INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS Nursing in Today’s World 10th Edition by Dr. Janice Rider Ellis – Test Bank Sample Questions Chapter: Chapter 1: Exploring the Growth of Nursing as a ProfessionMultiple Choice1. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the practice of medicine inGreece from 800 BC to 300 BC?A) Greek culture stressed natural causes for disease, a patient-centered approach, and thenecessity of accurate observations and record keeping.B) Greek culture borrowed medical practices from the countries it conquered, and physicianswere often slaves.C) Major and minor surgery, children’s diseases, and diseases of the nervous and urinarysystems were described in Greek culture.D) Medicine men (known first as shamans and later as priests) were responsible for curing illsof body and mind.Ans: AClient Needs: BCognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 1Page and Header: 4, Table 1.1Feedback: Hippocrates, born about 400 BC, was a Greek citizen who became known as theFather of Modern Medicine. He emphasized natural causes for disease, a patient-centeredapproach, and the necessity of accurate observations and record keeping. These prioritiesinfluenced the practice of medicine both in Greece and beyond. Persia was known to utilizeslaves as physicians, and Rome borrowed medical practices from the countries it conquered.Ancient India emphasized hygiene and prevention of sickness and described major and minorsurgery, children’s diseases, and diseases of the nervous and urinary systems. Medicine menwere characteristic of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations.2. Florence Nightingale fostered the development of nursing as a profession. What was thebasis of her nursing theory?A) The nurse’s role is to assist individuals (sick or well) to carry out those activities that theywould perform unaided if they had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge.B) The goal of nursing is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him,primarily by altering the environment.C) The focus of nursing is the spiritual subjective aspects of both the nurse and the patient andthe “caring moment” relating to the time when the nurse and the patient first come together.D) The focus of nursing is the care of human beings who are viewed as open systems inconstant interaction with their environments.Ans: BClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 2Page and Header: 21, Early Definitions of NursingFeedback: Florence Nightingale, in her Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not,described the nurse’s role as one that would “put the patient in the best condition for nature toact upon him” (Nightingale, 1954, p. 133), a definition that often is quoted today. This actionwas prioritized over physically assisting the patient. Watson emphasized the spiritual subjectiveaspects of the nurse and the patient, and the “open systems” concept is central to King’s theoryof nursing.3. Which one of the following statements accurately describes an element of the process ofproviding a definition of nursing?A) Researchers can pinpoint the period in history when nursing first evolved.B) Nurses agree on a single definition of nursing, partly because of the history of nursing.C) There is an obvious distinction between nursing and medicine.D) Nursing theorists developed definitions of nursing consistent with their conceptualframeworks.Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 7, 8Page and Header: 23, Influences on the Definition of NursingFeedback: As nursing has grown into a true profession, many nursing theorists havedeveloped definitions of nursing consistent with their conceptual frameworks; theseframeworks provide the foundation for any given definition of nursing. The historicalemergence of nursing did not take place at one particular time, and there are multiple definitionsof nursing. While nursing and medicine indeed differ, the distinctions between the twoprofessions are not always clear.4. A nurse wishes to document nursing actions using a standardized language. Which of thefollowing systems might the nurse use?A) NANDA International (NANDA-I)B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)C) Minimum Data Set for Nursing Home Resident Assessment and Care Screening (MDS)D) Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Communication and DocumentationObjective: 12Page and Header: 40, Nursing Interventions ClassificationFeedback: Started in 1996 at the University of Iowa, the Nursing Interventions Classification(NIC) is a comprehensive, standardized language that describes actions that nurses perform inall settings and in all specialties and includes both physiologic and psychosocial interventions.NANDA and NOC provide standardized language for nursing diagnoses and outcomes. TheMDS is an assessment tool specific to long-term care settings.5. An RN who practices in a community clinic recognizes the need for a standardizedclassification and documentation system. Which of the following systems of nursing careclassification and documentation would best fit the RN’s needs?A) NANDA International (NANDA-I)B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)C) The Omaha SystemD) Patient Care Data Set (PCDS)Ans: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Communication and