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Evidence Based Practice Nurses Appraisal Application Research 2ndEd By Schmidt Brown – Test Bank
CHAPTER SIXKEY PRINCIPLES OF QUANTITATIVE DESIGN Research study designs (p. 144)
 In research studies using experimental designs, the purpose is to
 examine causality.
 explain relationships and differences among variables..
 observe a phenomenon after it has been manipulated..
 predict relationships among variables..
Research study designs (p. 144)
 In research studies using nonexperimental designs, the purpose is to
 explain relationships and differences among variables.
 predict relationships and differences among variables.
 describe a phenomenon in detail.
 all of the above.
Research study designs (p. 144)
 The major difference between experimental and nonexperimental designs is the role of the
Research study designs (p. 144)
 A type of quantitative study is the ____________, which examines outcomes across a number of studies. (p. 124)
 case study
 controlled trial
 descriptive study
 metaanalysis
Research study designs (p. 144)
 The researcher actively manipulates the independent (causal) variable to determine its effect on the dependent (outcome) variable when using a(n)

 experimental design
 metaanalysis
 nonexperimental design
 control group
Quantitative designs (p. 145)
 Causality is the ____________ that exists between a cause and its effect.
 balance
 relationship
 purpose
 outcome
Quantitative designs (p. 145)
 When outcomes have many causes, the situation is known as
Quantitative designs (p. 146)
 Probability is how likely it is that the effect of the dependent variable was caused by the ____________ variable.
 independent
 evaluated
 manipulated
 original
Quantitative designs (p. 146)
 Manipulation is the ____________, or treatment, that is being tested in an experimental study.
 medication
 proposition
 intervention
 maturation
Quantitative designs (p. 146)
 In healthrelated experimental designs, the group of subjects receiving the standard of care but not the intervention is the

 control group.
 intervention group.
 total population.
 total sample.
Quantitative designs (p. 146)
 Variables that confuse the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable are

 control variables.
 extraneous variables.
 random variables.
 withingroup variables.
Quantitative designs (p. 147)
 When extraneous variables influence and distort the relationship between the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) so that the findings do not reflect a true relationship between the IV and the DV, the result is
Quantitative designs (p. 147)
 What is an effective way to control extraneous variables?
 Research purpose
 Experimental treatment
 Informed consent
 Randomization
Quantitative designs (p. 147)
 A method of sampling in which all subjects in the sample have an equal chance of being assigned to either the treatment group or the control group is

 betweengroup design.
 withingroup design.
 random assignment.
 random sampling.
Quantitative designs (p. 147)
 A method of sampling in which all people in the population of interest have an equal chance of being selected to be included in the study is

 selected sampling.
 withingroup sampling.
 random assignment.
 random sampling.
Validity (p. 149)
 Study validity refers to
 the accuracy and peerreviewed approval of the research design.
 the absence of forces that can alter the results of the study.
 the degree to which the researcher can prove that the results are accurate.
 the ability to accept that the research results are logical, reasonable, and justifiable based on the evidence presented.
Validity (p. 150)
 The degree to which one can conclude that the independent variable, rather than extraneous variables, produced the change in the dependent variable is known as

 effectiveness.
 internal validity.
 statistical validity.
 Reliability.
Validity (pp. 150, 153)
 External validity refers to
 the degree to which confounding variables interfere with the study outcomes.
 the degree to which the findings can be generalized to other subjects, settings, and times.
 the influence of a specific event on the dependent variable.
 the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.
Validity (p. 151)
 A researcher interested in studying the effect of hearing loss on selfesteem in adolescents in grades 6 through 12 would need to be aware of what type of threat to internal validity?
 Testing
 History
 Mortality
 Maturation
Validity (p. 151)
 Which type of bias occurs when the dependent variable is influenced by changes made in the way variables are measured?

 Threat of history
 Threat of instrumentation
 Threat of maturation
 Threat of selection bias
Validity (p. 154)
 In which type of designs do neither subjects nor individuals administering the treatments know if subjects are receiving experimental interventions or the standard of care?
 Doubleblind experimental
 Longitudinal (prospective)
 Quasiexperimental
 Nonexperimental
Validity (p. 153)
 The ____________ occurs when changes noted in the dependent variable can be a result of subject reactivity and not a result of the independent variable.
 selection effect
 Type II effect
 Hawthorne effect
 placebo effect
Short answer/fillin Categorizing designs according to time
 Also referred to as “ex post facto,” ____________ designs start with the dependent variable and look back in time to determine possible causative factors.
Answer: retrospective (p. 156)
 Nonexperimental designs in which data is gathered from a group of subjects at only one point in time are known as ____________ studies.
Answer: crosssectional (p. 157)
 When more than one group of subjects is studied at the same point in time, this nonexperimental study type is a ____________.
Answer: cohort comparison (p. 157)
 Also known as prospective designs, ____________ designs gather data about subjects at more than one point in time. They can be either ____________ or nonexperimental.
Answer: longitudinal, experimental (p. 158)
 In a followup study, subjects are followed into the ____________.
Answer: future (p. 158)
 A study in which subjects receive more than one experimental treatment and then are followed over time is based on the ____________ design.
Answer: crossover (p. 159) CHAPTER 7QUANTITATIVE DESIGNS: USING NUMBERS TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE Multiple Choice Nonexperimenal designs (p. 175)
 Researchers use nonexperimental, descriptive designs for a variety of purposes, including

 for early stages of theory development.
 when it is not practical to conduct an experiment on the subject.
 neither A nor B.
 both A and B.
Experimental designs (p. 168)
 Why would a researcher need to be concerned about the administration of a pretest and posttest in a research study?

 It is a threat to external validity.
 It is a threat to internal validity.
 It is a form of selection bias.
 It is a form of maturation.
Experimental designs (p. 167)
 Which design type is considered to be the “classic” experimental design in which subjects are randomized into either the intervention group or the control group and measured before and after the intervention is implemented?

 Solomon four group
 Two group pretestposttest
 Multiple group
 Two group posttest only
Experimental designs (p. 169)
 Which design type allows researchers to manipulate more than one intervention during the same experiment?
 Multiple group
 Crossover
 Factorial
 Quasiexperimental
Experimental designs (pp. 165175)
 The three major categories of quantitative research designs are
 experimental, quasiexperimental, descriptive
 experimental, quasiexperimental, nonexperimental
 experimental, nonexperimental, exploratory
 experimental, descriptive, exploratory
Quasiexperimental designs (p. 171)
 Which design type is similar to experimental design but does not meet one of the other essential components of experimental design, lacking either randomization or a control group?
 Descriptive
 Crossover
 Factorial
 Quasiexperimental
Quasiexperimental designs (p. 171)
 The advantage of using a quasiexperimental design in nursing is

 smaller sample size.
 to provide beginning evidence of causality.
 descriptive statistics can be used to analyze data.
 the design is stronger in determining causality.
Nonexperimental designs (pp. 176177)
 Which type of design would be used by researchers interested in establishing relationships between two or more variables, for example, the type of coping used by caregivers of older adults having cognitive changes and the occurrence of elder abuse?
 correlational
 quasiexperimental
 multiexperimental
 factorial
CHAPTER 6Multiple choice
 A
 D
 C
 D
 A
 B
 D
 A
 C
 A
 B
 D
 D
 C
 D
 D
 B
 B
 D
 B
 A
 C
Short answer/Fillin
 retrospective
 crosssectional
 cohort comparison
 longitudinal, experimental
 future
 crossover
CHAPTER 7Multiple choice
 D
 B
 B
 C
 B
 D
 B
 A