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Learning And Memory 4th Edition By Scott Terry – Test Bank
Chapter 6: Verbal Learning ENHANCED OUTLINE
- GENERAL ISSUES
- Verbal Learning is typically associated with the memorization and retention of lists of words, in order to describe basic elements of associative learning.
- Verbal learning tends to involve more than just the memorization of words.
- Many stimuli, such as pictures, odors, locations, etc. can be studied in the verbal learning tradition.
- The types of mental events that occur in verbal learning studies go beyond passive memorization, as learners can play a very active role in manipulating experimental stimuli.
- THE EBBINGHAUS LEGACY
- Much of the early work on verbal learning was carried out by the German scientist Herman Ebbinghaus.
- Ebbinghaus served as his own subject, and his procedure involved the serial learning of nonsense syllables.
- Nonsense syllables were consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams (e.g., HOC) that were devoid of any apparent meaning.
- Ebbinghaus would memorize lists of these syllables until he could recall them perfectly, setting different accuracy criteria for different experiments.
- One of the more famous contributions of Ebbinghaus’s work was the concept of savings, a term which involved comparing the number of trials required to learn a list during an initial session to the number of trials required during a second session.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 90
- Typically, the trials necessary during session number 2 were fewer than session 1.
- Ebbinghaus also described what is now known as a forgetting curve: the amount of forgetting that occurs immediately after learning is substantial, but after that initial drop in performance, memory loss is very gradual.
- SERIAL LEARNING
- Serial Learning involves having subjects learn a list of items according to the order in which the items appear in the list.
- One of the more robust findings from serial learning research is the Serial Position Effect, which involves lower recall error rates for the first (primacy effect) and last few (recency effect) items on the list, with higher recall error rates for items appearing in the middle of the list.
- One explanation for the effect is that the starting and ending points possess some type of distinctiveness to set them apart from the rest of the list.
- Another possibility is that the early and late items do not have to compete as much for rehearsal resources as the middle items.
- Yet another possibility is that the middle items have more of a likelihood of being interfered with from earlier and later items, while the initial and terminal items do not have to face as much interference.
- Some have argued that the serial position effect is due to the working of different memory systems.
- Specifically, primacy is said to be due to the added rehearsal that these items typically get, which has the affect of transferring these items into permanent storage in long-term memory.
- The recency effect is argued to be due to the fact that these items are still in one’s short-term memory, easily retrievable with little cognitive effort.
- PAIRED ASSOCIATE LEARNING
- Paired Associate (PA) learning involves having 2 items (a Stimulus and Response item) paired as stimuli (e.g., BOAT-CHAIR)
- When the items pairs are committed to memory, the presentation of the first word (the stimulus word) should evoke the second word (the response word).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 91
- Presenting a subject with BOAT should elicit a response of CHAIR.
- Certain difficulties can arise in PA learning.
- If the items used as Stimulus words in a PA task are too similar, discrimination ability decreases, leading to errors in recall.
- In a similar light, the learning of Response items is mediated by several factors.
- Meaningful responses are learned easier than non-meaningful responses.
- The connections between individual stimulus and response items is also mediated by certain factors.
- Preexisting associations between the stimulus and response items can either help or hinder the association process.
- Cognitive Elaboration can aid in the association process. For example, instead of presenting the pair BOAT-CHAIR by itself, the words could appear in the context of a sentence such as “The captain of the BOAT was sitting in a huge leather CHAIR.”
- The Relationship Construction Hypothesis suggests that increasing the number of connections between items to be remembered can also aid recall; for example, having a pictorial and verbal representation of a stimulus is better than either of these alone.
- These multiple representations also increase one’s breadth of knowledge, which in turn allows one to apply that knowledge across a variety of contexts.
- Associations between stimulus and response items also tend to move in one direction: forward.
- If BOAT-CHAIR is studied, it is much easier for subjects to respond with CHAIR when prompted with BOAT; providing BOAT when CHAIR is presented is much less likely to occur.
- An important application of paired-associate learning involves language acquisition—in particular, learning foreign languages.
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- Specific approaches have been found to produce different effects, but one consistent finding is that learning is enhanced when the association process is somewhat challenging.
- FREE RECALL
- Free Recall is very unstructured; one can recall words in any order they’d like, unlike serial learning which requires a very specifically-ordered recall pattern.
- Although different from serial learning, free recall tasks will also show a serial position effect similar to that obtained with serial learning.
- In addition, recall is mediated by several factors.
- The more an item is rehearsed, the greater the likelihood that the item will be recalled.
- Organizing to-be-recalled information into some type of meaningful system also enhances recall ability. Several (although this does not exhaust all possibilities) organizational heuristics can be utilized in this manner.
- Associative Clustering involves putting presented stimuli together in a manner that preys upon preexisting associations. For example, the words TABLE, WHITE, CHAIR, and BLACK may be reorganized as TABLE, CHAIR, WHITE, BLACK.
- Categorical Clustering involves breaking a large number of specific words down into several smaller groups organized by conceptual similarity, such as COLORS, ANIMALS, PLANTS, etc.
- Subjective Organization involves using idiosyncratic associations that are relevant only to individuals. For example, remembering the numbers 3, 5, 9, 2, 6, and 2 can be reorganized as a great time for a 1-mile run (3:59) and the marathon distance (26.2 miles).
- AVAILABLE VS. ACCESSIBLE MEMORIES
- Available Memories are those memories that exist in a memory store, but can not necessarily be retrieved.
- A concept related to the notion of available memories is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomena, which involves searching for a particular piece of information and having some sense of what it is, yet unable to retrieve the entire memory.
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- Accessible Memories are those memories that can actually be retrieved from one’s memory store(s).
- Cued Recall plays a major role in allowing information to be retrieved from memory.
- Some type of cue stimulus serves as a way to prompt one’s memory to find a desired piece of information.
- Cue Overload can occur, however, when there are too many cues given as memory aids.
- The cues compete with the retrievability of the desired information, resulting in interference, and, eventually, memory failure.
- Recognition and Relearning tasks have been shown to yield better memory performance that recall tasks.
- These tasks provide some types of hints to aid in the retrieval of memories; more than would be provided by cued recall.
- One explanation as to why recognition enjoys an advantage over recall is that memory tests are seen as more sensitive if they can reinstate an original study context; this is referred to as Encoding Specificity.
- When considering how recognition is facilitated, one must also look at the possibility of a dichotomy between specific remembering versus general knowing.
- One might recall information because they recognize it, specifically, from past exposure, or they might just have a vague sense of knowing of a given piece of information without exact knowledge of a prior exposure.
- Recognition is not necessarily better than knowing (and vice-versa), but they just illustrate different ways of making judgments about information.
- A variant of the recognition task, that also aids in memory retrieval in certain contexts, is referred to as Implicit Learning.
- Implicit learning tasks avoid the problems that individuals have with the conscious retrieval of information by relying on unconscious demonstrations of the existence of a memory trace.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 94
- For example, one might be able to perform a task (such as tying a necktie) well, but be unable to articulate how it is done; the memory is being implicitly retrieved.