DocumentationObjective: 13Page and Header: 41, The Omaha SystemFeedback: The Omaha System is a research-based comprehensive practice documentationstandardized taxonomy designed to document client care from admission to discharge. It wasdesigned as a three-part, comprehensive yet brief approach to documentation and informationmanagement for multidisciplinary healthcare professionals who practice in community settings.NANDA and NOC provide frameworks only for nursing diagnoses and outcomes, while thePCDS is specific to hospital settings.6. The number and size of nursing schools in the United States grew significantly in the yearsof the early 20th century. Which of the following characteristics was emphasized in theseschools?A) A thorough knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and epidemiologyB) Critical thinking, assertiveness, and autonomyC) An understanding of the relationship among mind, body, and spiritD) Religious devotion and subservience to authorityAns: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: EasyIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 3Page and Header: 12, Characteristics of the Early SchoolsFeedback: In early nursing schools, the nurse in training was expected to yield to her superiorsand demonstrate the obedience characteristics of a good soldier with actions governed by thededication to duty derived from religious devotion. These expectations superseded theimportance of critical thinking, scientific knowledge, or the holistic nature of health.7. Florence Nightingale is acknowledged as one of the individuals who contributed mostsignificantly to the development of nursing as a profession. What other phenomenoncontributed most to this development?A) Labor-saving technology that freed many women from working in the homeB) The social recognition of the importance of public funding for the treatment of diseaseC) Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of illness and the importance of infectioncontrolD) The high mortality rates that existed during times of warAns: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 4Page and Header: 8, The Nightingale InfluenceFeedback: The death and disease that accompanied conflicts such as the Crimean War and theCivil War provided the impetus for much of the development of the nursing profession.Nursing did not primarily grow out of the availability of a female workforce, public funding forhealth, or increased scientific knowledge.8. Nurses have historically had difficulty identifying a single, comprehensive definition ofnursing. What factor most accounts for this difficulty in agreeing on a definition for nursing?A) It can be challenging to reconcile the theoretical and practical aspects of nursing.B) Nursing exists in the psychomotor (hands-on) domain rather than in the cognitive domain.C) Compared with medicine, nursing has a relatively short history.D) Nurses have traditionally been reluctant to acknowledge the outcomes of their practice.Ans: AClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 5Page and Header: 21, Developing a Definition for NursingFeedback: A major factor that has made it difficult to define nursing is that it is taught asencompassing both theoretic and practical aspects, but it is pursued (and continues to bedefined) primarily through practice, until recently a little-studied area. Nursing spanspsychomotor and cognitive domains, and it has a very long history. Nurses have often failed todocument and publish the results of their practice, but there is no indication that nurses tendednot to acknowledge their influence on health.9. One of the challenges that nurses have faced in the past, and which continues to the present,is the need to distinguish the practice of nursing from that of medicine. Which of the followingstatements best conveys a defining characteristic of nursing?A) Education within a formal, credential-granting settingB) An emphasis on objective, rather than subjective, health assessmentC) A holistic perspective on the health of individualsD) A recognition that health is not always attainable for all individualsAns: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 6Page and Header: 22, Distinguishing Nursing from MedicineFeedback: Nursing is concerned with caring for the person from a holistic perspective in avariety of health-related situations. Both nursing and medicine are taught in formal educationalsettings, though these settings differ. Nursing does not denigrate subjective health assessmentnor does it claim that health is unattainable for some individuals.10. Society has sometimes questioned whether nursing can be considered to be a trueprofession and whether nurses can be considered to be professionals. What characteristic ofnursing is among the characteristics that social scientists use to define a profession?A) The median annual nursing wage is greater than $45,000.B) Nurses use the scientific method to enhance their body of knowledge.C) Nurses can be held legally accountable for their actions.D) Nursing has a demonstrated commitment to the well-being of the public.Ans: BClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 7Page and Header: 27, Table 1.8Feedback: Social scientists have identified seven criteria for a profession, including the use ofthe scientific method to enhance knowledge. Earnings