Ref: 208Skill: KnowledgeP: .88D: .22 32) According to Woolfolk, the best way to determine potential reinforcers is to
- A) ask the experienced teachers for their suggestions.
- B) establish a student committee and have them vote.
- C) observe what students choose to do in their free time.
- D) set up activities to see if students enjoy them.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Woolfolk suggests that the best way to determine appropriate reinforcers for students is to observe what they choose to do in their free time. If, for example, you observe that they frequently try to play computer games, it is a good bet that free time to engage in that activity will be an effective reinforcer for good behavior.Page Ref: 208-209Skill: KnowledgeP: .87D: .1533) During math lessons, Ms. Olson continually observed Jim reading stories from his English anthology. She has probably found
- A) a short attention span to be a problem for Jim.
- B) an effective reinforcer for Jim.
- C) that her lessons are too hard for Jim.
- D) that Jim dislikes authority figures.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Ms. Olson probably found an effective reinforcer for Jimmy. It is suggested in the Woolfolk textbook that the best way to determine appropriate reinforcers is to determine what students like to do in their spare time.Page Ref: 202Skill: UnderstandingP: .79D: .21 34) Ms. Johnson’s sixth graders complained about diagramming sentences, and they were able convince her to show a movie first. Ms. Johnson made the common error of
- A) bribing the students in order to gain their cooperation.
- B) promising a reward for an unfavored activity.
- C) providing an incompatible alternative to the lesson.
- D) using a reinforcer before a low-frequency behavior.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Ms. Johnson violated the Premack Principle by using the reinforcer (movie) before the low-frequency behavior (diagramming sentences). The reverse ordering should have been employed instead.Page Ref: 203-205Skill: UnderstandingP: .61D: .38 35) Shaping is an appropriate method for developing new behavior when
- A) no appropriate reinforcers can be found.
- B) performance is otherwise too poor to gain reinforcement.
- C) students are capable of the behavior but seldom perform it.
- D) there is no one available to model the appropriate behavior.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Shaping, also called successive approximations, involves reinforcing progress toward a response rather than requiring the complete response. This procedure may be particularly effective when performance is otherwise too poor to gain reinforcement (i.e., the learner is making progress but is unlikely to be capable of performing the full response).Page Ref: 210Skill: KnowledgeP: .27D: .3436) Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis?
- A) Allows for creativity in student responses.
- B) Describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal.
- C) Reduces the need for expository presentations.
- D) Requires only minimal time to use.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Task analysis has the advantage of defining the sequence of skills needed to complete a more complex task or goal. With the sequence defined, it is easier to concentrate on teaching the component skills leading to mastery of the task.Page Ref: 210Skill: KnowledgeP: .83 / D: .2837) An example of the use of positive practice is having students
- A) develop sentences using commonly misused words.
- B) ignore mistakes and practice the items they know.
- C) study a list of commonly misspelled words.
- D) write “I will not chew gum” 100 times.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Positive practice is a strategy that makes students correct a mistake by practicing the correct response. An example would be using a misspelled word in new sentences.Page Ref: 210Skill: UnderstandingP: .61D: .28 38) Mrs. Lever allows Nathaniel to be the first to leave the uncomfortable bus because he has behaved so well on the trip. The technique being used is
- A) cuing.
- B) negative reinforcement.
- C) positive practice.
- D) shaping.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Mrs. Lever is using negative reinforcement by taking away an aversive condition (staying on the uncomfortable bus) as a consequence for Nathaniel’s good behavior.Page Ref: 203Skill: Understanding 39) The most effective reprimands are those that are
- A) sharp and private.
- B) sharp and public.
- C) soft and private.
- D) soft and public.
Answer: CExplanation: C) O’Leary and his associates found that soft, private reprimands were more effective in decreasing disruptive behavior than loud, public reprimands. The likely reason is that soft reprimands neither disrupt the class nor make the student the center of attention.Page Ref: 212Skill: KnowledgeP: .76D: .2040) Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is
- A) negative reinforcement.
- B) presentation punishment.
- C) response cost.
- D) satiation.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Robert is receiving response cost, a form of removal punishment, by losing something positive (points) for undesired behavior (not doing homework).Page Ref: 212Skill: Understanding P: .71 D: .3741) Mr. Lubinetti sends students to a “time-out” box when they become too physically aggressive during hockey practice. Once they have been seated quietly for at least five minutes, they are allowed to re-enter the game. The chance to leave the “time-out” box is an example of what type of consequence?
- A) Negative reinforcement
- B) Positive reinforcement
- C) Presentation punishment
- D) Removal punishment
Answer: AExplanation: A) The chance to leave the “time-out” box is negative reinforcement. Mr. Lubinetti is removing a negative stimulus (the “time out” box), thus providing reinforcement for good behavior (quietly waiting out the time). Losing the opportunity to play is an example of removal punishment, while being sent to the “box” is presentation punishment, and being allowed to play after five minutes in the “box” is positive reinforcement. However, the question asks for the type of consequence exemplified by the chance to leave the “box”, which is negative reinforcement.Page Ref: 201Skill: UnderstandingP: .43D: .32 42) The Good Behavior Game is based on the application of
- A) contingency contracts.
- B) group consequences.
- C) peer tutoring.
- D) primary reinforcers.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The Good Behavior Game employs group consequences as a strategy by making team rewards dependent upon how team members behave. Specifically, each time a student breaks a behavior rule, his/her team loses a point. The issue here is to have peer pressure to conform be a motivating force for good behavior.Page Ref: 214Skill: Knowledge43) Woolfolk suggests that programs for promoting group responsibility may be particularly hard on
- A) popular students who must perform well for everyone.
- B) students who try to sabotage the system.
- C) teachers who must monitor the entire class.
- D) unpopular students who are unable to perform well.
Answer: DExplanation: D) A disadvantage of programs intended to promote group responsibility is that a whole group may suffer because of the misbehavior or mistakes of one individual. This result could be particularly difficult for unpopular students who are unable to perform (or even choose to misbehave in order to obtain attention), because it can provoke even further rejection by teammates.Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 44) Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure
- A) can be effectively monitored by the teacher.
- B) has little effect on most misbehavior.
- C) may be both a positive and a negative influence.
- D) should be eliminated as much as possible.
Answer: CExplanation: C) When group consequences are used, peer pressure can become the key factor in influencing behavior. Although peer pressure can have powerful effects on students, unfortunately, the effects of peer pressure can be positive or negative. Negative effects occur when peers put unfair pressure on, or tease, an individual who has cost the team points by making a mistake.Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 45) Mr. Bennett’s student teacher suggested using a token reinforcement strategy with his disruptive sixth-grade class. The token system was received well by students and soon the class was following the classroom rules. Now that this strategy is working well, the tokens should be distributed
- A) by the students rather than the teacher.
- B) on a continuous schedule.
- C) on an intermittent schedule.
- D) so that they gradually increase in value.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Principles of operant conditioning suggest that, once a token reinforcement system is working well as it is for Mr. Bennett’s student teacher, the tokens should then be distributed on an intermittent schedule. The reason is that intermittent schedules make responses more resistant to extinction.Page Ref: 204Skill: UnderstandingP: .73D: .4046) Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
- A) gradually decreased in cost over time.
- B) limited to consumable items.
- C) limited to school-related items and supplies.
- D) varied in price so that all students may be rewarded.
Answer: DExplanation: D) One guideline for establishing a token reinforcement system is to offer a variety of rewards with different prices. As a result, both the lower- and higher-achievers will be able to earn rewards commensurate with their individual levels of performance. Over time, the requirements (prices) for rewards should be increased.Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 47) The position taken by Woolfolk on token reinforcement systems is they should be used primarily
- A) as an incentive program to reward classes that have met unit objectives.
- B) by science or math teachers, due to the objective nature of their subjects.
- C) in situations where students are not making progress with conventional methods.
- D) with gifted classes or older students who are self-
Answer: CExplanation: C) Woolfolk has taken the position that token economies are difficult and time-consuming to implement. Therefore, their usage should be reserved for situations in which students are NOT progressing satisfactorily with conventional methods (e.g., students who are unmotivated or low-achieving).Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 48) In a contingency contract program, teachers set up
- A) a group performance contract with each class.
- B) individual performance contracts with each student.
- C) “reward contracts” as models for misbehaving students.
- D) punishment contracts with students who misbehave.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Contingency contract programs involve setting up an individual contract with each student (not just those who misbehave). The contract specifies what the individual must do to earn a privilege or reward.Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 49) Lionel was humiliated when he forgot his lines in a play. Now he refuses to take part in any function of the speech class. Based on the behavioral principles discussed by Woolfolk, the best strategy for Lionel’s teacher would be to
- A) assign Lionel jobs that do not involve any speaking.
- B) assign Lionel to work with another student until the feeling becomes extinguished.
- C) bring Lionel back into class participation in small steps.
- D) help Lionel regain his confidence by assigning him a major role in a play.
