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Ethics And The Conduct Of Business 7th Edition By Boatright – Test Bank
Chapter 6PrivacyCHAPTER SUMMARYAlthough privacy is a relatively recent concept—dating in American law to the 1890s—public concern is clearly increasing, primarily in response to privacy-invading technologies. The problems facing employees, consumers, and Internet users are similar, as are the solutions. There is greater agreement, however, on the ends than on the means, but even the ends are in dispute. Americans say that they value privacy, and yet they give up a great deal for convenience and material gain. Without question, the technologies that threaten privacy have brought us many benefits. Finding the right means is a great challenge to business firms which must meet employee and consumer expectations as they utilize new technologies. More than many business ethics problems, protecting privacy requires a coordinated solution involving many parties. Until a solution is found, though, the focus of businesses will remain on developing and implementingprivacy policies.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES• Identify the arenas in which privacy concerns have come under increasing scrutiny.• Explain the ethical meaning of the concept of privacy.• Explain utilitarian and Kantian arguments for the protection of privacy.SUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS1.What are some definitions of privacy? Is privacy a right unto itself, or is it a special case of a more general kind of right?2.Which do you think is the most sound ethical basis on which to defend privacy?3.To what extent do you think companies’ gathering of personal employee information is justifiable?4.Why is it ethically objectionable for companies to share employee information with outsiders?5.In what ways has privacy on the internet become a major concern?© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.18ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USEThe following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment may be available through Pearson’s MyTest website—allowing for easy access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit, http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator.Multiple Choice QuestionsChoose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.1.The Freedom of Information Act of 1966 had the unforeseen consequence of .A.making government more transparent in their dealingsB.making corporations more transparent in their dealingsC.compromising confidentiality about private individualsD.making information more readily available to individualsAnswer: C2.Employers feel the need to monitor their employees at work primarily .A.to influence themB.to keep them safeC.to be competitiveD.to maintain productivityAnswer: D3.Employers may want to use psychological testing on employees primarily .A.to gauge suitability for a jobB.to detect potential sources of troubleC.for statistical reporting purposesD.to test for intelligenceAnswer: A4.One of the biggest issues in consumer privacy is when .A.companies find out what customers most likeB.companies sell their collected information to other companiesC.companies use databases to store customer informationD.companies keep personal information on employeesAnswer: B5.The ethical meaning of privacy originates from .A.the Bill of RightsB. the idea of freedom of thoughtC.the twentieth centuryD.the use of contraceptivesAnswer: C© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.196.Which of the following is the best definition of privacy?A.when certain facts are not known to othersB.when information about ourselves is under our controlC.to be free of to make choicesD.to be free of supervisionAnswer: A7. Utilitarian arguments for privacy focus on .A. the rights of individualsB. the harm in violationC.breaking the lawD.justiceAnswer: B8.A Kantian argument for privacy focuses on .A.not harming peopleB.contractual obligationsC.violations of the lawD.a setting of trustAnswer: D9.An example of an acceptable use of employees’ medical information would be .A.for reporting to the governmentB.to determine eligibility for employmentC.for determining benefits that would be neededD.to gather companywide statistics to share with employeesAnswer: C10. One way to protect people’s privacy on the internet is to .A.a. allow them to opt out of information collectingB.b. give them choices as to what will be done with their informationC.c. only share information that people voluntarily provideD.d. only use information in a way that helps the free marketAnswer: AEssay Questions1.Describe ways in which the right of privacy to be protected has been argued.2.What are some reasons that employers collect personal employee information? In what ways might such collection raise ethical problems?3.What are some principles of internet privacy, and how are they implemented?© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.20Chapter 7Discrimination and Affirmative ActionCHAPTER SUMMARYThe ethical issues surrounding discrimination and affirmative action are very problematic. Rights figure prominently in these issues—both the rights of people who have been victimized by discrimination and the rights of people who now bear the burden of correcting past wrongs. Considerations of justice also play a role. Justice requires that people who have been wronged be compensated in some way and that all people be treated equally, but the concepts of just compensation and of equal opportunity or equal treatment are subject to differing interpretations. Finally, arguments based on utility provide strong support for antidiscrimination and affirmative-action policies, although the benefits of any given policy must be weighed against the harms. The ideal of a nondiscriminatory society is clear, but the pathway to it is strewn with formidable obstacles.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES• Identify sources of discrimination.• Explain the issues surrounding sexual harassment, and why it is a form of discrimination.• Explain ethical approaches to identifying and avoiding discrimination.• Describe the various justifications that have been made for affirmative actionSUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS1.Define discrimination. What forms of discrimination are unethical?2.Is sexual harassment a form of discrimination, or should it be identified as something else?3.What causes cases of sexual harassment? Can it be prevented?4.What do you think provides the best reason for thinking that discrimination is wrong?5.Is affirmative action a sufficient measure for correcting discrimination? Is it necessary?© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.21ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USEThe following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment may be available through Pearson’s MyTest website—allowing for easy access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit, http://www.pearsonhighered.com/replocator.Multiple Choice QuestionsChoose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.1.Discrimination is widely considered unethical largely because it is .A.unjustB.illegalC.harmfulD.meritedAnswer: A2.It is not generally illegal to discriminate on the basis of .A.sexB.ageC.abilityD.nationalityAnswer: C3.Employers can be found guilty of discrimination .A.only if they intend to discriminateB.any time an employee feels discriminated againstC.if the effects were just as though discrimination had occurredD.even if they have not transgressed a particular lawAnswer: C4.Religious discrimination is unique in that it that can involve .A.prejudiceB. specific practicesC.things beyond an employer’s controlD.abilitiesAnswer: B5.Sexual harassment can be a form of discrimination .A.when it involves prejudiceB.only when it is a condition for employmentC.any time sex is not a qualificationD. when it involves a hostile work environmentAnswer: D© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.226. A utilitarian in opposition to discrimination would say that discrimination is wrong because .A.it makes productivity sufferB.it violates the right to privacyC.it violates human dignityD.it is unfairAnswer: A7.A nonconsequentialist might argue against discrimination on the basis of .A.the disadvantage it gives to minoritiesB.the harm that it does to societyC.its damage to the economyD.its being unjustAnswer: D8.Affirmative action plans are generally aimed towards .A.achieving certain quotasB.rectifying past injusticesC.giving greater opportunitiesD.correcting prejudiceAnswer: C9.One who supports affirmative action on the basis of compensation would argue on the basis of .A.fairnessB.justiceC.benefitsD.consequencesAnswer: B10. On what basis might one argue that affirmative action hurts those it is designed to help?A.It ensures minorities are hired on a basis other than their qualifications.B.People can always find ways to get around affirmative action policies.C.Affirmative action programs could give minorities too many positions.D.It is unjust to those who are qualified but not minorities.Answer: AEssay Questions1.Why is sexual harassment often considered a form of discrimination?2.How do people draw the line between job specifications that require discrimination on the one hand, and unfair discrimination on the other?3.Describe a case of affirmative action and the type of discrimination that it would beintended to overcome.