and commitment to the public are notamong the defining characteristics of a profession. Autonomy and accountability are criteriathat are used to define a profession, but legal accountability for actions is not restricted toprofessionals.11. Among the traditions that exist in nursing education is a “passing of the lamp” ceremonythat is sometimes conducted during graduation. This ceremony communicatesA) the “light” that nursing provides in communities and society.B) an acknowledgment of the contributions made by important nurses in history.C) the continuity of care from practicing nurses to newly graduated nurses.D) the need to continually build the nurse’s base of knowledge.Ans: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: KnowledgeDifficulty: EasyIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 9Page and Header: 31, Ceremonies Associated with Nursing ProgramsFeedback: Some schools use the tradition of a “passing of the lamp.” A representative of thegraduating class hands a lamp to a representative of the next graduating class, thus reinforcingthe concept of the continual caring represented in nursing. This ceremony does not primarilyemphasize the “light” of the profession, the contribution of nurses in history (though the lampsymbolizes the lamp carried by Florence Nightingale), or the need to add to existingknowledge.12. A nurse who provides care on a medical unit at a community hospital is concerned aboutnegative portrayals of nurses in the media. Why should this nurse be concerned with the imageof nurses and nursing?A) A negative image of nursing can dissuade potential nurses from entering the profession.B) A negative image of nursing reduces patients’ adherence to treatment regimens.C) A negative image of nursing interferes with professional accountability in hospital settings.D) A negative image of nursing reduces the development of nursing knowledge.Ans: AClient Needs: CCognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Communication and DocumentationObjective: 10Page and Header: 32, The Image of Nursing TodayFeedback: Negative attitudes about nursing may discourage many capable prospective nurses,who will choose another career that offers greater appeal in stature, status, and salary. Theimage of nursing is not noted to influence patient adherence to treatment or accountability. Anegative image may indirectly limit nursing knowledge through reduced funding for research,but this phenomenon is less pronounced than the effect on potential nurses.13. Megan, a 21-year-old junior college student, has been frustrated by her unsuccessfulattempts to gain entry to the nursing program at the local university despite her strong academicrecord and work experience. Which of the following factors has most contributed to the limitednumber of seats available in many nursing programs?A) Technological developments that have decreased the projected need for nursesB) The tendency of practicing nurses to delay retirement until after the age of 65 yearsC) The high cost to educational institutions of providing nursing educationD) The negative image of nursing in the media and popular cultureAns: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 10Page and Header: Nursing’s Image and the Nursing ShortageFeedback: A factor affecting the nursing supply is the limited number of spaces in nursingprograms. Because nursing education is costly, many educational institutions have not beenable to increase the size of their programs in the past decade. This trend is not attributable totechnological change, increased length of service, or the negative image of nursing.14. Mrs. Jimenez is a 28-year-old pregnant woman who is in labor. Due to the fact that herlabor was progressing very slowly, she was started on an infusion of oxytocin, a drug used toincrease the progression of her labor. In the planning of Mrs. Jimenez’s care, the nurse hasdocumented a “Risk of Fluid Volume Excess” in light of this common adverse effect ofoxytocin. The nurse has demonstrated the use of what nursing classification system?A) The Minimum Data Set (MDS)B) Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)C) Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)D) NANDA International (NANDA-I)Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Communication and DocumentationObjective: 12Page and Header: 40, NANDA InternationalFeedback: “Risk of Fluid Volume Excess” is an example of a nursing diagnosis, which is thefocus of NANDA-I. This does not denote an intervention or desired outcome. The MDS is anassessment tool specific to long-term care settings.15. During the years of the 20th century, there was exponential growth in the number andquality of research studies that were conducted about nurses and nursing. What factor providedthe original motivation for these studies?A) The entry of larger number of men into nursing schools and the nursing professionB) A desire to lessen the knowledge gap between nurses and physiciansC) The low quality of nursing schools and nursing graduatesD) Allocation of federal and state funding for nursing researchAns: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 11Page and Header: 35, Studies for and About NursingFeedback: In the early 20th century, nurses, doctors, friends, and critics of nursing becameconcerned that the preparation being offered