Answer: CExplanation: C) The teacher needs to involve Lionel in acting or else take the chance that he will continue to avoid such activities. However, asking him to do too much may be overly threatening. The best approach, therefore, would be to use shaping, or involving him in a task using small steps.Page Ref: 210Skill: UnderstandingP: .78D: .3050) The concluding step of the self-management process is
- A) evaluating progress.
- B) goal-
- C) recording progress.
- D) self-
Answer: DExplanation: D) Although there is some disagreement about its necessity, the last step in the self-management process is self-reinforcement. It involves rewarding oneself for completing a task.Page Ref: 222Skill: Knowledge 51) Cognitive behavior modification adds what to the management process?
- A) Parent intervention
- B) Response cost
- C) Self-instruction
- D) Self-reinforcement
Answer: CExplanation: C) Cognitive behavior modification adds self-verbalization to the self-management process. The purpose of self-verbalization is to guide behavior as one works through a task. (This notion is similar to Vygotsky’s private speech.)Page Ref: 215Skill: Knowledge 52) Which one of the following in the correct sequence of phases for Bandura’s model of observational learning?
- A) Attention, retention, motivation, and production
- B) Attention, retention, production, motivation
- C) Motivation, attention, production, retention
- D) Motivation, retention, reduction, attention
Answer: BExplanation: B) The correct sequence of steps in Bandura’s model is attention, retention, production, and motivation. We pay attention to something, remember it, produce it, and are then motivated to repeat it.Page Ref: 221-222Skill: Knowledge Completion Questions 1) A relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior that results from experiences is called ________.Answer: learningPage Ref: 198 2) The influences of external events or behavior are the focus of ________ learning theories.Answer: behavioralPage Ref: 198 3) The association between a stimulus and a response that occur together is the basis for ________ learning.Answer: contiguityPage Ref: 200 4) In classical conditioning, the response made to the unconditioned stimulus before conditioning occurs is the ________ response.Answer: unconditionedPage Ref: 201 5) When a particular tone is presented repeatedly but is not followed by a conditioned stimulus, ________ has occurred, if there had been no response earlier with no previous conditioning.Answer: extinctionPage Ref: 205 6) Any consequence that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n) ________.Answer: reinforcerPage Ref: 202 7) When an aversive stimulus is removed following a behavior and the reinforcement behavior increases, the type of consequence that occurs is ________.Answer: negative reinforcementPage Ref: 203 8) When teachers take away privileges for students’ inappropriate behavior, they are applying ________ punishment.Answer: removalPage Ref: 204 9) The schedule of reinforcement that produces the highest and most consistent response rate is the ________ schedule.Answer: variable-ratioPage Ref: 205 10) Removal of a given reinforcement leads to ________.Answer: extinctionPage Ref: 205 11) The act of providing an antecedent stimulus just before a particular behavior is to take place is ________.Answer: cueingPage Ref: 206 12) The application of learning principles to change behavior is called applied behavioral analysis or ________.Answer: behavior modificationPage Ref: 207 13) Reinforcing completion of a less-preferred activity by allowing participation in a desired activity illustrates the use of the ________.Answer: Premack PrinciplePage Ref: 208 14) The behavioral strategy of successive approximations is called ________.Answer: shapingPage Ref: 210 15) Breaking complex performances into sub-skills and sub-processes is part of a systematic procedure called ________.Answer: task analysisPage Ref: 210 16) For certain infractions of the rules, people must lose a reinforcer (e.g., privileges, time, etc.) and suffer ________.Answer: response costPage Ref: 21217) Interventions designed to replace problem behaviors with new behaviors that serve the same purpose for the students are called ________.Answer: positive behavioral supportsExplanation: Positive behavioral supports are interventions designed to replace problems behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student.Page Ref: 218 18) Mr. Crutch divides his class into groups and each group has points taken away if students do not behavior. He is employing the ________ game.Answer: good behaviorExplanation: The good behavior game is used for holding students accountable for good behavior. Assigned teams loose points if students break the rules of good behavior.Page Ref: 214 19) Crediting all students to earn a reward for both academic work and positive classroom behavior is a ________ system.Answer: token reinforcementPage Ref: 215 20) In order for students to gain control of their own learning, they must be able to set their own goals, participate in self-evaluation, and achieve self-________, although there is some disagreement about whether this last step is really necessary.Answer: reinforcementPage Ref: 222 21) In Bandura’s social cognitive theory, “learning by doing” is referred to as ________ learning.Answer: enactiveExplanation: Enactive learning is “learning by doing” and experiencing the consequences of one’s actions.Page Ref: 221 True/False Questions 1) Learning is defined as a deliberate action that produces a positive result.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 198 2) In Pavlov’s experiment the conditioned stimulus was the tuning fork tone.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 200-201 3) Extinction in classical conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 205 4) B.F. Skinner established the basis for operant conditioning and E.L. Thorndike was responsible for developing the concept of operant conditioning.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 201 5) Negative reinforcement introduces an aversive stimulus to decrease the frequency of a behavior.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 2036) Detention after school is an example of both presentation and removal punishment.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 204 7) The act of providing an antecedent stimulus immediately before a particular behavior is to take place is called prompting.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 206 8) In using the Premack Principle, it is important that the higher frequency behavior happens first.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 208 9) Positive practice involves having students give correct responses several times immediately following errors.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 210 10) Removing something aversive as soon as the desired behavior occurs is an example of punishment.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 204 11) Ms. Tolleson is effectively using social isolation when she removes Mark, who is being disruptive, for a period of 60 minutes.Answer: FALSEExplanation: Effective use of social isolation typically involves removing the disruptive student from his or her peers for about 5 to 10 minutes.Page Ref: 212 12) Mr. Matin interviews a student about her disruptive behavior to learn about her reasons for the behavior. This approach is an example of doing functional behavioral assessment.Answer: TRUEExplanation: Although there are may procedures for conducting functional behavioral assessments, interviewing students about their behavior is an acceptable approach.Page Ref: 218 13) A contingency contract is an example of a system for rewarding positive group consequences.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 215-216 14) Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning theory but is irrelevant to Bandura’s social cognitive theory.Answer: FALSEExplanation: Reinforcement plays an important part in the motivation phase of observational learning, which is the final step in Bandura’s model of observational learning.Page Ref: 221 15) Researchers agree goals-setting is most beneficial for self-management when students keep their goals private.Answer: FALSEExplanation: Researchers recommend goals should be made public in order to best support self-management and behavioral change.Page Ref: 222-22316) Over time, student-set goals tend to become higher with regard to performance standards.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 223 17) Ethical questions related to the use of the strategies described in this chapter are comparable to those raised by any process that seeks to influence people.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 226 Short Answer Questions 1) Define “learning” and discuss how it differs from other forms of behavior. Answer: Learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. It may be intentional or unintentional or positive or negative in its consequences. It is not, however, due to maturation or to temporary changes due to illness, fatigue, or hunger.Page Ref: 198-199 2) Describe Pavlov’s experiment in classical conditioning, identifying and defining all the major components of the conditioning model. Answer: Pavlov was studying digestion in dogs when he noted that dogs began to salivate when they saw food. He called the food an unconditioned stimulus (US) and the salivation an unconditioned response (UR). Pavlov paired a tone with the food for a period of time and found that the tone alone (a conditioned stimulus) would bring on salivation (now a conditioned response).Page Ref: 200-201 3) List the basic types of reinforcement schedules and describe the performances that they are likely to produce. Include performance patterns, rates, and effects of persistence. Answer: Continuous reinforcement produces the fastest learning but least persistence. Several types of intermittent schedules exist: fixed-ratio (reinforce after a set number of responses); fixed-interval (reinforce after a set period of time); variable-ratio (reinforce after a variable number of responses); and variable-interval (reinforce after a variable amount of time). Pauses after reinforcement are found in fixed schedules. Ratio schedules produce the highest performance rates, and variable schedules produce the greatest persistence.Page Ref: 202-203 4) Contrast reinforcement and punishment and describe the various categories of each. How can we tell if something is a reinforcer or a punisher? Answer: Reinforcement is a stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows. Punishment is a stimulus that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows. In order to tell the two apart, we must look to the associated behavior. Reinforcement can be positive (something is presented) or negative (an aversive stimulus is removed). Punishment can be presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a desired one.Page Ref: 203-204 5) Describe what is meant by the “praise-and-ignore” approach to classroom management. What are the strengths and limitations of this approach? Give several examples of the types of incidents to which it might be applied appropriately. Answer: Praise-and-ignore involves accentuating the positive and NOT giving attention to negative behaviors. The advantage is creating a positive classroom atmosphere in which punishment and unpleasant events are minimized. The disadvantage is that, although the praise-and-ignore strategy is effective in certain circumstances, it does not solve all classroom management problems. Disruptive behaviors may persist unless negative contingencies (punishments) are also applied.Page Ref: 2086) Give classroom-related examples of how teacher attention can increase a particular desirable student behavior and an undesirable student behavior. Answer: Examples should