- An argument can be made, however, that implicit learning is not necessarily better than standard forms of memory retrieval (e.g., recall, recognition, etc.), just different.
VII. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE SEVERAL TASKS
- The evidence that has been collected on the different verbal learning tasks suggests that verbal learning is not a single process–many different strategies result in verbal learning.
- In a related vein, research shows that if one wants to obtain a valid representation of one’s memory skills, different tests must be used to tap different memory abilities.
VIII. APPLICATION: MNEMONICS
- Mnemonic devices are different methodologies, that are utilized by individuals, to aid in the encoding and retrieval of information.
- One type of mnemonic device is the Acronym, which is a list of initial letters of critical words that allows one to retrieve information (e.g., representing the Great Lakes as HOMES).
- Another general class of mnemonics are referred to as Keyword Mnemonics.
- The Keyword Method involves a type of paired-associate learning, where a mediating word is used to associate two to-be-remembered items.
- The Narrative Story Method involves creating a story that contains all of the words in a to-be-remembered list.
- Imagery Mnemonics are another way to learn critical information.
- The Method of Loci involves memorizing a route, and placing to-be-remembered information along the route; when retrieval is necessary, just take a mental walk and retrieve the information.
- The Peg Word Method involves memorizing a rhyme, and then associating each to-be-remembered piece of information with different elements of the rhyme.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 95
- Different mnemonics tend to be effective in different situations.
- Imagery mnemonics tend to work best for paired associate learning, narrative story seems most effective for free recall, while the narrative method and method of loci seem best for serial recall.
- Although mnemonics have some value in memorizing information, many people tend to use external memory aids, such as notes or timers to help them remember critical information.
- The serial position effect can be applied to a variety of real-world scenarios, including job interviews. Working under the assumption that people have better memories for recently- and initially-presented information, in which position would students want to interview for a job if they knew they were competing against 4 other people for a job? What might be advantages/disadvantages for interviewing early or late in the process? Have students used the serial position effect in job interviews before? Was it beneficial?
- Do students use mnemonic devices to retain/retrieve information, or are the devices to cumbersome, in cognitive sense? If students have used them, which types of devices have they found to be useful/ineffective? Can they still remember the critical ideas behind mnemonic devices that were used years ago?
- What types of organizational techniques do students use to enhance their storage/recall of information? When did they start using these methods, and why? What types of organizational methods, used by teachers, do students find most beneficial?
- The recall vs. recognition debate can be explored by asking students about the types of questions they prefer on exams. Why do students prefer essay questions (recall-based) over multiple choice questions (recognition-based), or vice-versa? Why?
- When discussing implicit learning, a good application is to have students volunteer examples of tasks that they engage in without complete conscious effort. For example, do any students actually make conscious efforts to think of the ‘rules of driving’ while in their cars (e.g., actually thinking “Oh . . . there’s a yellow light . . . should I speed up or slow down?” versus just seeing the yellow light and responding to it in an instinctive manner)? Can students remember when they did need conscious efforts to complete such tasks? When did the shift towards more automatic processing occur?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 96 ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION The core ideas of verbal learning cut across a variety of topics that deal with the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Two of these topics involve a) the manner in which recall cues can enhance or inhibit the retrieval of information, and b) the nature in which information is stored in memory (Ashcraft, 1994). This experiment will allow you to assess these issues in a meaningful manner, in order to arrive at some conclusions concerning these topics.
- The first step involves finding at least 5 subjects to participate in the experiment.
- For each participant, their primary task will be to retrieve 5 category members in response to each of the different category names that you will provide to them. Half of the category names will be referred to as STRUCTURED (in the sense that the to-be-retrieved items are most likely stored together), while the remaining category names are referred to as UNSTRUCTURED (the items retrieved from these cues are not as likely to be stored together).
- Starting with Cue Number 1 and proceeding through Cue Number 8 (presented below), the experimenter should read the Category Name, and then allow the subject to write down the 5 category members that they can generate in response to the name. In addition, immediately after reading the Category Name, the experimenter should start a stopwatch to determine how long it takes each participant to generate each set of 5 category members (stop the watch when the 5th member is retrieved). When timing your subjects, don’t torture them–if they can’t come up with 5 category members after 3 minutes of trying, stop the clock and go on to the next Category Name!
- The inclusion of the Category Type column in the stimuli chart is for the experimenter’s purpose only, to be used when scoring the experiment after each subject’s session is complete.
- There are two independent variables of interest in this experiment.
- First, calculate the average number of category members recalled for the set of 4 STRUCTURED Category Names, and compare that score to the mean number of category members recalled for the set of 4 UNSTRUCTURED Category Names.
- The second analysis involves the response latencies that were obtained while the subjects were generating their category members. As with the analysis of the number of category members recalled, for this reaction time analysis you should calculate 2 mean scores: the average time it took the subjects to generate the category members from the STRUCTURED Category Names, and the average time it took the subjects to generate the category members from the UNSTRUCTURED Category Names.
- With the dependent variables calculated compare them. Were the mean number of category members recalled different for the STRUCTURED and UNSTRUCTURED
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 97 groups? Were STRUCTURED members retrieved faster that UNSTRUCTURED members, or vice-versa? Answer these and any other questions in exploring the importance of recall cues and organization on memory. References Ashcraft, M. H. (1994). Human memory and cognition (2nd Ed.). New York: HarperCollins.
|Cue Number||Category Name||Category Type|
|1||Types of Foods||STRUCTURED|
|4||Types of Animals||STRUCTURED|
|6||Types of Fruits||STRUCTURED|
|7||Types of Sports||STRUCTURED|
RELEVANT INTERNET SITES
This is the NASA Cognition Lab’s web site, which contains information and tutorials concerning basic memory phenomena, including mnemonic devices, recognition, recall, interference, and encoding.
This website offers information about the implicit learning process, focusing specifically on how this cognitive process is implicated in acquiring knowledge of phonics. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 98
This is the home page for the Bruzzone Research Company, which conducts research on the effectiveness of different advertising methods.
This is “Amanda’s Mnemonics Page,” which contains mnemonic devices for various academic disciplines.
This site provides information on how different aspects of memory can be applied to real-life settings, especially career development skills.