was inadequate. Before the problem could becorrected, it was necessary to learn more about the programs and how nurses were being usedin the employment market. To accomplish this, studies about nursing and nurses were initiated.These studies did not primarily result from increased funding opportunities, the entry of meninto the profession, or the knowledge gap between doctors and nurses.Import Settings:Base Settings: Brownstone DefaultInformation Field: Client NeedsInformation Field: Cognitive LevelInformation Field: DifficultyInformation Field: Integrated ProcessInformation Field: ObjectiveInformation Field: Page and HeaderHighest Answer Letter: EMultiple Keywords in Same Paragraph: NoChapter: Chapter 2: Educational Preparation for NursingMultiple Choice1. Manuel has a baccalaureate degree in biology and wishes to make a career change toeventually become an advanced practice RN. Which of the following courses of study wouldbe the most time-efficient choice to meet his educational goals?A) Master’s degree in nursingB) Baccalaureate degree in nursingC) Doctoral degree in nursingD) Associate degree in nursingAns: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 2Page and Header: 53, Characteristics of Associate Degree EducationFeedback: Students may be admitted to master’s programs in nursing with a baccalaureatedegree in another discipline and are granted a master’s degree in nursing after completing anestablished 2-year program of study that prepares them for RN licensure. However, peoplewho already possess baccalaureate or higher degrees in other fields sometimes seek admissionto an associate degree program, often because it can be completed in a shorter period of timethan would be needed to earn another baccalaureate degree (though accelerated baccalaureateprograms are becoming more common).2. Which nursing report recommended that nursing education move away from the system ofapprenticeship that predominated at the time and move toward a planned program of educationsimilar to that offered by other professions?A) The Surgeon General’s Consultant Group Report on NursingB) The Brown ReportC) The American Nurses Association Position PaperD) The Pew Health Profession Commission StudyAns: BClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 4Page and Header: 72, The Brown ReportFeedback: In Nursing for the Future, Brown (1948) recommended that nursing educationmove away from the system of apprenticeship that predominated at the time and move toward aplanned program of education similar to that offered by other professions. This predated theSurgeon General’s Consultant Group Report on Nursing, the American Nurses AssociationPosition Paper, and the Pew Health Profession Commission Study.3. Which of the following accurately states a major position of the ANA Position Paper onEducational Preparation?A) The education of those who are licensed to practice nursing should take place in hospitals.B) Minimum preparation for beginning professional nursing practice at the present time shouldbe an associate degree in nursing.C) Minimum preparation for beginning technical nursing practice at the present time should bea baccalaureate degree in nursing.D) Education for assistants in health service occupations should be short, intensive preserviceprograms in vocational educational institutions.Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 5Page and Header: 74, Display 2.2Feedback: One of the four major positions of the ANA Position Paper on EducationalPreparation is that education for assistants in the health service occupations should be short,intensive preservice programs in vocational education institutions, rather than on-the-jobtraining programs. It also states that the education of all those who are licensed to practicenursing should take place in institutions of higher education, not in hospitals. The paperspecifies an associate degree as the minimum for technical nursing and a baccalaureate degreefor professional nursing.4. Sister Calista Roy identified an adaptation model that characterizes the individual as being inconstant interaction with a changing environment, therefore requiring adaptation. Which of thefollowing identifies an adaptive mode listed in her theory?A) Role functionB) NutritionC) SpiritualityD) Genetic makeupAns: AClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 9Page and Header: 84, Table 2.2Feedback: Roy identifies four adaptive modes, or ways in which a person adapts through: (1)physiologic needs, (2) self-concept, (3) role function, and (4) interdependence relations.Nutrition, spirituality, and genetic makeup are not discrete concepts within this theory.5. Mr. Van is a 79-year-old widower who is being transferred to a long-term facility followinghip replacement surgery. The nurse in charge of his care hopes to provide holistic nursing carefor him based on his response to the interaction between his internal and external environment.This approach represents the model of care proposed by which of the following theorists?A) Dorothy JohnsonB) Madeleine LeiningerC) Dorothea OremD) Myra LevineAns: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 9Page and Header: 84, Table 2.2Feedback: Levine supports a holistic approach to nursing based on recognition of the totalresponse of the person to the interaction between the internal