include, at a minimum, a description of a classroom situation, the behavior, and the form of teacher attention that affects the behavior. For example, a student talks out of turn, the teacher loudly reprimands the student, and other students laugh. The student likes the attention and is motivated to misbehave again. [Use a comparable structure for positive examples.]Page Ref: 206-209 7) Compare and contrast the strategies of cueing and shaping as methods for developing desirable behaviors. Answer: Cueing: Indicates when a particular behavior will be reinforced. The cue may be supported with a prompt, and the prompt faded. This method requires that students already know and are capable of the behavior. Shaping: A very time-consuming strategy. It allows the development of behavior when the behavior does not appear by other strategies. Shaping requires that the behavior be broken down into small steps and approximations of the desired behavior. Consequently, task analysis is needed in order to identify the small steps and their appropriate sequence in the learning task.Page Ref: 206,210 8) Discuss the ethical issues involving uses of punishment in the classroom, including when each may be appropriate, what the likely outcomes are, and any cautions with their use. Answer: The major ethical issues are ensuring that positive and negative consequences are applied correctly and are directed toward effective ends. Emphasis needs to be placed on academic improvement, not just conditioning students to behave properly. Important ethical considerations come into play, particularly in the case of applying punishment that can cause negative reactions, inappropriate modeling, and an unpleasant classroom atmosphere. For this reason, “least restrictive and intrusive” procedures should be used to suppress improper behaviors.Page Ref: 210-211,226 9) What is functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and how would a teacher use FBA? Answer: Functional behavioral assessment is a collection of methods and procedures for identifying problem behaviors. Teachers who use FBA are most interested in the determining the reason or function of the problem behavior. FBA procedures provide information to the teacher about the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences related to the problem behavior. In addition to assessment, teachers who use FBA also develop an intervention strategy for eliminating the problem behaviors.Page Ref: 218 Case Studies Treena is a bright and personable girl in your sixth-grade class. A large part of your classroom activities involve class participation through questioning and recitation. Treena, however, never raises her hand and, when called on, “freezes” and often says nothing. You notice that she is social with friends. Her shyness seems restricted to speaking before a group. Discussion with her fifth-grade teacher indicates that the same behavior took place last year. To help Treena become less inhibited about answering in class, you consider possible strategies or principles suggested by behavioral theories. Describe how each of the following approaches might be used in a behavioral plan designed to help her. 1) Classical conditioning Answer: Treena has learned to associate speaking before a group and her emotions of fear. A possible explanation for this association might be the fact that when Treena was in fifth grade, two students laughed at her while she was making a presentation to her class. Treena was already anxious about presenting and now she has come to associate students laughing with her own feelings of fear. Initially, the students’ laughter was a neutral stimulus, which became a conditioned stimulus after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus (physical responses related to fear).Page Ref: 200-2012) Positive reinforcement/negative reinforcement Answer: Treena’s ability to speak and not “freeze up” is the target response the teacher wants to increase. The teacher could use praise and eye contact as potential positive reinforcers. An example of a potential negative reinforcer might to remove the students from the room who are laughing during Treena’s presentation. The only way the teacher will know if in fact these approaches provided positive or negative reinforcement is to monitor and see if there is an increase in the target behavior.Page Ref: 203 3) Extinction Answer: Teena could present daily at home in front of the mirror without an audience present. Over time, we would expect a gradual disappearance of the learned response because the conditioned stimulus (students laughing) would not be presented with the conditioned response (fear).Page Ref: 205 4) Token reinforcement Answer: Students are informed that they can earn points for good behavior during other students’ presentations. For example, points can be earned for listening carefully and not laughing during Treena’s presentation. The class can exchange their total points later for extra computer time.Page Ref: 215 5) Contingency contract Answer: You could place Treena on a contingency contract program, which would specify exactly what she needs to do (or not do) in order to earn a reward or privilege. Ideally, you will want to negotiate and create the contract in collaboration with Treena. One strategy for helping Treena deal with her “freezing up” might be to ask her to prepare note cards that outline her presentation content. Treena would be asked to show you the notecards in advance of her presentation. The details of the notecards assignment would be clearly specified in her contingency contract. She would know the content that should be included in the note cards and how many cards to prepare. When Treena successfully completes the notecards she would earn extra free reading time.Page Ref: 215-216 6) Using the above strategies together with other principles, briefly describe the overall approach you personally would favor for working with Treena. Answer: One option is to engage Treena in a self-management program. First, she would self-assess what behaviors she needs to increase and/or decrease. You can involve her in collecting baseline data and visually graphing her progress. Treena would need to have a very clear and measurable understanding of what must be done in order to be reinforced. You could also involve Treena is self-reinforcement practices. It would be important for Treena to be reinforced frequently in the beginning for small amounts of progress. Finally, you could involve Treena’s family in the design and implementation of the behavioral plan. Thus, Treena would receive consistent reinforcement at home and school.Page Ref: 222-223Kelly is a ninth grader with above-average abilities. He earns “Bs” in all of his subjects, except for biology, which he barely manages to pass. As his biology teacher, you have tried to help him many times, but you have observed no real progress. Kelly tells you that he has difficulty doing his homework because of anxieties and basic “resistance” to the subject. He simply doesn’t know how to get started and stares at the question until he gives up and puts the homework assignment away. 7) Design a self-management program that Kelly could adopt to improve his academic performance. Answer: A self-management program could be designed to assist Kelly in reaching his goals of reducing his anxiety towards his homework. First, it would be useful to have baseline data on the frequency and intensity of Kelly’s anxiety. Specific goals would be set and and written down so that you and Kelly can monitor his progress. As noted by Woolfolk, high standards are recommended and it may not be wise to allow Kelly to set his own goals. Due to Kelly’s tendency to stare at the question and not get started, one goal might be to reduce the amount of time he stares at the question by 20 percent during the first week of the behavioral management program. You could start by reading the question rather than having him read it for himself. Another approach might be to set an alarm clock, which will alert him to get started. Gradually, the time limits set on the alarm clock could be reduced. Kelly, who loves to play computer games, could reinforce himself with time for playing his computer games only when he reaches his stated goals.Page Ref: 222-223 8) Explain why (or why not) such strategies as token reinforcement and contingency contracting might help Kelly’s situation. Answer: A token reinforcement system could help reduce Kelly’s anxiety and resistance behaviors if you have a clear understanding of what is a desirable reward for Kelly. For example, Kelly could earn play money, which could be given out an a daily basis. At the end of the week, Kelly could “purchase” (i.e., select) his favorite meal at home as agreed upon by his parents. This example demonstrates the importance of the family in exchanging earned tokens for a privilege. The token reinforcement system is not recommended if you suspect Kelly might be punished for not reaching his goal(s). Another limitation of this procedure is that the token economy system can be complicated to explain to all parties involved in the process and can be quite time-consuming.Page Ref: 215-216 Chapter 7: Cognitive Views of Learning Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of learners?
- A) Active
- B) Egocentric
- C) Passive
- D) Social
Answer: AExplanation: A) The cognitive perspective views people as active processors of information who interpret stimulus material based on prior knowledge and interest rather than passively receiving it.Page Ref: 234Skill: Knowledge 2) Which one of the following statements is consistent with the cognitive approach to learning?
- A) Feedback serves as a consequence of a person’s actions.
- B) Learning is independent of elicited responses.
- C) Learning is independent of external circumstances.
- D) The same event means different things to different people.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Consistent with the cognitive approach to learning is the statement that the same event means different things to different people, because individuals have different motivations, background knowledge, and current interests.Page Ref: 234-235Skill: UnderstandingP: .60D: .26 3) In the cognitive approach to learning, learning
- A) depends a great deal on individual perception.
- B) is dependent on elicited responses.
- C) is determined by acquired traits.
- D) is primarily a consequence of other people’s actions.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Cognitive theorists view learning as the result of an individual’s attempts to make sense of the world and these theorists believe that learning depends a great deal on individual perception.Page Ref: 238Skill: Knowledge 4) Maria has excellent study habits. She seems to know just what to review and how long to spend on each part of every course. Maria is applying what type of knowledge?
- A) Conditional
- B) Declarative
- C) Domain-specific
- D) Procedural
Answer: AExplanation: A) Conditional knowledge provides the “when and why” for applying other types of knowledge. In this example, it helps Maria to identify and use good strategies.Page Ref: 244Skill: UnderstandingP: .32D: .325) Alec still remembers how to touch-type, even though it has been three years since he has practiced. The memory system most directly involved here is
- A) episodic.
- B) procedural.
- C) semantic.
- D) short-
Answer: BExplanation: B) Procedural memory is memory for how to do things, such as to roller skate, translate a paragraph into a second language, or ride a bicycle. In this example, Alec remembers touch typing. [Episodic memory concerns events in our lives, not procedures.]Page Ref: 244Skill: UnderstandingP: .83D: .27 6) Cliff is good at solving math problems, but has difficulty solving problems in his computer class. His problem-solving ability in math represents what type of knowledge?
