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Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman – Test Bank
1Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)Chapter 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations I: Selection and Mutation1) A hypothetical population has two alleles for a gene: A and a. In a random sample of 100individuals, 20 are homozygous for a, 20 are homozygous for A, and 60 are heterozygous. Whatis the frequency of A?A) 20%B) 25%C) 50%D) 60%E) 80%Answer: CSection: 6.1Skill: Application/Analysis2) In the mating of an Aa female and an Aa male, the genotypic outcome predicted by a Punnettsquare is ________.A) three-quarters Aa and one-quarter AAB) one-half AA and one-half aaC) three-quarters Aa and one-quarter aaD) one-quarter AA, one-quarter aa, and one-half AaE) All offspring will have the genotype AaAnswer: DSection: 6.1Skill: Application/Analysis3) The probability that two mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by ________.A) multiplying the probability of each individual eventB) adding the probability of each individual eventC) adding the probability of each individual event and subtracting 1D) adding the probability of each individual event and multiplying by 2Answer: BSection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension4) If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following statements iscorrect?A) Each allele will be present at a 50% frequency.B) Allele frequencies can vary from generation to generation, but the average frequency mustremain constant.C) The size of the population must remain constant from generation to generation.D) Allele frequencies must remain the same from generation to generation.E) The rate of change of allele frequencies must be greater than 1 percent from generation togeneration.Answer: DSection: 6.1Skill: Application/Analysis2Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.5) The null hypothesis, which demonstrates that evolution is not occurring from generation togeneration, is known as the ________ model.A) BatemanB) Hardy-WeinbergC) Fisher stabilityD) Mendelian stabilityAnswer: BSection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension6) In large populations, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle can be used to determinewhether evolution is occurring. For instances where allelic frequencies are indicated by p and q,the resultant genotype frequencies are indicated by which of the following equations?A) p2 + q2B) p2 + pq + q2C) p2 + 2pq + q2D) p2 + (pq)2 + q2Answer: CSection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension7) Cavener and Clegg (1981) demonstrated natural selection by observing the cumulative changein allele frequencies in populations of Drosophila melanogaster that were subjected to highlevels of ________.A) mercuryB) carbon dioxideC) alcoholD) sugarE) nitrous oxideAnswer: CSection: 6.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension8) If there were a high allele frequency for the CCR5-32 coreceptor, and the rate of infectionwith HIV was high as well, one would expect the frequency of the CCR5-32 coreceptor allele to________.A) remain the same due to the lethality of AIDSB) remain the same due to the population maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibriumC) fall quickly due to heterozygote selectionD) rise quickly and confer resistance on a large part of the populationAnswer: DSection: 6.2Skill: Application/Analysis3Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.9) In experiments with laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster, Mukai and Burdick(1959) observed that a lethal allele maintained a higher than expected frequency. Theexplanation for this observation is that, at equilibrium, the selective advantage of the lethal allelewhen it occurs in heterozygotes balances the disadvantage of the allele in homozygotes, and istermed ________.A) equilibrium distributionB) underdominanceC) allelic frequency dependenceD) overdominanceE) terminal dominanceAnswer: DSection: 6.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension10) In the study of Gigord and colleagues using Elderflower orchids, the allele frequencies ofyellow and purple flowers varied such that when the yellow allele started to become rare, thereproductive success of purple flowers decreased and the reproductive success of yellowfloweredindividuals increased in a process known as ________.A) overdominanceB) frequency-dependent selectionC) underdominanceD) Hardy-Weinberg stabilizationE) frequency depressionAnswer: BSection: 6.3Skill: Application/Analysis11) The point at which the rate that a deleterious allele is being eliminated from a population bynatural selection is in equilibrium with the rate at which the deleterious allele is being replacedby a new mutation is termed ________.A) mutation-dependent selectionB) frequency-dependent selectionC) mutation-dependent equilibriumD) mutation-selection balanceAnswer: DSection: 6.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension4Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.12) Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic diseases among individuals of Europeanancestry, and affects one newborn in approximately how many?A) 10B) 100C) 250D) 2,500E) 10,000Answer: DSection: 6.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension13) Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation that encodes a proteincalled the ________.A) cystic fibrosis transmembrane ion channelB) chloride ion transmembrane conductance regulatorC) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatorD) cystic fibrosis ion channel regulatorAnswer: CSection: 6.4Skill: Application/Analysis14) An analysis showing the heterozygote superiority of the ΔF508 allele of CFTR demonstratesincreased resistance to infections with the bacteria that cause ________.A) pneumoniaB) typhoid feverC) scarlet feverD) bubonic plagueE) tuberculosisAnswer: BSection: 6.