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Social Psychology 4th edition by Dacher Keltner -Test Bank
CHAPTER 6: Emotion MULTIPLE CHOICE
- All of the following statements about emotions are accurate EXCEPT emotions
|a.||are associated with physiological changes.|
|b.||last for hours or even days.|
|c.||are reactions to specific people or events.|
|d.||often help individuals achieve goals.|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Understanding
- There are two general stages to the appraisal process that gives rise to human emotions. In the first appraisal stage, the person
|a.||assesses the future implications of an event.|
|b.||evaluates whether an event is congruent or incongruent with his or her goals.|
|c.||arrives at a causal attribution for an event.|
|d.||considers many different ways of responding to an event.|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Analyzing
- There are two general stages to the appraisal process that gives rise to human emotions. In the secondary appraisal stage,
|a.||a person automatically evaluates an event as positive or negative.|
|b.||a person decides which facial expressions to display.|
|c.||a person determines possible ways of responding to an event and the consequences of those responses.|
|d.||the amygdala responds to an event.|
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Analyzing
- Carla’s boyfriend breaks up with her. She comes up with her own explanation for this unfortunate turn of events during the ________ stage of the appraisal process.
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Applying
- Patterns of construal for evaluating events and objects in the environment based on their relation to current goals are known as ________ processes.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Remembering
- Which of the following is a result of feeling sympathy?
|a.||awareness of our shared humanity with others|
|b.||being more focused on “us versus them” distinctions|
|c.||an accelerated heart rate|
|d.||focusing more on our own needs, rather than the needs of others|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing EmotionOBJ: 6.1A MSC: Understanding
- Ekman and colleagues’ research on the universality of facial expression showed that people from diverse cultures tend to agree in how they label the emotions of
|a.||anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.|
|b.||frustration, aggression, disgust, happiness, and joy.|
|c.||anger, fear, sadness, love, and joy.|
|d.||disgust, fear, happiness, frustration, sadness, and love.|
ANS: A DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2AMSC: Understanding
- Which of the following approaches to understanding emotion assumes that the components of emotion allow adaptive responses to threats to survival?
|a.||the physiological approach||c.||the interdependent approach|
|b.||the evolutionary approach||d.||the cultural approach|
ANS: B DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2AMSC: Analyzing
- Which of the following approaches to understanding emotion assumes that emotions are strongly influenced by values, roles, institutions, and socialization practices?
|a.||the physiological approach||c.||the universality approach|
|b.||the evolutionary approach||d.||the cultural approach|
ANS: D DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2BMSC: Analyzing
- Scientific studies of emotional expression support which perspective(s) on emotions?
|a.||the evolutionary approach, but not the cultural approach|
|b.||the cultural approach, but not the evolutionary approach|
|c.||neither the cultural nor the evolutionary approach|
|d.||both the evolutionary and the cultural approaches|
ANS: D DIF: ModerateREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2CMSC: Analyzing
- Biting the tongue signals embarrassment in India but not in the United States. This is an example of a(n)
|a.||focal emotion.||c.||display rule.|
|b.||emotion accent.||d.||appraisal process.|
ANS: B DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2BMSC: Applying
- Research shows that cultures do NOT tend to vary in
|a.||the importance of different emotions.|
|b.||when it is appropriate to display an emotion.|
|c.||the number of words used to represent a particular emotion.|
|d.||the facial expressions used to display an emotion.|
ANS: D DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2CMSC: Understanding
- Display rules are
|a.||principles that govern how experimental research on emotion is conducted.|
|b.||universal facial expressions of emotion that are found in most cultures.|
|c.||genetically determined predispositions to form certain types of facial expressions in response to stimuli.|
|d.||culturally specific principles that govern how and when and to whom we express emotion.|
ANS: D DIF: EasyREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2BMSC: Remembering
- Paul Ekman coined the term Duchenne smile in order to differentiate true, enjoyment smiles from fake, polite smiles. What is present in the Duchenne smile that is NOT present in polite smiles?
|a.||activity in the zygomatic cheek muscles, which pull the lips upward|
|b.||verbal expressions of happiness|
|c.||duration longer than ten seconds|
|d.||activity in the orbicularis eye muscle|
ANS: D DIF: DifficultREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2AMSC: Analyzing
- According to research, shame is more likely to be a focal emotion for ________ than for ________.
|a.||members of interdependent cultures; members of independent cultures|
|b.||members of independent cultures; members of interdependent cultures|
|c.||Europeans; the Awlad’Ali of Egypt|
|d.||the Japanese; Utku Inuits|
ANS: A DIF: ModerateREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2BMSC: Analyzing
- Research by Tracy and colleagues examined the expression of pride in athletes who were sighted versus blind. Which of the following best summarizes the results of this research?
|a.||Athletes who were blind did not show the nonverbal expressions of pride.|
|b.||Athletes at the Olympic level did not display prideful nonverbal expressions.|
|c.||Blind athletes from the United States displayed nonverbal expressions of pride, but blind athletes from other countries did not.|
|d.||Both sighted and blind athletes equally displayed nonverbal expressions of pride after winning.|
ANS: D DIF: DifficultREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2AMSC: Understanding
- Darwin’s principle of serviceable habits suggests that facial expressions of emotion
|a.||arose randomly as a result of genetic mutations.|
|b.||reliably solve challenges in contemporary society.|
|c.||derived from behaviors that proved useful and adaptive to our ancestors.|
|d.||are present only in humans because only humans experience emotions.|
ANS: C DIF: DifficultREF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally Specific OBJ: 6.2AMSC: Understanding
- Which hormone promotes closeness and commitment?