- A) Conditional
- B) Declarative
- C) Domain-specific
- D) Procedural
Answer: CExplanation: C) Cliff has domain-specific knowledge because he is able to solve problems in a particular subject-math. He is weaker at general problem-solving knowledge given his difficulty in computer class.Page Ref: 244Skill: UnderstandingP: .67D: .10 7) A jogger is startled by the feeling of a moving object on his right side. It could have been a ferocious dog, but it turns out to be a newspaper page blown by the wind. What memory component was most directly involved?
- A) Episodic
- B) Schematic
- C) Sensory memory
- D) Working memory
Answer: CExplanation: C) The sensory memory records the immediate sensation of the object. If the jogger now attends to the “moving object,” it will be perceived as a particular thing (the newspaper, hopefully, but perhaps the ferocious dog).Page Ref: 237 / Skill: Understanding8) One of the educational implications of sensory memory is that
- A) attention is necessary if children are to remember information.
- B) children can take in and comprehend almost a limitless amount of information.
- C) information seen is brought into consciousness almost immediately.
- D) reinforcement is a requirement if children are to retain information.
Answer: AExplanation: A) The key implication of sensory memory and perception is that our senses are constantly bombarded by a multitude of stimuli. We only learn the limited amount we attend to. The rest are not perceived and fade from sensory memory after a few seconds. Attention is, therefore, necessary for learning and remembering.Page Ref: 237Skill: UnderstandingP: .51D: .37 9) A photographer shoots a flashbulb directly into your eyes. For the next few seconds, all you can see are big blue dots everywhere you look. What type of memory is most directly involved in this phenomenon?
- A) Long-term
- B) Semantic
- C) Sensory
- D) Working
Answer: CExplanation: C) The image of the flashbulb would reside in sensory memory. The content of sensory memory resembles the sensations from the original stimulus, with visual sensations coded as images that fade rapidly.Page Ref: 237-238Skill: UnderstandingP: .80D: .13 10) While Mr. Lindsey was explaining the social studies assignment, Missy was finishing homework due for her next class. When the class began the assignment, Missy did not know what to do. According to the information processing model of cognitive learning, Missy was lost because
- A) her perception of the activity was different from that of other students.
- B) she did not pay attention to the instructions that were given.
- C) the instructions for the assignment were out of context.
- D) the instructions were not transferred from working to long-term memory.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Missy was apparently lost because she did not pay attention to the instructions given by Mr. Lindsey. Attention is necessary for perception (and learning) to occur, but it is a limited resource. That is, we can pay attention to only one demanding task at a time.Page Ref: 237-238Skill: UnderstandingP: .57D: .1711) Top-down processing is distinguished by its reliance on a(n)
- A) assembly of elements into a meaningful pattern.
- B) downward scanning of the eyes.
- C) search for familiar features or elements.
- D) understanding of the context of a situation.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Top-down processing involves using the context of the situation as a basis for recognizing (or perceiving) something. In contrast, bottom-up processing bases perception on analyzing specific features of the stimulus and “mentally assembling” the whole from the parts.Page Ref: 262Skill: Knowledge 12) What you are thinking about right now is being held in what type of memory?
- A) Long-term
- B) Schematic
- C) Sensory
- D) Working
Answer: DExplanation: D) Your working memory contains the information that you are thinking about at the present moment. Due to this function, it is frequently called “working memory.”Page Ref: 239Skill: UnderstandingP: .79D: .18 13) Bottom-up processing refers to the way people examine a new stimulus for
- A) contextual cues.
- B) contrasting details.
- C) perceptual closure.
- D) recognizable features.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Bottom-up processing involves analyzing the recognizable features of incoming stimuli. We then mentally “build” the pattern or whole from the parts. In contrast, top-down processing involves using the context of a situation to recognize a stimulus.Page Ref: 238 / Skill: Knowledge14) Mr. Kawicki is teaching his sixth-grade science students about the scientific method. Students are instructed about each component of the method first in order to understand the whole process. This instructional strategy is based on what concept?
- A) Bottom-up processing
- B) Memory strength
- C) Propositional network
- D) Top-down processing
Answer: AExplanation: A) Bottom-up processing, called “feature analysis,” involves analyzing a stimulus into components and assembling the components into a whole pattern. This process is exemplified by Mr. Kawicki’s expecting his science students to achieve understanding of the scientific method by first learning each component.Page Ref: 238Skill: UnderstandingP: .65D: .28 15) Megan tries to remember the address, 10 Anchor Street, by imagining a ten-dollar bill attached to the anchor of a ship. She is using a memory strategy called
- A) chunking.
- B) elaborative rehearsal.
- C) maintenance rehearsal.
- D) part learning.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Elaborative rehearsal involves associating the information one is trying to remember with existing knowledge in long-term memory. In this example, Megan is relating the address to a mental image combining familiar objects.Page Ref: 242Skill: UnderstandingP: .73D: .24 16) Items can typically be stored in working memory for approximately how long?
- A) About 20 seconds
- B) A day
- C) One minute
- D) One week
Answer: AExplanation: A) Working memory, with its limited duration, can hold information for about 20 to 30 seconds. By comparison, long-term memory is assumed to be permanent; the problem there is retrieving the information.Page Ref: 239Skill: KnowledgeP: .84D: .21 17) Research has shown that the capacity of the working memory is limited to about how many chunks?
- A) Two to four
- B) Five to nine
- C) 11 to 12
- D) 13 to 15
Answer: BExplanation: B) The capacity of working memory is from five to nine separate “bits” or chunks of information. By comparison, long-term memory is theorized to have an unlimited capacity.Page Ref: 239Skill: KnowledgeP: .88D: .22 18) Our ability to conserve something in working memory is most directly affected by the
- A) executive control processes.
- B) perceptual factors that we apply to the stimulus.
- C) reinforcement of information.
- D) strength and intensity of the initial stimulus.
Answer: AExplanation: A) The executive control processes such as rehearsal increase our ability to maintain information in our working memory.Page Ref: 240Skill: KnowledgeP: .92D: .1819) The basic purpose of chunking as a memory strategy is to
- A) increase the capacity of information in all of the sensory registers.
- B) increase the amount of information to be stored in the long-term memory.
- C) reduce the amount of information to be stored in the working memory.
- D) reduce the amount of time for processing information in long-term memory.
Answer: CExplanation: C) By grouping individual bits of information in a meaningful way (as when letters are combined to form words), chunking reduces the amount of information to be stored in working memory.Page Ref: 243Skill: KnowledgeP: .46D: .30 20) Which one of the following persons most clearly illustrates the concept of elaboration?
- A) Alicia asks the teacher to define percentages in a different way than how they were defined in the text.
- B) Bart calculates percentages for the homework problems assigned by the teacher.
- C) John recognizes that he can use percentages in calculating his team’s batting average.
- D) Mary rehearses the steps for computing the statistics needed to describe the school population.
Answer: CExplanation: C) John is relating his study of percentages to his existing knowledge about baseball. As a result of this elaboration, the material on percentages will be better connected with other information in long-term memory, and thus be more easily remembered.Page Ref: 242Skill: UnderstandingP: .72D: .28 21) You are given a math problem to solve. As you try to remember the formula involved, what memory system is being searched?
- A) Long-term semantic
- B) Schematic
- C) Sensory register
- D) Working procedural
Answer: AExplanation: A) Schemas, or schemes, are structures or patterns that people must develop in order to understand large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts and problems. Therefore, schematic memory is a feature of long-term memory.Page Ref: 245Skill: UnderstandingP: .58D: .21 22) Long-term memory that is memory for meaning is called
- A) episodic.
- B) procedural.
- C) semantic.
- D) working.
Answer: CExplanation: C) The long-term semantic memory is our memory for meaning. This information represents our knowledge of the world (formulas, facts, scripts, words, etc.).Page Ref: 245Skill: Knowledge23) Mark can answer the physics problem because of patterns of knowledge stored in his long-term memory, which he did not intentionally try to learn. This situation involves Mark using his
- A) explicit memory.
- B) implicit memory.
- C) short-term memory.
- D) episodic memory.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Implicit memory is knowledge that is not readily available to conscious recall, however, it does influence one’s behavior or thought without awareness.Page Ref: 245Skill: Understanding 24) Propositional networks are defined most accurately as
- A) a process by which verbal information reaches short-term memory.
- B) a technique used to increase the capacity of short-term memory.
- C) the organization of information according to its meaning.
- D) the process by means of which information reaches the sensory register.
Answer: CExplanation: C) A proposition is defined as the smallest unit of information that can be judged true or false. The sentence, “The truck is red,” represents one proposition. Propositional networking involves the organization of such information according to its meaning.Page Ref: 246Skill: KnowledgeP: .70D: .33 25) When we intentionally try to learn something new, we are involving what type of long-term memory?