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension15) Chun-Hong Chen and colleagues (2007) designed a new gene that would carry a strongselective advantage and confer the resistance to malaria on free-living mosquitoes. The gene wastermed Medea, and this acronym stands for which of the following?A) Maternal-effect depleted embryonic activationB) Maternal-effect dominant embryonic activationC) Maternal-effect deleterious embryonic arrestD) Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrestAnswer: DSection: 6.5Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension5Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.16) A group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring is known as a(n) ________.Answer: populationSection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension17) The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle is known as the null hypothesis. List the fiveassumptions that are required for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.Answer: no selection, no mutation, no chance events, no migration, and mating occurs randomlySection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension18) In biallelic populations, where allelic frequencies are indicated by p and q, the resultantgenotype frequencies are indicated by what algebraic formula?Answer: p2 + 2pq + q2Section: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension19) The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle is often referred to as the ________, [two words]which indicates that if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, that population is notevolving.Answer: null modelSection: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension20) The statistical test used to determine whether the quantitative allele frequency results of anexperiment fall within reasonable limits, or whether the null hypothesis is violated and themeasured outcomes are significantly different than those expected is called the ________. [threewords]Answer: chi-square test (χ2)Section: 6.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis21) Two processes that can maintain rare or deleterious alleles in populations are ________ [fourwords] and ________. [two words]Answer: negative frequency-dependent selection; heterozygote superioritySection: 6.3Skill: Application/Analysis22) Although selection tends to eliminate deleterious alleles from populations, these mutationsoften persist because they are frequently created again. The rate at which deleterious alleles arebeing eliminated by selection is exactly equal to the rate at which new copies are being createdby creation is termed ________. [three words]Answer: mutation-selection balanceSection: 6.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension6Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.23) Cystic fibrosis in humans is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in a locus onchromosome 7 that encodes for a protein called ________. [five words]Answer: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)Section: 6.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension24) Chun-Hong Chen and colleagues (2007) designed a new gene that would carry a strongselective advantage and confer the resistance to malaria on free-living mosquitoes. What was theacronym given this gene, and what does the acronym stand for?Answer: The gene was termed Medea, and this acronym stands for maternal-effect dominantembryonic arrest.Section: 6.5Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension25) Explain the consequence of overdominance in maintaining a deleterious allele in apopulation as it relates to genetic diversity.Answer: Overdominance, or heterozygote superiority, helps prevent potentially deleteriousalleles from being lost in a population. Because the selective advantage of the deleterious allelein heterozygotes is balanced by the disadvantage of maintaining the allele in the homozygousstate, allelic diversity within the population is maintained. This diversity enables more favorableresponses to changing selective pressures of the environment.Section: 6.3Skill: Application/Analysis26) Briefly describe the structure of compound chromosomes, and explain how their behaviorduring meiosis can be used to study underdominance.Answer: Compound chromosomes are homologous chromosomes that have exchanged entirearms; one homolog therefore contains two copies of one arm, whereas the other homologcontains two copies of the other arm. During meiosis, four types of gametes are produced inequal numbers; gametes with both homologous chromosomes, gametes with just one member ofthe pair, gametes with the other member of the pair, or gametes containing no members of thehomologous pair. Heterozygotes produced are therefore not viable, so the resultant populationsconsist of only homozygotes.Section: 6.3Skill: Application/Analysis27) List the five assumptions made by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle that arenecessary to illustrate that evolution is NOT occurring from generation to generation, andprovide a one- or two- sentence explanation of the importance of each assumption.Section: 6.