and the external environment.This approach is not specified by Johnson, Leininger, or Orem.Multiple Selection6. A college sophomore has become disillusioned with her current field of studies and hasbegun exploring careers in nursing. To her surprise, she is unable to identify any hospitalbasedprograms of study in her home state. Which of the following factors have contributed tothe demise of hospital-based diploma programs? (Select all that apply.)A) Increased patient acuity in hospitalsB) Increased popularity of college- and university-based nursing programsC) The growth of managed care and its influence on hospital managementD) Increased costs to hospitals for maintaining nursing programsE) The emergence of the baccalaureate degree as the entry to technical nursing practiceAns: B, DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 1Page and Header: 52, Hospital-Based Programs TodayFeedback: The elimination of hospital-based programs occurred because hospitals could notsustain the costs of supporting the programs and because students became more attracted toprograms located in colleges and universities. Patient acuity and managed care have not beenidentified as causative factors. The baccalaureate degree has been proposed as the entry toprofessional nursing practice, not technical nursing.Multiple Choice7. Kirsten is a 22-year-old woman who has just been granted admission to an associate degreeprogram at a local college. During her course of study, Kirsten should expect to completeA) the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX®).B) a preceptorship under the direction of a licensed practical (vocational) nurse.C) a major, original research project immediately prior to graduation.D) numerous nonnursing courses in a variety of disciplines.Ans: AClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: EasyIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 1Page and Header: 53, Characteristics of Associate Degree EducationFeedback: In a typical ADN program, approximately 40% of the credits needed for theassociate degree must be fulfilled by general education courses such as English, anatomy,physiology, speech, psychology, and sociology; the rest are to be fulfilled by nursing courses.Original research is not a component of undergraduate nursing education, and preceptorshipsare normally completely under the direction of an RN. The NCLEX® is written aftergraduation.8. Ben is a 30-year-old man who has applied for an accelerated baccalaureate program at auniversity because the 15-month program of study will allow him to accommodate his familyand financial responsibilities. In order to be granted admission, what will Ben most likelyrequire?A) A varied work history that demonstrates initiative and responsibilityB) A baccalaureate degree in another fieldC) A mentor or sponsor within the nursing fieldD) Volunteer experience in a health-related settingAns: BClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ComprehensionDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 3Page and Header: 59, Accelerated ProgramsFeedback: Building on previous learning experiences, accelerated programs are designed totransition adults with baccalaureate and graduate degrees in other fields into nursing. A strongwork history, volunteer experience, and an available mentor in the field are all assets forsuccess, but these are less likely to be absolutely required for admission.9. Julia has just graduated with her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree from her stateuniversity and has begun seeking employment. However, she is anxious about her level ofclinical competence due to the fact that she completed far fewer clinical hours than manypracticing nurses. Which of the following has the potential to ease Julia’s transition to practice?A) Completing a residency or internship at the hospital where she will be employedB) Auditing courses in a nonnursing, health-related disciplineC) Working for several months as a nursing assistant in order to gain confidenceD) Taking online courses in advanced nursing practiceAns: AClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 2Page and Header: 68, Residencies and Structured Orientation for the New GraduateFeedback: Internships and residencies for new graduates have been instituted by hospitals toease the transition from the role of student to that of staff by providing the opportunity toincrease clinical skills and knowledge as well as self-confidence. Taking more academiccourses and/or working as a nursing assistant are unlikely to increase Julia’s confidence andcompetence in her clinical nursing role.10. According to the ANA Position Paper on Educational Preparation, which of the followingfour individuals is adequately prepared to provide care?A) A nursing assistant who has just completed an on-the-job training program in a localhospitalB) A nurse who graduated from a hospital-based diploma programC) A nurse in a high-acuity setting who possesses an associate degree in nursing (ADN)degreeD) A nursing assistant who graduated from the training program at a community collegeAns: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 5Page and Header: 74, Display 2.2Feedback: The ANA Position Paper specifies that education for assistants in the health serviceoccupations should be short, intensive preservice programs in vocational education institutions,rather than on-the-job training programs. The Paper also specifies a minimum of an ADNdegree for all nursing practice and a baccalaureate degree for professional nursing (e.g., inhigh-acuity settings).11. Nurse. L. provides care in a state that has mandatory continuing education requirements fornurses. What are the consequences of this policy for Nurse L.?A) Nurse L. must demonstrate a commitment to making practice improvements.B) Nurse L. must have a baccalaureate degree in order to provide professional nursing care.C) Nurse L. is obliged to update her diploma to an associate degree.D) Nurse L. must demonstrate continuing education for license renewal.Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 6Page and Header: 69, Continuing EducationFeedback: Mandatory continuing education affects licensure, meaning that any nurse renewinga license in a state requiring (mandating) continuing education will have to satisfy thatrequirement. However, this does not necessarily mean that a nurse must update his or herdegree or diploma or undertake practice improvements.12. The administrators of a large, university hospital have expressed a commitment todifferentiated nursing practice. Which of the following most clearly exemplifies differentiatedpractice?A) Each nurse performs a role that is commensurate with his or her education and experiencelevel.B) Each nurse in the hospital is expected to provide competent care in a variety of differentsettings.C) Nurses demonstrate evidence of continuing education in two or more different specialties.D) Each nurse in the hospital possesses an ADN or baccalaureate degree in nursing.Ans: AClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 7Page and Header: 77, Differentiated PracticeFeedback: Differentiated nursing practice can be defined as the practice of structuring nursingroles on the basis of education, experience, and competence. It does not necessarily specify theprovision of care in diverse settings, evidence of continuing education, or the possession of anursing degree.13. A nurse manager who oversees the provision of community-based care to a large numberof clients has been mandated to implement differentiated care over the next year. In order tocarry out this directive, the nurse manager must be able toA) teach each nurse to become a “generalist” rather than a “specialist.”B) identify the evidence that underlies the nursing care that is provided.C) clearly identify the specific roles and tasks that these nurses perform.D) hire more licensed practical (vocational) nurses.Ans: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: ApplicationDifficulty: DifficultIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 7Page and Header: 77, Differentiated PracticeFeedback: Differentiated practice requires that the specific roles that are performed in theprovision of care be clearly identified and delineated. This is necessary in order to appropriatelymatch individual care providers to particular tasks and functions. Nurses do not need to become“generalists” nor are more practical nurses necessarily required. Evidence underlying nursingcare should be identified, but this is not necessary for differentiated care.14. Pressure from students and the healthcare industry has prompted the nursing educators at acollege to implement new technology into the nursing education that they provide. Which of thefollowing statements is true of technological change and nursing education?A) Technology is typically high in colleges and universities but low in hospitals and other caresettings.B) Many of the purported educational benefits of technology have not been demonstrated inthe nursing literature.C) Computer literacy is high among students but most nursing educators lack computer skills.D) The costs of integrating new technology into nursing education can be prohibitive.Ans: DClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 8Page and Header: 80, Computer Technology in the ClassroomFeedback: High-technology equipment is often expensive, a fact that often presents a challengeto educational institutions. The benefits of technology in learning have been demonstrated andcomputer literacy is nearly universal. Hospitals are high-technology work environments.15. The faculty members of a college-based school of nursing have taken action to increase theteaching and clinical time in the curriculum that is devoted to community-based nursing. Whichof the following phenomena provides the most valid rationale for this change?A) Public mistrust of hospitals is increasing and many individuals prefer to remain at home.B) The number of patients who qualify for Medicare and Medicaid is increasing.C) Patients are typically discharged from the hospital much earlier than in the past.D) Evidence demonstrates that students learn more in the community than in the hospital.Ans: CClient Needs: A-1Cognitive Level: AnalysisDifficulty: ModerateIntegrated Process: Nursing ProcessObjective: 8Page and Header: 82, Increasing Community-Based Practice ExperiencesFeedback: Earlier hospital discharge to the home and an increasing emphasis on prevention hascreated new demands on nursing in the community. This shift is not rooted in mistrust ofhospitals, a lack of learning in hospitals, or trends in Medicare and Medicaid.