- A) Crystallized memory
- B) Episodic memory
- C) Working memory
- D) Explicit memory
Answer: DExplanation: D) Explicit memory is knowledge from long-term memory that can be recalled and consciously considered. It involves knowledge that was gained through deliberate or intentional learning processes.Page Ref: 245Skill: Understanding 26) Because memories are organized in propositional networks, recall of one bit of information often
- A) blocks the recall of other information.
- B) leads to recall of another bit of information.
- C) leads to the integration of organized patterns.
- D) requires specific, external memory cues.
Answer: BExplanation: B) A propositional network is an interconnected set of bits of information. Because the bits are meaningfully related to one another in the network, recall of one bit (e.g., thinking of a spoon) may trigger the recall of another bit of information (e.g., fork).Page Ref: 245Skill: KnowledgeP: .91D: .0327) Traditional views of concept learning suggest that we recognize examples of a concept by
- A) deductive reasoning.
- B) identifying defining features or attributes.
- C) imaging prototypes.
- D) top-down processing.
Answer: BExplanation: B) For many years, it was thought that examples of concepts were recognized by identifying their distinctive attributes or defining features. The traditional view emphasizes bottom-up processing over top-down processing.Page Ref: 247Skill: KnowledgeP: .67D: .24 28) Which one of the following behaviors is a defining attribute for the concept “bird”?
- A) Building nests
- B) Eating insects
- C) Growing feathers
- D) Vocalizing its territorial boundaries
Answer: CExplanation: C) A defining attribute of a concept is a distinctive feature. For birds, the growth of feathers is the only distinctive feature of the choices listed. Building nests, eating insects, and territorial vocalization apply to many other animals.Page Ref: 246 Skill: Understanding 29) Noah counted the legs on a bug and came up with eight. He then decided the bug was an arachnid (spider) because an arachnid has eight legs. His decision was based upon what aspect of concept learning?
- A) Algorithm
- B) Defining attribute
- C) Heuristic
- D) Prototype
Answer: BExplanation: B) Noah determined that a defining attribute of arachnids is having eight legs. Defining attributes are distinctive features that characterize all members of the concept category.Page Ref: 246Skill: UnderstandingP: .69D: .26 30) When you mention “dogs,” both Bethany and Ashley would picture collies. In relation to the concept “dog,” what would the image of a collie be?
- A) Algorithm
- B) Attribute
- C) Heuristic
- D) Prototype
Answer: DExplanation: D) A prototype is the best representative of a category for individuals. Apparently Bethany’s and Ashley’s experiences with dogs have frequently involved collies, because both girls view collies as a prototype of the concept “dogs.”Page Ref: 246Skill: UnderstandingP: .82D: .3631) Little Billy was accustomed to seeing Officer Sam O’Reilly walking around the block, but then one day he met Officer Sally Murdock. Billy gave her a suspicious look and said, “You can’t be an officer, you’re a lady.” Billy’s concept of a police officer was probably
- A) based on a male prototype.
- B) derived primarily from defining attributes.
- C) refined from a complex schema.
- D) verbal rather than intellectual.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Billy’s conception of a police officer was probably based on a male prototype, as a consequence of seeing only male exemplars. Thus, he failed to recognize Sally as a police officer because she was female.Page Ref: 246Skill: UnderstandingP: .73D: .26 32) When Mr. Wilson wants his students to learn about a familiar concept and practice thinking skills at the same time, he should stress
- A) concept attainment.
- B) exemplar of the concept.
- C) nonexamples of the concept.
- D) positive instances of the concept.
Answer: AExplanation: A) The strategy that Mr. Wilson should use is to stress concept attainment. This strategy is focused on methods of helping students to construct an understanding of specific concepts and, at the same time, practice thinking skills such as hypothesis testing.Page Ref: 246Skill: Understanding P: .38 / D: .3033) In discussing the concept “fruit,” the teacher says “…and fruits come in practically all colors.” The teacher is identifying a(n)
- A) defining attribute.
- B) irrelevant attribute.
- C) nonexample.
- D) prototype.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The attribute, color, is an irrelevant attribute in this case because it cannot be used to determine which objects are fruit and which are something else. For example, if you know that an object is green, you are no better off than you were without this information in guessing whether it’s a fruit, a vegetable, or a refrigerator.Page Ref: 247Skill: Understanding34) In order to understand the large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts, people must develop structures or patterns called
- A) levels.
- B) mnemonics.
- C) propositions.
- D) schemas.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Schemas are defined by cognitive psychologists as mental patterns, structures, or guides for understanding events, concepts, or ideas. [Mnemonics are memory devices; propositions are units of information.]Page Ref: 248Skill: KnowledgeP: .77D: .25 35) A script is viewed by cognitive theorists as useful
- A) as a note-taking strategy in lecture classes.
- B) in directing everyday activities in different situations.
- C) in formalizing interactions between students.
- D) in outlining the main ideas of a story.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Scripts are schemas representing the typical sequence of events in everyday situations. For example, most adults have different scripts for weekdays than for Saturdays and Sundays.Page Ref: 249Skill: Knowledge 36) Long-term memory for how to do things is called
- A) elaboration.
- B) episodic memory.
- C) procedural memory.
- D) productions.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Long-term memory for how to do things is called procedural memory.Page Ref: 249Skill: Knowledge37) According to current cognitive theories, information may be lost from long-term memory in all of the following ways EXCEPT by
- A) interference.
- B) lack of use.
- C) substitution.
- D) time decay.
Answer: CExplanation: C) Substitution has nothing to do with why information may be lost from long-term memory. Current explanations emphasize interference and time decay. Also, when not used, neural connections grow weak over time.Page Ref: 252-253Skill: Knowledge38) Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test?
- A) In a familiar room such as a dorm room
- B) In a small comfortable room with soft music playing
- C) In a very quiet area, such as a library
- D) In an educational psychology classroom
Answer: DExplanation: D) Studies of context indicate that aspects of the physical surroundings (e.g., the room we are in; the time of day) become associated with other information that we are attending to. Thus, theoretically, students would perform best if they took their exams in the same room in which they studied the material being tested (e.g., the educational psychology class).Page Ref: 251Skill: UnderstandingP: .74D: .31 39) Ms. Gentry took her tenth-grade biology students to the Horticulture Garden. The students were able to observe and classify a wide variety of exotic plants. Students in her class are likely to remember the names and characteristics of those plants because of
- A) automaticity.
- B) context.
- C) meta-
- D) retrieval.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Context represents the physical environment and our emotional states. It is learned together (associated) with other information. Learning the names of plants in a realistic setting, such as Ms. Gentry’s class is in, should provide contextual cues to facilitate memory of the names.Page Ref: 251Skill: UnderstandingP: .69D: .50 40) According to the levels of processing theory, the length of time information is remembered is determined by
- A) how completely the initial learning was accomplished.
- B) when we first encountered the information.
- C) where it is stored in our memory.
- D) why we have chosen to attend to the information.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Levels of processing theory propose that the more completely we learn something initially and analyze the information, the longer we retain it. Deeper processing leads to stronger connections in long-term memory.Page Ref: 251-252Skill: KnowledgeP: .70D: .2041) Marc starts talking to Wynoma about the field trip to the zoo, which reminds him of the book he read on tigers last week. He concludes by telling Wynoma that the new library is very easy to use. This phenomenon illustrates the concept of
- A) construction of the working memory.
- B) deactivation of the active memory.
- C) reconstruction of the working memory.
- D) spread of activation.
Answer: DExplanation: D) When a particular proposition or image is active, closely associated knowledge can be activated as well. Talk about the field trip activated Marc’s memory of reading the book about tigers. This process is called the spread of activation.Page Ref: 252Skill: UnderstandingP: .70D: .41 42) A student provides an explanation of why water evaporates, but his description leaves out some of the details the teacher provided, while including some new information. Cognitive theorists would attribute this to
- A) elaboration.
- B) reconstruction.
- C) repression.
- D) time decay.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Reconstruction involves recalling information based on what we actually remember, what we fill in based on related experiences, or what seems logical to us. Because of these variables, different people will often remember very different things after experiencing the same event.Page Ref: 252Skill: UnderstandingP: .59D: .26 43) Willis concludes that he is having difficulty remembering the material because of the teacher’s lecture style. Willis thinks that he would remember better with a recitation-style presentation. Willis’ thinking illustrates
- A) cognitive monitoring.
- B) episodic memory.
- C) pathway monitoring.
- D) procedural memory.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Metacognition involves the use of regulatory abilities called cognitive monitoring. As illustrated by Willis’ analysis of his needs, these processes help learners decide what to do, how to do it, and when to do it.Page Ref: 267-278Skill: UnderstandingP: .68D: .4944) Claire, a three-year-old, has difficulty remembering her street address. According to research on short-term memory use, what is a likely cause of Claire’s problem?