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension7Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.28) Discuss the experiments Cavener and Clegg (1981) performed in order to demonstrate thatnatural selection occurred by observing the cumulative change in allele frequencies inpopulations of Drosophila melanogaster that were subjected to high levels of alcohol. Be sure todiscuss the methodology employed, and the significance of the AdhS and AdhF alleles inreproductive success.Section: 6.2Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation29) Explain the significance of the experiments of Mukai and Burdick (1959) with laboratorypopulations of Drosophila melanogaster using the V (viable) and L (lethal) alleles. Be sure toexplain their observation that a lethal allele was maintained at a higher than expected frequency,and the evolutionary significance of overdominance in these populations.Section: 6.3Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation30) Explain the composition of the Drosophila melanogaster compound chromosomes used inthe experiments of Foster and colleagues (1972), the mechanism by which these chromosomessegregate during meiosis, and the evolutionary implications of the strong underdominance thatwas observed.Section: 6.3Skill: Application/Analysis 1Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)Chapter 7 Mendelian Genetics in Populations II: Migration, Drift, & Nonrandom Mating1) The assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle include all of the followingexcept ________.A) random matingB) no migrationC) limited population sizeD) All of these are assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg.Answer: CSection: 7.1/7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension2) Gene flow through migration ________.A) has no effect on allele frequencies of populationsB) can go only in one directionC) may have the largest impact on small populations, such as those on islandsD) maintains the Hardy-Weinberg equilibriumAnswer: CSection: 7.1Skill: Application/Analysis3) Suppose a founding population carries an allelic frequency not typical of the originalpopulation. Which of the following effects would most likely lead to homogenization?A) genetic drift within the founding populationB) random mating within the founding populationC) no mutations within either populationD) migration between the original and founding populationsE) None of the above.Answer: DSection: 7.1Skill: Application/Analysis2Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.4) Data in the accompanying figure shows the results of allelic frequency analysis of an insectpollinatedplant whose seeds are transported by wind and water, therefore making this plant oneof the first colonizers of new islands. The data―particularly the lower variation of allelefrequencies of intermediate-aged populations―supports the hypothesis that ________.A) genetic drift tends to homogenize populationsB) migration tends to homogenize populationsC) gene flow tends to homogenize populationsD) A, B, and C are all accurate.E) B and C are both accurate.Answer: ESection: 7.1Skill: Application/Analysis3Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.5) Figure 7.6 from your text, shown below, is a set of histograms showing the frequency ofdifferent color patterns of water snakes of Lake Erie (Nerodia sipedon). Type A snakes areunbanded, Type B are strongly banded, and Types C and D are intermediates. Given that naturalselection favors unbanded snakes on the islands, how can you account for thepresence/perpetuation of banded snakes on the islands?A) Mutation rates converting unbanded alleles to a banded form operate at high frequencies onislands.B) Natural selection favors unbanded snakes on the mainland.C) Snakes on the islands represent a case of the so-called founder effect.D) Natural selection favors banded snakes on the mainland, which occasionally migrate to theislands.Answer: DSection: 7.1Skill: Application/Analysis6) In terms of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genetic drift results from a violation of________.A) the random mating assumptionB) the lack of natural selection assumptionC) the infinite population size assumptionD) the lack of mutation assumptionE) the lack of migration assumptionAnswer: CSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension4Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.7) Although most of the mechanisms of evolution are nonrandom, the one that is absolutelyrandom is ________.A) sexual selectionB) natural selectionC) artificial selectionD) genetic driftAnswer: DSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension8) There are occasions when theoretical expectations do not match with actual outcomes, as yousee in the case of zygote formation leading to genetic drift. This discrepancy is known as________.A) sampling biasB) sampling errorC) nonrandom matingD) random mutationsAnswer: BSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension9) The accompanying figure details the possible outcomes in a scenario in which 10 zygotes areformed from a gene pool where frequency of the allele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4. This graph isshown here. According to this graph, the probability that the frequency of A1 will remain thesame in the next generation is about ________.A) 8%B) 12%C) 16%D) 18%E) none of the aboveAnswer: DSection: 7.2Skill: Application/Analysis5Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.10) The accompanying figure details the possible outcomes in a scenario in which 10 zygotes areformed from a gene pool where the frequency of the allele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4. This graph isshown here. According to this graph, the probability that the frequency of A1 will increase to 0.7in the next generation is about ________.A) 8%.B) 12%C) 16%D) 40%E) 70%Answer: BSection: 7.2Skill: Application/Analysis11) Unusually high rates of rare heritable traits, such as achromatopsia in the Pingelapese people,is often due to ________.A) genetic driftB) natural selectionC) hitchhikingD) the founder effectE) None of the above.Answer: DSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension6Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.12) If genetic drift is not accompanied by natural selection, mutation, or migration, then thefrequencies of alleles will “wander” between 0 and 1. Using the accompanying figure, which ofthe following is an accurate statement?A) Random sampling error generates fluctuations in allelic frequencies over generations, so allpopulations—both simulated and real—have been found to follow the same evolutionarytrajectory.B) The effects of genetic drift are more immediate, and more pronounced, on small populationsizes.C) Genetic drift will have no