This website offers users to complete an Imagery Analysis Test, which assesses the effectiveness of individuals’ imagery skills. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 6.1 Historically, the term “verbal learning” has come to be associated with: (a) stimulus-response learning (b) association learning (c) mental imagery (d) the memorization of word lists ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 157-158 6.2 A problem with the term “verbal learning” is that it: (a) suggests that subjects are not as active in the learning process as they truly are (b) forces subjects to be passive observers in the learning process (c) leads experimenters to only study the memorization of word lists (d) all of the above ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 157-158 6.3 A critical element of Ebbinghaus’s work on memory processes involved: (a) a quantitative analysis of perception (b) psychophysics (c) serial learning (d) none of the above ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 158-160 6.4 Which of the following stimuli would be most typical of the material that Ebbinghaus used in his memory research? (a) CAT (b) BIF (c) HEN (d) SAD Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 99 ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 158-160 6.5 “Savings” is best described as: (a) the failure to recall experimental stimuli (b) the degree to which an individual improves their recall ability from a first memory test to a second one (c) the degree to which an individual comes to demonstrate better recall for meaningful over nonsense syllables (d) recalling information that one has never been exposed to ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 158-159 6.6 Josh has just finished studying for his final exam in physics. According to Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve, if Josh it to forget any of the material he just studied, his degree of forgetting will be at its highest level: (a) today (b) tomorrow (c) next week (d) next month ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 159-160 6.7 The answer to which of the following questions would be considered a valid indicator of one’s serial learning ability? (a) How do you set the time on your digital watch? (b) Who’s your favorite baseball player? (c) How much exercise is needed to lose 5 pounds of body weight? (d) Where did you go to school? ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 160 6.8 Mandy is one of 10 individuals interviewing for a new position in the ABC Advertising Agency. If she wants her interviewers to remember her best, according to the serial position effect, when should she be interviewed, in relation to the other 9 applicants? (a) fifth (b) fourth (c) seventh (d) tenth ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 160-165 6.9 Which of the following has been offered as an explanation for the serial position effect? (a) anchoring (b) differential rehearsal patterns (c) interference (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 160-165 6.10 Recency effects can only be found for: (a) spatial memory (b) long -term personal memories (c) long-term skill retention (d) all of the above (e) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 162 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 100 6.11 Ernie’s car has an automatic transmission with the gear shift behind the steering wheel. Earlier today, however, he drove his mom’s car, which has its automatic transmission gear shift on the floor of the car. As he tried to drive his mom’s car out of her driveway, he reached for the gear shift behind the steering wheel, although it wasn’t there. Ernie’s behavior in this situation is illustrative of: (a) retroactive interference (b) proactive interference (c) anchoring (d) remote associations ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 163 6.12 As a result of taking this test today, you are having a difficult time recalling the material you studied yesterday, for a test in tomorrow’s calculus class. The memory deficit described here illustrates: (a) retroactive interference (b) proactive interference (c) anchoring (d) remote associations ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 163 6.13 Response learning can be enhanced by: (a) rank-ordering response items (b) using non-meaningful response items (c) presenting the response as a word (d) all of the above ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 165-170 6.14 Which of the following can influence the degree to which items in a paired-associate learning task become connected to one another? (a) prior knowledge (b) preexisting associations (c) cognitive elaboration (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 165-170 6.15 Dr. Smith gives his experimental subjects the words BOY and SKY to learn in a paired associate task. After presenting subjects with these two words, subjects must generate a sentence that uses both of the words. Dr. Smith’s methodology is study the effect of which of the following processes on paired-associate learning? (a) S-R mapping (b) cognitive elaboration (c) prior knowledge (d) direction of associations ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 165-170 6.16 When presented with the stimulus word “BASKET” and asked for a response, Jody replies “BALL.” This response is typical of research looking into which aspect of paired-associate learning? (a) S-R mapping (b) cognitive elaboration (c) prior knowledge (d) direction of associations ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 165-170 6.17 Enhanced recall for information presented in an earlier (as opposed to later) portion of a word list is referred to as: (a) the recency effect (b) the primacy effect (c) anchoring (d) paired-associate learning ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 165-170 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 101 6.18 The existence of long-term memory can be said to be supported by the occurrence of: (a) the recency effect (b) the primacy effect (c) anchoring (d) paired-associate learning ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 165-170 6.19 The existence of short-term memory can be said to be supported by the occurrence of: (a) the recency effect (b) the primacy effect (c) anchoring (d) paired-associate learning ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 165-170 6.20 When studying for an upcoming debate for student body President at her high school, Mandy has 8 critical points that she wants to make. She mentally organizes these points into 31 different conceptual relationships (CRs), and then begins the debate. Her 3 opponents also have 8 points, each, to make, and they have organized their ideas accordingly: Josh-20 CRs; Jodi-22 CRs; James-15 CRs. According to the relationship construction hypothesis, who will most likely have the best memory for their critical points? (a) Mandy (b) Josh (c) Jodi (d) James ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 168-170 6.21 The stimulus-response nature of learning can be seen most directly in which of the following memory tasks? (a) the serial position effect (b) proactive interference (c) anchoring (d) paired associate learning ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 169 6.22 The occurrence of highly similar items on a paired-associate learning task tends to: (a) enhance one’s generalization ability (b) enhance one’s discrimination ability (c) inhibit one’s generalization ability (d) lead to high amounts of retroactive interference ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 169 6.23 TRUE OR FALSE: The easier it is to associate information within the context of a paired-associate learning task means that one has learned the material in a better way (opposed to having difficulty forming associations). (a) True (b) False ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 170 6.24 A group of children are presented with a list of 20 words that they are told to remember. Upon engaging in a free-recall task after the list is presented, which of the following children is likely to recall the most words? (a) Joe, a 10-year- old boy (b) Toni, an 8-year-old girl (c) Susan, a 5-year-old girl (d) Bob, a 5-year-old boy ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 172-174 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 102 6.25 Which of the following groups of words has the highest chance of being recalled perfectly? (a) cat, automobile, phone, light, word (b) garbage, wood, television, basket, carpet (c) apple, orange, banana, pear, watermelon (d) all have equal chances of being recalled ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 174-175 6.26 Which of the following is not an effect that organization has on memory? (a) directs memory search during recall (b) provides stronger primacy and recency effects (c) reduces one’s memory load (d) influences the sequence in which items are recalled ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 174-175 6.27 Recalling the words DOG, CAR, SNEAKER, BIKE, CAT, and SANDAL as “DOG, CAT, CAR, BIKE, SNEAKER and SANDAL” is an example of: (a) categorical clustering (b) subjective organization (c) associative clustering (d) matrix recall ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 174-175 6.28 The idea that words from the same semantic category can be recalled together even if they were not presented as part of the same list is the core idea underlying: (a) categorical clustering (b) subjective organization (c) associative clustering (d) matrix recall ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 174-175 6.29 Subjects is a memory experiment are presented with the following words to memorize: cat, automobile, phone, light, word, garbage, wood, television, basket, carpet, and apple. Joe, one of the subjects, remembers PHONE, TELEVISION, and CARPET, saying they go together well, while Kim, another subject, recalls PHONE, LIGHT, and APPLE, stating that she sees a pattern in these words. This differential recall can be attributed to:
- categorical clustering (b) subjective organization (c) associative clustering (d) matrix recall
ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 174-175 6.30 Memories that are present in a given memory store are considered: (a) accessible (b) available (c) recognizable (d) recallable ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 176-177 6.31 Memories that can be retrieved from a given memory store are considered: (a) accessible (b) available (c) amnesic (d) false ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 176-177 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 103 6.32 Steve is trying to remember the name of his first-grade teacher, but he’s having difficulty. He remembers that the teacher’s name starts with an M, but that’s all he can seemingly remember. Steve’s problem is arising from a difficulty with: (a) accessibility (b) availability (c) false memories (d) all of the above ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 176-177 6.33 Sue is asked to remember as many words from a previously studied list, and is given the word “ANIMALS” as a reminder. This type of task is best described as: (a) recognition (b) cued overload (c) anchoring (d) cued-recall ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 177-179 6.34 Multiple-choice questions on an exam illustrate which type of questioning style? (a) recognition (b) cued overload (c) anchoring (d) cued-recall ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 177-179 6.35 If you studied for an exam by preparing to simply recall definitions, then the principle of encoding specificity states that you should be questioned using questions of which type? (a) long essays (b) situation-based multiple choice (c) true or false (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 177-179 6.36 As you are sitting here taking this exam, and answering the questions, you can’t remember exactly where you heard the answers, but they just seem to be the correct ones. This type of remembering is illustrative of: (a) remembering (b) encoding specificity (c) knowing (d) imagery mnemonics ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 179-180 6.37 Explicit intrusions into implicit memory tasks can be minimized by: (a) using college students as experiment participants (b) using amnesic individuals as experiment participants (c) using a word-fragment task instead of free recall (d) using a free recall task instead of a word-fragment task ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 181 6.38 Which of the following is not a characteristic of implicit learning? (a) it requires conscious awareness (b) learned information cannot be verbalized (c) it exists without the intention to learn (d) none of the above ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 181 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 104 6.39 Mnemonics: (a) involve the use of strategies to enhance information encoding (b) require people to memorize individual letters that pertain to more complex ideas (c) assist in information retrieval (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 182-187 6.40 Joe remembers to buy his wife, Ann, an anniversary present because to word “anniversary” contains his wife’s name. This type of memory aid is illustrative of: (a) the narrative story method (b) the method of loci (c) a peg-word system (d) the keyword method ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 182-187 6.41 Placing a list of to-be-remembered items along a mental path, and then taking a walk to along the path to remember the items is the basic idea underlying which mnemonic device? (a) the narrative story method (b) the method of loci (c) a peg-word system (d) the keyword method ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 182-187 6.42 Which of the following is not an essential component of a mnemonic system? (a) normal images are preferable over bizarre images (b) multiple items can be stored at individual mental locations (c) study and recall cues should match (d) items must be associated with cues during input ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 182-187 6.43 What type of mnemonic is the peg word method? (a) keyword (b) imagery (c) tactile (d) implicit ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 182-187 6.44 Bill has to take a final exam that will consist of long essays. The mnemonic device he should use to enhance his memory should be: (a) the keyword method (b) the narrative method (c) the method of loci (d) the peg-word system ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 182-187 6.45 TRUE OR FALSE. When testing spatial memory, all of the evidence shows that men perform better than women when trying to recall the locations of objects. (a) True (b) False ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 185 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 105 Chapter 7: Human Memory–Conceptual Approaches ENHANCED OUTLINE
- GENERAL ISSUES
- One of the general issues explored within the field of human memory research is the manner in which memory is partitioned, with one of the main considerations in partitioning memory being whether memory should be divided into multiple systems or a single general memory.
- Tulving (1985) has provided several reasons why a multiple-system approach is preferable over a single-system perspective.
- First, although there do not seem to be many generalizations that can be made about memory as a whole, there are valid conclusions that can be made about specific aspects of memory.
- In addition, the proposition of a multiple-system approach to memory has
- heuristic value which makes it easier to capture different memory phenomena, as opposed to a single-system model with many incongruent elements.
- Finally, the empirical evidence of dissociations leads to the conclusion that multiple systems, and not a unitary structure, are involved in the memory process.
- A dissociation is said to occur when an experimental variable(s) has different effects on different tasks/measures.
- One must be careful in interpreting dissociations, however, as task differences may arise from variations in task difficulty, implementation, or familiarity.
- COMPONENTS OF MEMORY APPROACH
- One of the major approaches to partitioning memory allows for the division of memory into different storage types, with the primary types being short-term and long-term memory.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 106
- The connection(s) between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) has received a great deal of attention within memory research, and approaches studying these connections are referred to as dual-store, or modal, models of memory.
- In terms of capacity, STM is limited, holding about a maximum of 5-9
- LTM, on the other hand, is assumed to be virtually limitless.
- Forgetting is believed to occur fairly easily from STM.
- Within LTM, however, true forgetting is suggested to be rare.
- Finally, one of STM’s purposes is to transfer information into LTM.
- Several dissociations lead to the conclusion that the partitioning of memory into STM and LTM is valid.
- The occurrence of the serial position curve in recall tasks shows that memory is affected by different variables.
- The primacy effect occurs when information presented during the initial part of a list is recalled better than later information.
- The recency effect is an enhanced memory for information encountered at the end of a list.
- Since earlier information is older, and has more opportunity for rehearsal, and is not particularly affected by delay, the primacy effect is said to reflect information stored in LTM.
- On the other hand, the recency effect involves stimuli that have not been rehearsed too often, and memory for these later items is adversely influenced by long delay intervals; such findings lead to the suggestion that the recency effect deals with information stored in STM.
- STM and LTM are also argued to be dissociated as a result of the patterns of memory loss observed in different amnesic patients.
- M. had his left and right hippocampus, and surrounding structures, removed during a surgical procedure to treat his epilepsy.
- The procedure left him with the relative inability to form new long-term memories, although his STM is preserved.
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- Another individual, K.F., has the ability to use his LTM, but has difficulty with certain forms of STM, especially verbal STM.
- Another organizational approach within memory research is to divide LTM into episodic and semantic divisions.
- Episodic Memory (EM) is said to be our memory store for personal, or autobiographical, information.
- Semantic Memory (SM) contains, more general, encyclopedic, knowledge that is not as personally significant as episodic memory.
- However, attempts to dissociate EM and SM in laboratory settings have been difficult, leading some to question the validity of proposing separate episodic and semantic LTMs.
- Another element said to exist within LTM is Procedural Learning abilities, which deal with the acquisition of perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills involved in HOW to do things, which is arguably distinct from knowing WHEN the skill was learned.
- This lack of verbal recall of procedural skills has led to the postulation of distinct implicit and explicit LTMs.
- Implicit memories reflect the role of prior experience on memory, but do so in a way in which subjects show unconscious, or indirect, ability to recall information.
- An example would be reading a passage of text faster on a second attempt compared to a first attempt, yet having no conscious memory of the first attempt.
- Explicit memories, on the other hand, involve being able to consciously recall a previous episode.
- A problem exists, however, in stating that implicit and explicit memories are distinct, in that the possibility exists that explicit processing may, at times, enter into an implicit memory task.
- This type of explicit intrusion has even been observed in post-experiment interviews with amnesic individuals who typically have difficulty with explicit memory.
- However, Tulving and Schacter (1990) have presented certain pieces of evidence showing that implicit and explicit memories are dissociable.