- A) Both limited memory capacity and ineffective strategy use
- B) Ineffective strategy use, but not limited memory capacity
- C) Limited memory capacity, but not ineffective strategy use
- D) Neither limited memory capacity nor effective strategy use
Answer: AExplanation: A) A three-year-old child such as Claire is likely to have limited working memory capacity and to use strategies for remembering ineffectively. By age five or six, Claire will naturally begin to use other strategies including rehearsal.Page Ref: 269Skill: UnderstandingP: .33D: .25 45) Josh’s history teacher wants Josh to learn important events that occurred during the Civil War. What type of knowledge would be most directly involved in this learning?
- A) Conditional declarative
- B) Domain-specific declarative
- C) General declarative
- D) Procedural declarative
Answer: BExplanation: B) Knowing information about a particular area (Civil War), as is expected of Josh, is domain-specific declarative knowledge. General declarative knowledge is knowing general information, such as the reason that lists are often alphabetized. Conditional knowledge is knowing when and why to apply information.Page Ref: 249-250Skill: UnderstandingP: .81D: .20 46) While taking his final exam, Jerry recalled one item of information that caused him to remember another piece of information related to the question. What phenomenon has he just experienced?
- A) Distributed recall
- B) Massed practice
- C) Serial-position effect
- D) Spread of activation
Answer: DExplanation: D) Jerry’s recall of one bit of information that led him to associate it with another piece of information is called the of spread of activation phenomenon. None of the other three response choices relates to this phenomenon.Page Ref: 252Skill: UnderstandingP: .71/ D: .5047) Forgetting due to the serial-position effect can be reduced through the use of
- A) massed practice.
- B) part learning.
- C) relearning.
- D) rote memorization.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Part learning breaks up a long list of items into a shorter list. As a result, there are fewer items in the middle that, due to the serial-position effect, are more difficult to remember than items at the beginning or end of a list.Page Ref: 256Skill: KnowledgeP: .46D: .56 48) You are asked to learn the 50 U.S. states, so you divide the country into geographic areas and set about your task. You are more likely to succeed than someone who begins to learn the states at random, because your system
- A) capitalizes on the serial-position effect by fragmenting the task.
- B) employs cues to organize your transfer from sensory memory.
- C) helps you encode the names of states at the time of recall.
- D) minimizes proactive interference through the ‘blocking’ effect.
Answer: AExplanation: A) The serial-position effect is that recall of items at the beginning and the end of a list is higher than of items in the middle of a list. Part learning, as occurs in this geography example, reduces the number of items in the middle. Consequently, verbal recall should increase.Page Ref: 256Skill: UnderstandingP: .54D: .44 49) An educational application designed to reduce the impact of the serial-position effect is to
- A) begin teaching important materials at the beginning of class and deal with administrative tasks later.
- B) break down the lesson into small parts that can be handled quite easily.
- C) provide a preview of the next period at the end of class rather than a review of what was covered today.
- D) start a class with seatwork, teach new information, and end the class with seatwork whenever possible.
Answer: BExplanation: B) In order to reduce the impact of the serial-position effect, it is important for the teacher to break down the information or concept into small parts that can be handled easily by students. It is meaningful to teach important content at the beginning of the class period and leave administrative tasks for later, but it is even more crucial to break down the information to be learned into small parts.Page Ref: 256Skill: Knowledge50) Based on the serial-position effect, what group of letters of the alphabet should be the most difficult to remember for someone who is first learning the alphabet?
- A) ABC
- B) MNO
- C) XYZ
- D) All of the above groups should be of equal difficulty.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The letters MNO would be most different to learn because they occur in the middle of the alphabet. The serial-position effect makes beginning or ending letters easier to remember.Page Ref: 256Skill: Knowledge 51) According to Woolfolk, the basic purpose of mnemonic aids is to
- A) increase students’ motivation to learn material requiring rote memorization.
- B) make connections between the information to be memorized.
- C) rehearse old information in order to implant it in the working memory.
- D) set up a system of rewards for remembering items that are not connected.
Answer: BExplanation: B) The main function of mnemonic aids is to help us make connections between information to be memorized. Commonly used strategies involve imagery and verbal associations (e.g., acronyms).Page Ref: 255Skill: KnowledgeP: .49D: .13 52) The first step in peg-type mnemonics is to
- A) associate new material with a familiar place or location.
- B) memorize a random list of places, words, or facts.
- C) organize the new material into meaningful patterns.
- D) visualize each element of the new material.
Answer: BExplanation: B) Peg-type mnemonics first require that you memorize a random list of places, words, or facts. This process works to serve as pegs to which new information can be associated.Page Ref: 255Skill: Knowledge 53) Dr. Beach used to be a typical ‘absent minded professor.’ However, she found that she could remember the things her husband asked her to pick up at the grocery store by imagining the items she needed placed on her desk, bookshelf, and file cabinet. The mnemonic device that she used is
- A) an acronym.
- B) chunking.
- C) the keyword method.
- D) the loci method.
Answer: DExplanation: D) Dr. Beach is using the loci method. Specifically, she is associating an already learned set of locations (or pegs) through imagery with the new information (the items to purchase).Page Ref: 255Skill: UnderstandingP: .91D: .2154) “I before E except after C” is an example of the use of what memory method?
- A) Chain
- B) Loci
- C) Keyword
- D) Peg-type
Answer: AExplanation: A) One application of the chain mnemonics method is to incorporate all items to be memorized into a jingle, such as “I before E except after C.” Consequently, the information becomes easier to recall.Page Ref: 255/ Skill: Knowledge 55) In order to avoid confusing entomology (the study of insects) with etymology (the study of the history of words), Vicky associates the sound “en” of entomology with the sound “in” of insects. What specific type of mnemonic is she using?
- A) Acronym
- B) Chain
- C) Keyword
- D) Peg-type
Answer: CExplanation: C) Vicky is using the keyword approach to avoid the confusion of terms. She is using a common English word (“insects”) to associate with the new word (“entomology”). Further elaboration might also invoke images to strengthen the association.Page Ref: 255Skill: UnderstandingP: .49D: .30 56) Consuela is a fourth-grade student who is studying geography. Tomorrow, she has a quiz over the Great Lakes. She creates a mnemonic device, HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior), to help her remember the names of the lakes. What type of mnemonic device is she using?
- A) Acronym
- B) Chain
- C) Keyword
- D) Peg-type
Answer: AExplanation: A) Consuela is using an acronym, which is a word formed from the first letter of each word or phrase. In contrast, a chain involves using the same procedure to create a sentence or jingle.Page Ref: 255Skill: UnderstandingP: .92D: .20 57) The use of imagery techniques of learning, such as the keyword method, seems most appropriate for what age group?
- A) Early elementary school
- B) Kindergarten
- C) Late elementary school and older
- D) Preschool
Answer: CExplanation: C) Because younger students have difficulty forming their own images, the use of the keyword method is more appropriate for children in late elementary school and beyond. Younger children seem more successful with rhymes and chaining methods.Page Ref: 259-260Skill: Knowledge58) Stacey is trying to learn the abbreviations and names for the chemical elements, such as Au (gold). He connects the Au with a mental picture of Auric Goldfinger, the villain in a James Bond novel. This is an example of using what learning strategy?
- A) Chaining
- B) Keyword
- C) Loci
- D) Metacognitive
Answer: BExplanation: B) Stacey is using the keyword method by linking a new item to be remembered (AU) with an image that incorporates the item (an image of Auric Goldfinger, the James Bond villain).Page Ref: 255Skill: UnderstandingP: .56D: .36 59) Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves
- A) applying rules for the purpose of categorizing specific objects or ideas.
- B) developing new strategies for performing various cognitive activities.
- C) generating ways to organize thoughts and actions in order to meet a goal.
- D) integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding.
Answer: DExplanation: D) According to the information-processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding. In this manner, learning becomes meaningful instead of rote.Page Ref: 256-257Skill: Knowledge 60) What type of knowledge do experts have that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities?
- A) Conditional
- B) Declarative
- C) Organizational
- D) Procedural
Answer: DExplanation: D) The type of knowledge that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities is procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge involves verbal information and facts, while conditional knowledge involves manipulating declarative and procedural knowledge to solve problems.Page Ref: 256Skill: KnowledgeP: .78D: .2161) What can teachers do to help their students develop an automated basic skill?
- A) Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback.
- B) Focus on executive control processes in order to guide the flow of information through students’ information processing systems.
- C) Teach domain-specific strategies for solving problems and control processes for guiding knowledge.
- D) Train students to use a variety of strategies for retrieving knowledge from long-term memory.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Most psychologists identify three stages in the development of an automated skill. In order to help students pass through these stages, it appears that two factors are critical: prerequisite knowledge and practice with feedback.Page Ref: 258Skill: KnowledgeP: .61D: .30 62) In order to help students become better learners, it is recommended that they
- A) be provided a variety of strategies and practices.