long-term effect on allelic frequencies if the population numbersmore than 40 individuals.D) None of these is an accurate statement.Answer: BSection: 7.2Skill: Application/Analysis7Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.13) The results of an experiment on genetic drift on Drosophila melanogaster are illustrated inthe accompanying figure. These data show ________.8Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.9Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.A) the loss of heterozygosity in the population over timeB) the fixation of alleles in the population over timeC) the permanent loss of alleles from the population over timeD) All of the above are accurate.E) None of the above is accurate.Answer: DSection: 7.2Skill: Application/Analysis14) With enough time and in the absence of other evolutionary mechanisms, genetic drift will________.A) reduce the genetic variation in a populationB) increase the genetic variation in a populationC) have no effect on the genetic variation of a populationD) None of the above.Answer: ASection: 7.2Skill: Application/Analysis15) The neutral theory of molecular evolution, as developed by Kimura, posits that ________.A) functionally neutral mutations that become fixed in populations occur in much larger numbersthan those that become fixed by natural selectionB) functionally neutral mutations never become fixed in populations without some element ofselection also acting on themC) functionally neutral mutations are not subject to genetic driftD) functionally neutral mutations contribute very little to changes at the molecular levelAnswer: ASection: 7.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension16) At present, the neutral theory of molecular evolution ________.A) is strongly supported by significant amounts of empirical evidenceB) has been disproven, as neutral mutations have not been shown to have been fixed inpopulationsC) is inclusive, as enough data has not yet been evaluatedD) seems to work in some species but not othersAnswer: CSection: 7.3Skill: Application/Analysis10Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.17) The effects of inbreeding depression has been documented in ________.A) plants onlyB) animals onlyC) both plants and animalsD) This is a hypothetical construct and has yet to be documented.Answer: CSection: 7.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension18) In an evolutionary sense, ________ is the transfer of alleles from one population to another.Answer: migrationSection: 7.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension19) The fact that blind luck (more technically known as sampling error) can account for changesin allelic frequencies in populations is the evolutionary mechanism called ________. [twowords]Answer: genetic driftSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension20) The random discrepancy between theoretical predictions and actual outcomes is called________. [two words]Answer: sampling errorSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension21) Suppose a large population exists on a continent, and a new population is formed by themigration of a few individuals to an island some distance away. The fact that the alleles beingcarried to this island are not going to be a complete and representative set, as compared to thecontinental population, is a case of genetic drift known as the ________. [two words]Answer: founder effectSection: 7.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension22) A locus at which different individuals in a population carry different alleles is known as a(n)________.Answer: polymorphismSection: 7.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension11Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.23) A phenomenon known as ________ [one or two words] occurs under conditions where astrong selection pressure acts on a particular change in an amino acid, which results in thecorresponding increase in frequency of a closely linked neutral (or even mildly deleterious)mutation.Answer: hitchhiking or selective sweepSection: 7.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension24) A phenomenon known as ________ [two words] occurs under conditions where a selectionpressure works against deleterious mutations, resulting in the corresponding decrease in thefrequency of a closely linked neutral mutation.Answer: background selectionSection: 7.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension25) When we track alleles from lineages backwards in time, we see them ultimately fuse into onelineage. The result is a gene tree, which is produced by a process called ________.Answer: coalescenceSection: 7.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension26) ________, the most common type of nonrandom mating, will not change allelic frequencies,but it will change genotypic frequencies toward homozygosity.Answer: InbreedingSection: 7.4Skill: Application/Analysis27) The survival and fertility rates of the offspring of related individuals are commonly reduced.This is known as ________. [two words]Answer: inbreeding depressionSection: 7.4Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension28) Compare and contrast natural selection with genetic drift as mechanisms of evolution.12Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.29) A scenario in which 250 zygotes are formed from a gene pool in which the frequency of theallele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4, generates the accompanying figure. Explain, in general terms,what each of these graphs reveals. Is there a consistent pattern between all three graphs? If so,describe and provide an explanation for it. Are there inconsistencies among graphs? Describeand provide an explanation for these also.30) The most common form of nonrandom mating is inbreeding. Despite the fact that inbreedingwill not change allelic frequencies, it can still have a significant impact on the evolution of alineage. Explain, using examples, why this is so.