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- Performance on implicit and explicit tests have been found to be uncorrelated.
- Research has shown that certain experimental manipulations influence explicit, but not implicit, memory.
- Individual differences, such as age, have been found to influence explicit, but not implicit, retrieval of information.
- Research on individuals with various types of brain damage shows that amnesics tend to have poor explicit abilities, yet their implicit memory skills are preserved, equal to those of non-brain damaged control subjects.
- How can any sense be made out of all these alternative divisions of LTM? Several suggestions have been made.
- Tulving (1985) has argued that memory systems form a “monohierarchy”: Procedural Memory is the main memory system, and within it is semantic memory. In addition, episodic memory is a subset of semantic memory.
- Priming effects, such as those observed in implicit memory tasks, are said to arise from a Perceptual Representational System, which overlaps the Procedural and Semantic systems.
- Squire’s model (1987) is slightly simpler, as he proposes that there are 2 main memory systems within LTM: Declarative and Non-Declarative.
- Declarative LTM involves information that can be consciously stated, and typically includes episodic and semantic information.
- Non-Declarative LTM involves anything that cannot be consciously stated, and includes procedural skills, implicit memories, and even learning abilities such as habits and classical conditioning.
- STAGES OF MEMORY
- An approach to memory that exists within the “components” issue is that which deals with the stages that information goes through as memories are formed.
- The basic stages are encoding, storage, and retrieval, and research on these processes attempts to identify the effect of certain variables on the different stages.
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- Although the 3 stages cannot be totally isolated from one another, research has shown that experimental and neurological conditions can produce changes in isolated stages.
- For example, being anxious during a test may not have much of an effect on your initial encoding or storage of information, but it can impair retrieval.
- Also, patient H.M. can retrieve information that was encoded and stored prior to his brain damage, but has difficulty with the encoding of new information.
- PROCESSING APPROACHES
- Depth of Processing Theory argues that a single LTM system exists, and the different memory effects observed within this system stem from the type of quality of information processing that occurs.
- Maintenance Rehearsal involves the continuous, passive repetition of to-be-learned material.
- Elaborative Rehearsal involves engaging in a meaningful and comprehension-based analysis of to-be-learned material.
- Research on memory-impaired individuals, such as amnesics, shows that elaborative rehearsal does improve their memory ability, but deep processing does not eliminate their amnesia.
- The notion of depth of processing has been criticized, however.
- There were no independent measures of “depth.”
- The concept of “depth” was seen as too subjective.
- The concept known as Transfer Appropriate Processing (TAP) also plays a role in how memories are processed.
- TAP argues that in order for our memory abilities to function well, the cognitive conditions under which information was initially encoded must be reinstated at the time of retrieval.
- TAP has also been used to explain the differences between explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious) memory.
- In this light implicit and explicit memory are suggested to arise within the same cognitive system.
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- Explicit memory is said to be activated when an encoding-retrieval match is made at the level of elaborative operations, whereas implicit memory is said to be contingent upon a match between perceptual operations.
- CONNECTIONIST MODELS
- Connectionist models of learning and memory attempt to simulate the neural events that underlie the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of information.
- In trying to model learning and memory, connectionist networks have several core ideas.
- Individual neurons are simulated as neural “units.”
- Each unit can connect to many other units, allowing them to play a role in
- variety of knowledge representations.
- As pairs of units are continually activated together, the strength of the connection between them increases; the opposite is true of non-activated pairs.
- The activation of any individual unit is typically dependent on receiving input from other units, a concept referred to as “threshold for activation.”
- Hidden units exist between input and output units, and these hidden units are responsible for summing and altering the activation received from the units around them.
- The Delta Rule is an example of one formula that is used to compute the strength of a connection between units.
- Increments from successive activations are typically a constant proportion of the distance between the existing strength level and the maximum level.
- When observed over time, continuous activation yield a classical, negatively accelerated learning curve.
- Another type of adjustment that occurs at the level of the hidden units involves “back propagation” (BP).
- BP is utilized when an output unit produces an error.
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- Once an error is detected, information flows in reverse, from the output unit to the input unit, and an adjustment of the connection weights between units is made to fix the error.
- The study of different amnesias has led to many insights on the nature of memory.
- Amnesias tend to differ in their causes.
- Organic amnesias have a physical cause tied to some type of brain injury or damage.
- Psychogenic amnesias stem from the experiencing of some type of psychological trauma.
- Amnesias also tend to differ in the manner in which they express themselves.
- Retrograde Amnesia deals with memory loss for information that was acquired before one’s amnesic condition arose.
- Anterograde Amnesia focuses on memory loss for new information presented after one suffers some type of brain/psychological injury.
- The use of electroconvulsive shock therapy, for severe depression, has been known to produce both retrograde and anterograde amnesia.
- An initial reason for the memory loss occurring in this context was that the shocks disrupted the consolidation of information from short- to long-term memory, although research has challenged this explanation.
- The retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects tend to be categorized into different types.
- People such as the neurology patient H.M. are considered to have Amnesic Syndrome, as they can retain some short-term memory skills, yet have a distinct inability to learn new information.
- Korsakoff’s Syndrome is characterized by the presence of both retrograde and anterograde amnesia, and is based on prolonged alcohol abuse, and the lack of thiamine in one’s diet that tends to accompany alcoholism.
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- Psychogenic Amnesia deals with the forgetting of a traumatic event, tends to be of the retrograde type, and manifests itself in several ways.
- Limited Amnesia deals with the memory loss of a specific event.
- Fugue Reactions occur when a person forgets, literally, who they are.
- Dissociative Disorder is when a person develops multiple personalities, who are often unaware of one another.
- Why do such psychogenic memory losses occur? Several explanations have been offered.
- The Repression Hypothesis argues that traumatic memories are placed into an unconscious portion of the mind, in order to relieve fear and anxiety.
- The Dissociation View argues that the traumatic event becomes separated from conscious memory, as if the memory is state-dependent.
- The argument from Implicit Memory is that the memories of traumatic events are not available for conscious recollection, but can be expressed in other, indirect, manners.
- Beyond the standard types of amnesia, there are several other types of anomalous forgetting phenomena
- Cryptomnesia is when a person believes that they have an original idea, but it is really an inadvertent plagiarized version of something they have already been exposed to.
- Déjà Vu is a sense of familiarity with a given situation, even though one believes that the situation is novel.
- Misidentity disorders (such as Capgras Syndrome) result in individuals recalling factual and sensory elements of memories, but the emotional aspects of memories are absent.
- To illustrate the differences between episodic and semantic LTM, have students first recall their high-school proms, with them providing as many details as they like; this is an
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 113 example of an episodic memory. Then, have them recall when they learned that 2+2=4. Typically, this latter task is more difficult, as students tend to not remember the specifics of when they learned this relatively mundane piece of information.
- Do students think that ECT is an ethical treatment for depression? Would they have the procedure done, if they were severely depressed? Would they give permission for their parents/grandparents to have the procedure done, if they had to make medical decisions for these individuals?