- B) be taught strategies, but not specific tactics.
- C) master one effective strategy before introducing another.
- D) receive strategies training that focuses on procedures.
Answer: AExplanation: A) Research has suggested that students should be exposed to a variety of different strategies. Also, specific tactics, such as mnemonic techniques, should be learned.Page Ref: 259-261Skill: KnowledgeP: .92D: .13 Bill is having considerable difficulty remembering names, terms, and facts in his American History class. On the last exam, he identified General Sherman as a Vietnam War hero, and Saigon as the capitol of Japan. Historical dates are so confusing to him that he does not even try to remember them. The result is that, although he typically does satisfactorily on essay questions (he purposely leaves out any names that he is uncertain about and always omits dates), his scores are extremely low on objective items such as multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank items. Given this scenario, answer the following items: 63) If Bill wants to begin memorizing specific historical events, what strategy would prove to be most useful?
- A) Distributed practice
- B) Figurative learning
- C) Metacognitive differentiation
- D) Procedural memory
Answer: AExplanation: A) Bill’s problem with memorizing would be assisted by using distributed practice in addition to using mnemonic strategies (not a response choice for this item).Page Ref: 256Skill: UnderstandingP: .44D: .5664) With what type of knowledge is Bill having difficulty?
- A) Conditional
- B) Declarative
- C) General
- D) Procedural
Answer: BExplanation: B) Bill’s learning difficulty is with declarative knowledge, i.e., the ability to integrate existing knowledge to construct understanding of American history. Rote learning methods, mnemonics, and distributed practice are methods for aiding declarative knowledge.Page Ref: 253Skill: UnderstandingP: .72D: .36 65) What type of learning should Bill’s teacher be most concerned about in order for Bill to be able to use consciously applied skills of organizing thoughts and actions to reach a learning goal?
- A) Condition-action strategies
- B) Domain-specific strategies
- C) General strategies
- D) Production strategies
Answer: BExplanation: B) The specific type of learning with which Bill’s teacher is most concerned is with domain-specific strategies. These strategies involve consciously applied skills of organizing thoughts and actions to reach a goal. In this scenario, the goal involves Jerry learning names, terms, and facts of American history. The teacher needs to provide many opportunities for Jerry to practice these learning skills.Page Ref: 259Skill: UnderstandingP: .78D: .22 Completion Questions 1) Older cognitive views of learning emphasized the acquisition of knowledge, although newer approaches stress ________ of knowledge.Answer: constructionPage Ref: 234 2) Knowing specific facts or knowing how to do something is called verbal information or ________ knowledge.Answer: declarativePage Ref: 253 3) The information processing model of memory involves encoding, storage, and ________ of information.Answer: retrievalPage Ref: 236-237 4) The memory system that initially receives stimuli from the environment is the ________.Answer: sensory memoryPage Ref: 237 5) The process of detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it is called ________.Answer: perceptionPage Ref: 2386) The type of processing that involves identifying stimuli by analyzing their features is called ________ processing.Answer: bottom upPage Ref: 238 7) Short-term memory is often called ________, because it is where our current thinking or “consciousness” takes place.Answer: workingPage Ref: 239 8) Information may be lost from working memory by decay or ________.Answer: interferencePage Ref: 253 9) Knowledge stored in long-term memory that CANNOT be recalled upon demand is referred to as ________.Answer: Implicit MemoryPage Ref: 245 10) ________ memories involve knowledge that we can deliberately recall when we need the information.Answer: ExplicitPage Ref: 245 11) The smallest unit of knowledge that can be judged true or false is called a ________.Answer: propositionPage Ref: 246 12) Categories that group similar events or things are called ________.Answer: conceptsPage Ref: 247 13) The term used to describe the best example of a particular concept category is a(n) ________.Answer: prototypePage Ref: 247 14) Information regarding events of our lives is stored in ________ long-term memory.Answer: episodicPage Ref: 249 15) The theory that strongly emphasizes as a determinant of memory the degree to which information is analyzed and associated with other information is ________ theory.Answer: levels of processingPage Ref: 251 16) The process that occurs when remembering certain information is hampered by the presence of other information is called ________.Answer: interferencePage Ref: 253 17) According to current theories of memory, the flow of information through information processing systems is guided by the ________ processes.Answer: executive controlPage Ref: 24018) Knowing about the characteristics and images of a concept is ________ knowledge.Answer: declarativePage Ref: 244 19) Knowing how to apply rules to categorize objects and ideas is ________ knowledge.Answer: proceduralPage Ref: 244 20) The greater difficulty of remembering items in the middle of a list, compared to beginning or ending items, is referred to as the ________ effect.Answer: serial-positionPage Ref: 256 21) One of the specific methods used to improve memory that derives its name from the plural of the Latin word meaning “place” is the ________ method.Answer: lociPage Ref: 255 22) The mnemonic technique that involves associating a familiar word with a known word through an image or sentence is the ________ method.Answer: keywordPage Ref: 255 23) The three stages in the development of an automated skill are cognitive, associative, and ________.Answer: autonomousPage Ref: 258 24) Consciously applied skills of organizing thoughts and actions to reach a goal are ________ strategies.Answer: domain-specificPage Ref: 259 True/False Questions 1) Current cognitive psychologists view learning more as the construction of knowledge than as the acquisition of knowledge.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 234-235 2) Recognizing stimuli by feature analysis is a form of bottom-up processing.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 238 3) Stimuli from the environment are theorized to first enter working memory.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 237-238 4) Only about 14 items may be stored in short-term memory at any given time.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 238 5) It appears that the capacity of long-term memory is unlimited.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 243-2456) Long-term memory holds information that is currently activated.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 243-245 7) “Memory for meaning” is semantic memory.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 245 8) All members of a concept category have clearly identifiable defining attributes.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 247 9) A prototype is a false instance of a concept.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 247 10) Schemas provide the structures or guides that enable people to understand an event.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 248 11) The element of processing that influences the physical and emotional environment in which learning takes place is elaboration.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 251 12) A story grammar is a type of schema for text.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 24813) The “spread of activation” phenomenon is basically a short-term memory process.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 252 14) The key to maintaining information in long-term memory is rehearsal.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 242 15) The primary difference between implicit and explicit memories is in the amount of information that can be stored in the different types of memories.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 245 16) If a student tries very hard to remember the name of a book author, he or she is searching knowledge stored as an explicit memory.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 245 17) “Reconstructed memory” means “accurate memory.”Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 25218) The serial-position effect suggests that forgetting the middle of a list is more likely than forgetting the beginning or end of a list.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 256 19) The keyword method involves memorizing a standard list of words as a basis for forming associations with new items.Answer: FALSEPage Ref: 255 20) The typical student who “crams” the night before an important exam is attempting to use massed practice.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 256 21) Consciously applied skills of organizing thoughts and actions to reach a learning goal are called domain-specific strategies.Answer: TRUEPage Ref: 259 Short Answer Questions 1) Describe what is meant by the “cognitive perspective” and discuss how this perspective differs from behavioral orientations to learning. Answer: The cognitive perspective is a philosophical orientation that views learning as a attempt to make sense out of the world through active processing of information. Specifically, we relate new information to what we already know, and in the process change the information and our knowledge structures to achieve a consistent fit. Older cognitive views stressed the acquisition of knowledge, whereas current views stress the construction of knowledge. In contrast, behavioral views focus on the effects of reinforcement in strengthening responses and the overt behavior that represents those responses. Page Ref: 234-2352) Compare and contrast long-term and working memory with regard to storage, capacity, and retrieval. Answer: Short-term memory is limited to five to nine items and is subject to time decay, though items can be held indefinitely through rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal, for example, involves repeating information in one’s mind. Elaborative rehearsal involves trying to associate new information with existing knowledge. Items enter immediately and are immediately available with little distortion, but items forgotten are lost forever. Short-term memory is also called working memory. Long-term memory has unlimited duration and capacity. Information is much more reliant on organization and schemata. Recall may depend on reconstruction and cues. There is more possibility of distortion than for short-term memory. Types of long-term memory are semantic, episodic, and procedural.Page Ref: 239-241,243-245 3) Do we ever truly forget anything? Describe how information is retrieved from long-term memories and the processes that prevent or limit accurate recall. Answer: Information lost from sensory memory or working memory is lost forever. In long-term memory, however, information may never be truly lost. Some theories attribute long-term forgetting to suppression or fading of the memory trace. Interference may also inhibit memory, but in principle it should be possible to reconstruct information from the organizational structures of long-term memory. Interference occurs when the learning of new information makes it more difficult to remember what was previously learned or when previous learning makes it more difficult to remember new information.Page Ref: 243-245,2534) Explain the role of attention in learning, giving suggestions for teachers to increase student attentiveness to the lesson. Answer: Our senses are continually bombarded with stimuli. Consequently, attending to every change in the environment is impossible. To be helpful, attention must be selective. Students need to attend to the lesson and to ignore other stimuli. Teachers can help assure student attention by focusing attention through the use of colorful or unusual lesson starters. They can tell students the purpose of the lesson is to arouse curiosity and use an animated style to improve students’ attention.Page Ref: 239 5) Discuss contemporary views about how concepts are learned and the implication of those views for teaching. Answer: The traditional view of concept learning was that all members of a category share defining attributes or distinctive features. Today it is believed that, in learning concepts, people are often unaware of these attributes and instead focus on a prototype or “best representative” of a concept category. It is also assumed that we identify members of a category by referring to exemplarsactual memories of specific examples to which we compare new stimuli for possible membership. Recommended strategies for teaching concepts use both distinctive features and prototypes. Lessons should include (a) the concept name, (b) a definition, (c) relevant and irrelevant attributes, and (d) examples and nonexamples. Starting with prototypes is encouraged, as is the use of pictures to illustrate similarities and differences between examples and nonexamples.Page Ref: 247 6) Do children of different ages tend to use working memory in the same way? Discuss developmental differences in working memory. Answer: Research indicates that young children have very limited working memories, but that memory span improves. The differences may be due to changes in memory capacity or improvements in strategy use. As children grow older, they develop more effective strategies for remembering, such as rehearsing (about age five or six). Not until they are 10- to 11-years-old do children have adult-like working memories. Organization strategies begin at about age 6 and are used spontaneously at about age 8 or 9. It also seems to be the case that some people, regardless of development, have more efficient short-term memories than do others.Page Ref: 259-260 7) Identify and describe the procedures of three different mnemonic strategies. Answer: Peg-type mnemonics involve memorizing a standard list of places or words. New items are mentally associated with these “pegs.” The method of loci and acronym are two examples. Chain mnemonics involve connecting each new item on a list to a previous one using imagery or a verbal jingle (e.g., “I before E except after C “). The keyword method involves associating a new word (such as a foreign word) with a known word through an image or sentence. All three of these mnemonic strategies attempt to increase the meaningfulness of material by relating the new items to information already in memory (e.g., image, word, or verbal jingle). The new information is learned in association with existing knowledge rather than as isolated rote memorization.Page Ref: 255-256 8) Define what is meant by automated skills, and describe the stages assumed to be involved in developing them. Answer: Skills that are applied without conscious thought are called automated basic skills. Most psychologists describe three stages in the development of an automated skill: cognitive, associative, and autonomous. At the cognitive stage, we rely on declarative knowledge and general problem-solving strategies. There is much trial-and-error learning. At the associative stage, individual steps are combined or chunked into larger units. At the autonomous stage, the whole procedure is accomplished without much attention. Teachers can help students pass through these stages by providing them with prerequisite knowledge and practice with feedback.Page Ref: 256Case Studies Ramona and Ann were walking home from school when they heard the screeching of brakes and the blare of a horn. Then, just 30 feet in front of them, they saw the crash of a white car and a blue pickup truck. The next day the children were excitedly telling their friends about what they saw. “That white car was traveling real fast and swerving from side to side,” Ramona said. “I don’t remember that,” corrected Ann. “It seemed to me that the truck didn’t stop fast enough at the stop sign.” “What stop sign?” asked Ramona. “It was on the other street-the white car’s side. Don’t you remember?” said Ann. The discussion continued this way for the next five minutes, until the audience of increasingly impatient listeners dwindled down to one faithful friend. Ramona and Ann weren’t trying to argue, but they couldn’t seem to agree on anything. 1) Discuss how the following memory systems would be involved in perceiving and remembering the accident: sensory, working, long-term. Answer: The information from the accident scene entered Ramona and Ann’s sensory memory through their own senses of hearing, seeing, smelling and feeling. For example, both girls heard the screeching of the car brakes and smelled the burnt rubber of the tires as the driver tried to slow down. Although this stimuli from the environment remained in the sensory register for less than a split second, this initial process is required for taking information into memory. Due to the loud sound, both girls paid careful attention to the events over the next few seconds. Because they knew of the severity of the situation, they were almost hyper-alert and did not pay attention to any other stimuli in the environment. During this phase, the information was stored and processed in working memory. The girls stored the information in working memory for probably about 15-20 seconds, which was sufficient time to connect their newly stored information with knowledge previously stored in their long-term memory. For example, they may have memories of car crashes from television shows and movies. Most likely the girls would have utilized their central executive, which is a specific component of working memory. Knowing that they may need to provide a police report later, the girls relied upon their central executive aspect of their working memory to focus their attention and plan for how they would remember minor details of the accident. Because they could repeat specific details related to the accident later (i.e., color of the truck, etc.), we know that some of the information is stored in their long-term memory. However, because they do not have a lot of expertise relative to being a witness to a car accident, we would expect some of their knowledge in their long-term memories would not be integrated or translated into accurate images.Page Ref: 237-245 2) In trying to remember the events of the preceding day, were the children mainly using semantic memory or episodic memory? Explain. Answer: When verbalizing events that took place the previous day the girls would most likely use knowledge stored as episodic memories. When repeating information tied to the specific car accident, they are relying upon memories connected to their own personal life. If they were not able to describe the specific event in that they observed, but were relying upon knowledge about car accidents in general, then they would be utilizing semantic memories.Page Ref: 245,249 3) What is the role of schemas in influencing the children’s recollections? Answer: Ramona and Ann each have a schema for how car accidents take place. Thus, they have a representation of this event, which would guide their later recollection of the specific car accident they observed. For example, Ann has a driving schema which includes the knowledge that when a car slows down it should be because there is a stop sign. Therefore, Ann believes she saw a stop sign at the scene of the accident. Whereas, Ramona did not have the stop sign in her “driving schema” and does not remember a stop sign at the accident scene.Page Ref: 248-2494) Discuss the children’s disagreements in terms of reconstructive memory. Is the variance in their recollections likely to increase or decrease over time? Explain.Answer: When knowledge is missing, we typically “fill in the gaps” with other information that seems reasonable to the situation. For example, Ramona cannot correctly remember exactly what the white car was doing during the accident. Thus, it seems logical that it was swerving from side to side. In contrast, Ann was paying focused attention to the white car during the accident. She does not have any missing information in her memory and this may explain why she disagrees with Ramona that the white car was swerving. As Ramona and Ann both talk to different people about the accident, they are likely to encounter questions that reveal more parts of their missing memories. Thus, they are likely to engage in additional memory reconstruction over time which would account for the expected increase in variance in their recollections. Page Ref: 252Taylor is having considerable difficulty remembering terms, names, and facts in his English Literature class. On his last exam, he identified Shakespeare as the author of The Canterbury Tales and Paris as the location of the Tales. Historical authors and their works are so confusing to him that he doesn’t even try to remember them. The result is that, although he typically does satisfactorily on essays (he purposefully leaves out connecting authors with their works that he is uncertain about), his scores are extremely low on objective items such as multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank items. 5) With what type of learning is Taylor having difficulty? What implications do the special properties of this type of material have for learning and retention?Answer: Taylor is struggling with processing declarative knowledge, which is knowledge about facts and is referred to as “knowing that.” By lacking declarative knowledge about authors and other facts about literature, Taylor will have limited capabilities for organizing smaller facts into larger units of knowledge (i.e., broad principles about English literature). Page Ref: 253-2546) Apply the concepts of massed vs. distributed practice to suggest an effective strategy that Taylor might employ to improve his performance. Answer: One way to approach Taylor’s learning difficulty is to have him engage in distributed practice, which means requiring him to memorize dates and authors in brief periods with short rest intervals. Because Taylor has lost interest in the subject matter, he tends to study English literature in a single study period of four straight hours (i.e., massed practice). Research shows Taylor will have better retention and retrieval of material if he were to study one hour for four consecutive nights. By distributing Taylor’s study efforts, he will have more of an opportunity to engage in deeper processing, which increases the probability that they information will be moved into long-term memory.Page Ref: 256 7) Identify at least two mnemonic strategies that he could employ and briefly describe how each might be used. Answer: The first step in using mnemonics is that Taylor will need to rely upon information stored as procedural and conditional knowledge. He will need to know how to use a specific mnemonic (procedural) and when to employ the mnemonic (conditional). You could recommend Taylor try the keyword method for memorizing the fact that The Canterbury Tales takes place in London. In this example, Taylor might memorize the sentence “The cat buried his tail in London.” The keyword here is “buried” which is a part of Canterbury. Using a “cat” in this sentence will cue Taylor to the letter “c.” He can remember “Cat buried”, which sounds somewhat familiar to “Canterbury.” In addition, to the keyword method he could use visual imagery techniques to imagine a cat burying his tail in a hole in a London street. Building on the cat theme, you could assist Taylor in creating an acronym for remembering the author’s name. For example, Taylor could remember “C.A.T.”, which stands for “Chaucer – Author of Tales.”Page Ref: 255