- One way of addressing the human side of memory disorders is to discuss the manner in which Alzheimer’s disease progresses in individuals with this disease. While certainly a sensitive topic, it could be very illuminating to ask students if they have ever known anyone with this condition (and, unfortunately, many students will likely answer in the affirmative). How did this person’s memory change over time? With research suggesting that Alzheimer’s has a genetic basis, do students worry that they might have the gene(s) for this condition? Would they want to know now that they will develop this disease later in life?
ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION One of the more recent discoveries in memory research is that when individuals suffer various forms of brain damage, their ability to recall specific memories, or their explicit memory, becomes impaired. However, when these same individuals attempt to recall information in an indirect, or implicit, manner, their memory skills are as good as non-brain damaged people (Roediger, 1990). Other work has looked at these abilities in different “healthy” populations and also found some differences (Berry, Banbury, & Henry, 1997). As a result, this difference between implicit and explicit ability has led to a great deal of research on how the mind is organized, and this project (some of the stimuli were adapted from Berry, et al., 1997) will allow you to measure implicit and explicit memory abilities in different populations, in order to see how these 2 forms of information retrieval interact with one another.
- This project requires that you select 10 individuals as participants, with half stemming from one particular population and the other half from a different population. Several choices are available to you, however, in terms of population comparisons, such as:
- Young Adults (18-30 years of age) vs. Older Adults (60 years of age and up)
- “Normal” Young Adults (18-30 years of age) vs. Adults with some form of brain damage (Alzheimer’s Disease, etc.)
- The first part of the experiment involves administering the “Pleasantness Task” to each participant. Instructions for administering this task are on the stimulus sheet, and the point of this task (although DO NOT tell this to the subjects) is to establish a memory base that will be tested later.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 114
- Although the “Pleasantness Task” requires responses from subjects, it is not necessary to score their responses, because the point of this phase of the experiment is to simply get subjects to study the words in an indirect manner.
- Once the “Pleasantness Task” is completed, administer the following “Filler Task” for 5 minutes. This task is done solely to allow some time to pass before going on to the crucial testing portions of the experiment. As with the “Pleasantness Task,” responses on the “Filler Task” are NOT scored.
- For the “Filler Task,” have each subject verbally state the names of as many famous politicians/leaders as they can possibly remember. These people can be alive or dead, and can be from any nation. Allow 5 minutes for completion of this task.
- Once the 5-minute “Filler Task” interval has passed, administer the “Stem Completion Task” according to the instructions on the stimulus sheet. Since this task makes no reference to the initial study episode (the “Pleasantness Task”), the “Stem Completion” task is the implicit memory measure for this experiment. Theoretically, implicit memory measures tend to not show any differences between different populations–this ability seems to be spared when one suffers various types of brain dysfunction.
- To score this task, you only need to look at the responses for certain stimuli. These stimuli are the 20 stems that were generated by the items that appeared on the “Pleasantness Task” (the remaining 40 items on the “Stem Completion Task” are just distractor items and DO NOT need to be scored).
- The 20 critical stems that have to be scored appear below. The answer is deemed to be correct if the word that was provided by the subject matches the word on this answer key, as these correct answers were the words that subjects were previously exposed to during the “Pleasantness Task.” The score you should get for each subject is the percentage of these critical stems that were answered correctly.
- The “Recognition Task,” with its instructions on the stimulus sheet, is the final task for this experiment. Since this task asks subjects to think directly back to the initial study episode (i.e., the “Pleasantness Task”), this task is a measure of explicit memory. This is the task, at least theoretically, that should show a performance differential between your 2 groups.
- To score this task, the only items that should have been responded to with a “Yes” (indicating that they believed it did appear on the “Pleasantness Task” list) are numbers 12, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 26, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40, 44, 46, 48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 59; all other items should have been responded to with a “No.” The only items necessary to score are the 20 items, listed above, that appeared on the initial “Pleasantness Task.” Each subject’s score, therefore, is the percentage of correct responses for these 20 items.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 115
|12. HESITATION||37. LETTER|
|16. PROGRAM||44. UNIVERSITY|
|19. HOSPITAL||46. DECISION|
|25. NAUSEA||49. CLOTHES|
|28. PLANE||54. WORKSHOP|
|31. EXPECTATION||56. THERAPY|
- To further analyze the data, compare the implicit and explicit scores between the 2 groups. In making these comparisons, was the typical difference observed? That is, did the groups differ in their explicit, but not implicit, ability? Did the data go in any other direction(s)? Answer these and any other questions, in drawing some conclusions about the nature of conscious/unconscious memories.
References Berry, D. C., Banbury, S., & Henry, L. (1997). Transfer across form and modality in implicit and explicit memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A, 1-24. Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist, 45, 1043-1056. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 116 Pleasantness Task FOR THE EXPERIMENTER ONLY: Read each of the following words to each subject, in a clear manner, making sure you articulate each word properly. After you have read each word, have the subject rate how pleasant each item seems to them, according to the following scale. The subject should provide their responses to you in a verbal manner, and you should record their responses on the scale to the right of each item.
|5 = Not Pleasant At All||2 = Somewhat Pleasant|
|4 = Somewhat Non-Pleasant||1 = Very Pleasant|
|3 = Neither Pleasant nor Unpleasant|
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 117 Stem Completion Task FOR THE EXPERIMENTER ONLY: Read each of the following stems to each subject, in a clear manner, by stating the individual letters (for example, for “AP__” state “A,” then “P”) that make up each item. Tell each subject that this task is simply designed to determine the first word that people think of when they hear certain stimuli. Therefore, after you read each stem to them, they should verbally complete each stem with the first word that comes to mind. DO NOT MAKE ANY REFERENCE WHATSOEVER TO THE EARLIER “PLEASANTNESS TASK.” After you have read each stem, you should record the subject’s response in the space to the right of each item.
|1. AU||21. WH||41. SP|
|2. AP||22. BA||42. PA|
|3. BU||23. KE||43. ER|
|4. CE||24. OP||44. UN|
|5. MO||25. NA||45. IS|
|6. RA||26. CO||46. DE|
|7. UM||27. CA||47. GR|
|9. DR||29. SW||49. CL|
|10. THE||30. AN||50. LU|
|11. RO||31. EX||51. BO|
|12. HE||32. DO||52. QU|
|14. HA||34. PO||54. WO|
|17. AT||37. LE||57. CH|
|18. WA||38. VI||58. PE|
|19. HO||39. TO||59. SC|
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 118 Recognition Task FOR THE EXPERIMENTER ONLY: Read each of the following words to each subject, in a clear manner, making sure you articulate each word properly. After you have read each word, have the subject decide whether or not each word appeared as a stimulus on the “Pleasantness Task” at the start of the experiment. For each item, the subject should provide a “Yes” (meaning it was on the “Pleasantness” list) or “No” (meaning it was not on the “Pleasantness” list) response to you in a verbal manner. For those items where the response is “Yes,” circle the number to the left of the word. If they respond “No,” make no mark next to that item.
|1. AUTOMOBILE||21. WHEEL||41. SPEECH|
|2. APPLE||22. BALLOON||42. PAIN|
|3. BUTTERFLY||23. KETTLE||43. ERROR|
|4. CELERY||24. OPINION||44. UNIVERSITY|
|5. MOUNTAIN||25. NAUSEA||45. ISSUE|
|6. RABBIT||26. CONTRACT||46. DECISION|
|7. UMBRELLA||27. CARDIGAN||47. GROCERIES|
|8. HAMMER||28. PLANE||48. SISTER|
|9. DRUM||29. SWEAT||49. CLOTHES|
|10. TEAPOT||30. ANXIETY||50. LUNCH|
|11. ROOM||31. EXPECTATION||51. BOOK|
|12. HESITATION||32. DOOR||52. QUESTION|
|13. MISTAKE||33. LOCK||53. INTELLIGENCE|
|14. HAT||34. POSTURE||54. WORKSHOP|
|15. LIGHT||35. FROG||55. GLASS|
|16. PROGRAM||36. STOOL||56. THERAPY|
|17. ATMOSPHERE||37. LETTER||57. CHURCH|
|18. WATCH||38. VIOLIN||58. PEN|
|19. HOSPITAL||39. TOASTER||59. SCHOLARSHIP|
|20. BEHAVIOR||40. PERFORMANCE||60. TIGER|
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 119 RELEVANT INTERNET SITES
This site provides pro and con information from research, media outlets, and governmental agencies regarding the use of electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT.
This site contains a description of some of the more pseudoscientific ideas concerning the meaning of cryptomnesia, including xenography and reincarnation.
This site is sponsored by the maker’s of Aricept (a drug used in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease), and contains a series of questions designed to determine if an individual might have the memory problems associated with this disease.
This is the home page for the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, and provides details on neural networks and connectionism, including links to other information, such as FAQs, images, and applications.
This site provides information and an in-class exercise dealing with the “depth-of-processing” concept.
This website contains an article from “Nature Reviews: Neuroscience” (2002) that details many up-to-date facts on the condition of H.M., one of the most famous memory disorder patients in the history of psychology.
This site details a variety of issues related to the human tendency to forget information, including why this occurs and how to distinguish minor memory loss from more severe clinical conditions.
This website discusses Alzheimer’s Disease, and includes a simple memory test that is argued to be a predictor of the early-onset version of this condition. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 120 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 7.1 Which of the following is not a reason provided by Tulving as to why scientists propose multiple, and not a single, memory systems? (a) a multiple memory system lacks heuristic value (b) a multiple system is simpler to construct than a single system (c) there are specifics, and not generalities, about memory (d) the presence of dissociations suggest that multiple systems are involved in memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 191-193 7.2 Which of the following is illustrative of a memory dissociation? (a) a group of young and old adults both recall information to form a classic serial position curve (b) a group of males recall more information, from a list of words, when compared to a group of females (c) a group of amnesic patients recall less information from long-term memory than a group of non-amnesics (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 192-193 7.3 A double dissociation is said to occur when: (a) an experimental variable produces a different effect on one task, but not another (b) an experimental variable differentially affects performance on two or more tasks (c) an experimental variable produces no effect on two different tasks (d) none of the above ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 192-193 7.4 The occurrence of a dissociation automatically suggests that: (a) separate memory systems underlie performance (b) different memory abilities underlie task performance (c) different memory tasks have similar difficulties (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 192-193 7.5 The memory systems involved in Dual-Store theory are: (a) short-term and sensory (b) long-term and sensory (c) long-term and iconic (d) short-term and long-term ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 193-195 7.6 Short-term memory and long-term memory are said to differ in terms of their: (a) capacities (b) coding forms (c) forgetting qualities (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 193-195 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 121 7.7 The displacement, replacement, and forgetting of information is most likely to occur within: (a) long-term memory (b) short-term memory (c) implicit memory (d) procedural memory ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 193-195 7.8 Joe is one of 20 individuals interviewing for a job. Joe would like to go last, as he feels that this position will keep him in his interviewers’ short term memory, compared to the other applicants. Joe’s positioning here is most directly related to: (a) the primacy effect (b) the recency effect (c) episodic memory (d) semantic memory ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 193-195 7.9 Within a serial position curve, which effect reflects the operation of long-term memory? (a) the primacy effect (b) the recency effect (c) episodic memory (d) semantic memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 193-195 7.10 The problems with patient H.M. involve: (a) the inability to form long-term memories (b) the inability to form short-term memories (c) the lack of a recency effect (d) impaired iconic memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 193-195 7.11 You are asked “Who was the first president of the United States?” To answer this question, you would most likely have to retrieve information from: (a) short -term memory (b) semantic memory (c) episodic memory (d) procedural memory ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 195-198 7.12 To tell someone what type of ice cream is your favorite flavor, you would have to access you ice cream preferences, which are most likely stored in: (a) short-term memory (b) semantic memory (c) episodic memory (d) procedural memory ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 195-198 7.13 The finding that certain amnesiacs have impaired episodic LTM but preserved semantic LTM (or vice-versa) suggests that: (a) LTM is always damaged in amnesia (b) STM is not an important memory system (c) episodic and semantic LTM are distinct from one another (d) episodic and semantic LTM are really different processing modes of the same memory system ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 195-198 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 122 7.14 Knowing something but not knowing where/how you learned it is a basic feature of: (a) source amnesia (b) episodic memory (c) semantic memory (d) explicit memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 195-198 7.15 Which of the following is NOT known to produce memory loss? (a) electroconvulsive therapy (b) an unusual word appearing in the middle of a list of other words (c) the inducing of frustration in infants (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 196-197 7.16 The answer to which of the following questions would most likely involve activation of the mechanism(s) behind implicit memory? (a) “When did you graduate from high school?” (b) “What did you look like when you were younger?” (c) “What type of ice cream tastes better: vanilla or chocolate?” (d) none of the above ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 199-203 7.17 Implicit Memory : Explicit Memory as Unconscious : : (a) Inactive (b) Indirect (c) Conscious (d) Retention ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 199-203 7.18 A test that makes direct reference to a prior episode is most likely assessing: (a) incidental memory (b) implicit memory (c) working memory (d) explicit memory ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 199-203 7.19 Mary’s knowledge of how to drive a car is most likely originating from her: (a) explicit memory (b) procedural memory (c) episodic memory (d) semantic memory ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 199-203 7.20 Jane, the coach of the Central High basketball team, is showing her team a film of their last game immediately before the take the court for their next game. Jane is seemingly encouraging the occurrence of: (a) repetition priming (b) the recency effect (c) episodic memory (d) semantic memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 199-203 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 123 7.21 A common finding obtained when comparing the memory abilities of normal individuals to amnesics is: (a) the normals and amnesics have equal explicit memory skills (b) the amnesics have better implicit memory abilities than the normals (c) the normals and amnesics have equal implicit memory skills (d) the amnesics have better explicit memory abilities than the normals ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 199-203 7.22 The contamination of an implicit memory test with explicit retrieval can be reduced by:
- making sure subjects understand their implicit memory instructions (b) using
subliminal presentations (c) using amnesia patients as subjects (d) using individuals below the age of 18 in experiments ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 199-203 7.23 Which of the following can be taken as evidence that implicit memories arise from a different memory system than explicit memories? (a) performance on implicit and explicit tests are positively correlated (b) individual differences seem to affect explicit, but not implicit, abilities (c) experimental treatments tend to have equal effects on implicit and explicit memory (d) all of the above ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 199-203 7.24 True or False: The intrusion of explicit awareness of test items within an implicit memory task is an effect that is only seen in individuals without amnesia. (a) True (b) False ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 201 7.25 Episodic and semantic LTM have been suggested to be elements within: (a) declarative memory (b) non-declarative memory (c) working memory (d) implicit memory ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 203-204 7.26 Which of the following is not a step in the Stage Model of memory? (a) storage (b) retrieval (c) encoding (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 204-206 7.27 Failing to remember where you placed your car keys can be due to a deficit during: (a) storage (b) retrieval (c) encoding (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 204-206 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 124 7.28 From a processing perspective, H.M.’s amnesia is said to stem from a problem with: (a) storage (b) retrieval (c) encoding (d) all of the above ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 205-206 7.29 Depth-of-Processing theory makes the assumption that there are how many memory systems? (a) one (b) two (c) three (d) none ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 206-210 7.30 Which type of processing would seemingly encourage a better level of understanding of a given topic? (a) maintenance (b) shallow (c) elaborate (d) episodic ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 206-210 7.31 A student is sitting in class, writing down everything a teacher is saying, although the student doesn’t seem to understand what is being said. This type of behavior is reflective of which type of processing? (a) maintenance (b) deep (c) elaborate (d) episodic ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 206-210 7.32 If you wanted someone to remember the word “MINIVAN,” which question, asked of a person, would encourage the deepest level of processing? (a) “How many letters are in the word?” (b) “How can the word be used in a sentence?” (c) “Does the word contain the letter “E”?” (d) “What letter does the word begin with?” ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 206-210 7.33 Which of the following is not a criticism of depth-of-processing theory? (a) depth of processing does not necessarily lead to better memory (b) independent measures of depth are difficult to attain (c) defining “depth” can be difficult (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 206-210 7.34 True or False: Depth of processing ideas are never found in other approaches to memory. (a) True (b) False ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 206-210 7.35 Encoding specificity argues that retrieval is enhanced when an encoding context in reinstated during retrieval. Which of the following processes proposes a similar notion?
- incidental learning (b) elaborative processing (c) depth of processing (d) transfer appropriate processing
ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 208-210 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 125 7.36 The theory of transfer appropriate processing argues that implicit and explicit memories:
- represent different types of processing within the same memory system (b) are different because the information in each is processed in different memory systems (c) are processed in identical manners, but in different memory systems (d) are not different in any way
ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 208-210 7.37 Connectionist networks attempt to model: (a) elaborative vs. shallow processing (b) the connections between short- and long -term memory (c) the manner in which information is processed at the neuronal level (d) none of the above ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 210-214 7.38 In connectionist networks, the strength of a given connection is increased when: (a) hidden units adjust connection weights (b) back-propagation alters output (c) baseline levels of activity are reinstated (d) a connection between two units is repeatedly activated ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 210-214 7.39 Errors arising within connectionist networks are corrected when: (a) hidden units adjust connection weights (b) activation thresholds are attained (c) baseline levels of activity are reinstated (d) a connection between two units is repeatedly activated ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 210-214 7.40 The Rescorla-Wagner model provides a mathematical framework for explaining Pavlovian conditioning and demonstrates how a negatively accelerated learning curve is generated. A similar curve is illustrated within connectionist networks as a result of: (a) back propagation (b) hidden units (c) the delta rule (d) simultaneous unit activation ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 210-214 7.41 Electroconvulsive therapy is said to disrupt: (a) retrograde amnesia (b) anterograde amnesia (c) memory consolidation (d) implicit memory formation ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 214-215 7.42 Which of the following is most likely to involve an organic form of memory loss? (a) dissociative disorder (b) limited amnesia (c) Korsakoff’s Syndrome (d) fugue ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 214-218 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 126 7.43 Which of the following conditions is preventable? (a) dissociative disorder (b) limited amnesia (c) Korsakoff’s Syndrome (d) all of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 214-218 7.44 John was in a car accident 2 weeks ago, and since then, his ability to retain new information as it is presented to him has been virtually nonexistent. John seems to suffer from: (a) retrograde amnesia (b) anterograde amnesia (c) Korsakoff’s Syndrome (d) dissociative disorder ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 214-218 7.45 Toni’s mother has advanced Alzheimer’s Disease, and she has forgotten virtually everything about Toni and her brother Tim. This type of memory loss could best be characterized as: (a) retrograde amnesia (b) anterograde amnesia (c) fugue (d) dissociative disorder ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 214-218 7.46 Jane is unable to remember anything from a history course she completed 2 semesters ago, and she feels that this is due to the trauma she experienced during each class meeting because the professor reminded Jane of her abusive ex-husband. Jane’s memory loss could be best characterized as: (a) retrograde amnesia (b) anterograde amnesia (c) limited amnesia (d) dissociative disorder ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 214-218 7.47 Patient H.M. has the ability to acquire some new knowledge, although this ability is limited to: (a) episodic memories (b) semantic memories (c) motor skills (d) overall spatial memory ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 216 7.48 Psychogenic amnesias result from: (a) damage to the hippocampus (b) a weakened diencephalon region of the brain (c) prolonged alcohol abuse (d) psychological trauma ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 217-218 7.49 Which of the following is not at the center of an explanation behind psychogenic amnesia? (a) repression (b) repression (c) dissociation (d) none of the above ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 217-218 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 127 7.50 Bob has Capgras Syndrome, and is attending his high school reunion. John Smith, who was Bob’s track coach for his 4 years in high school, approaches Bob to start a conversation. Which of the following reactions will Bob likely experience about his ex-coach? (a) recalling the sound of Smith’s voice (b) remembering the precise years that Bob competed for coach Smith (c) both a and b (d) neither a nor b ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 220 7.51 TRUE OR FALSE: The memory losses experienced by people suffering from misidentity disorders are not a result of any dementia-related conditions. (a) True (b) False ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 220 7.52 Tom is sure that he has dated his current girlfriend, Sara, for a few weeks about 5 years ago. Sara, however, says that she had never met Tom before they started dating. Tom’s “memory” concerning Sara is illustrative of: (a) source amnesia (b) cryptomnesia (c) limited amnesia (d) déjà vu ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 220-221 7.53 Being able to discriminate real memories from imagined ones is referred to as: (a) cryptomnesia (b) anterograde amnesia (c) reality monitoring (d) déjà vu ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 220-221