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Remembering
- Which emotion is more often expressed by those high in power, compared to those low in power?
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Remembering
- Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that touch promotes closeness between friends and relationship partners?
|a.||Touch is pleasurable.|
|b.||Touch is soothing in times of stress.|
|c.||Touch communicates prosocial emotions.|
|d.||Touch causes the body to create and release estrogen.|
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Understanding
- Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence?
|a.||accurately perceiving others’ emotions|
|b.||understanding one’s own emotions|
|c.||using emotions to make decisions|
|d.||preventing emotional feelings|
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3B MSC: Analyzing
- You are interested in pledging a fraternity. The first time you come by the frat house, you meet Vince as you walk in the door. Vince says hello and then angrily yells at his frat brother down the hall. What are you likely to infer about Vince based on this interaction?
|a.||Vince is a political science major.|
|b.||Vince has a high status role within the fraternity.|
|c.||Vince is unlikely to get what he wants.|
|d.||Vince is a beloved member of the fraternity.|
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- Prior to a basketball game, Coach Keating shakes his players’ hands. Each player then gives the others a fist bump and a hug. In contrast, coach Lopez wishes the players luck and then the team goes through a cheer. Based on research by Kraus and colleagues how will the teams do if they follow the same routine over the season?
|a.||Coach Keating’s team will do better because the touch in which they engage coordinates the team.|
|b.||Coach Keating’s team will do worse because the touch in which they engage is a distraction.|
|c.||Coach Lopez’s team will do better because the team cheer builds solidarity among the players.|
|d.||Coach Lopez’s team will do worse because the team cheer distracts players from their opponents.|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- Amy and David just had an awesome date. They went to a great restaurant and then played shuffleboard at a new bar. They are feeling close and committed to their relationship. Based on your reading, what physiological change are Amy and David likely experiencing?
|a.||increases in oxytocin|
|b.||increases in heart rate|
|c.||decreases in progesterone|
|d.||decreases in frontal lobe activation|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- What happens when montane voles are given an injection of oxytocin?
|a.||They become less dominant in their social groups.|
|b.||They become more dominant in their social groups.|
|c.||They stay close to one sexual partner.|
|d.||They become more promiscuous.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Understanding
- Tami is in the lounge of her doctor’s office waiting for some very important results. While waiting, Tami nervously shakes her leg. Tami is displaying which form of nonverbal communication?
|a.||an affective display||c.||a self-adapter|
|b.||an emblem||d.||a regulator|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- Which of the following is NOT associated with high emotional intelligence?
|a.||having more friends|
|b.||being perceived to be better workplace citizens|
|c.||cooperating better with romantic partners|
|d.||being better at mathematics|
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3B MSC: Understanding
- Former President Bill Clinton is known for his public presence. While making speeches he points his fingers and shakes a closed fist to emphasize important points. President Clinton is utilizing which form of nonverbal communication?
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- Mohammed is at a bar and notices an attractive woman sitting with her friends. According to what you learned about flirtation and nonverbal behavior, what is Mohammed likely to do first to communicate his interest?
|a.||look her way and then take a broad stance to look large|
|b.||look her way and then smile coyly|
|c.||walk by her and then provocatively brush her arm|
|d.||walk by her and then provocatively raise his eyebrows|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social RelationshipsOBJ: 6.3A MSC: Applying
- Recall that Isen studied how emotions might influence cognitive processes. She found that ________ emotions led participants to ________.
|a.||negative; use stereotypes when forming judgments|
|b.||positive; categorize objects in more inclusive ways|
|c.||negative; produce more unique responses to a word association task|
|d.||positive; behave more selfishly|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Understanding
- Ana just watched a scary movie by herself and is feeling afraid. As she is getting into bed after the movie, Ana hears a sound on her roof and jumps up. She thinks someone must be trying to break in. Ana’s experience demonstrates how emotions can exert a powerful influence on
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- Someone cut Neha off while she was trying to find a parking spot at the movie theater. She is mad. After a few more minutes, Neha finds another spot and heads inside. When buying popcorn, the attendant spills a bit of it and then moves on to the next person in line. How is Neha likely to interpret the attendant’s behavior?
|a.||Neha is likely to think that the attendant is rude and aggressive.|
|b.||Neha is likely to think that the attendant did not notice he spilled her popcorn.|
|c.||Neha is likely to think that the attendant is absentminded.|
|d.||Neha is likely to think that the attendant is tired.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- The ________ states that people first have fast emotional reactions to events with moral significance and then recruit more thoughtful reasoning to make a final judgment about right and wrong.
|a.||broaden-and-build theory||c.||moral foundations theory|
|b.||social intuitionist model||d.||appraisal process|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Emotions such as sympathy, concern, or compassion are triggered by appraisals of ________ and motivate prosocial behavior toward people who are vulnerable.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Understanding
- On her way to school, Aisha found a five dollar bill and feels great. In class a little bit later, Aisha is given a problem set on which to work. According to what you know about the broaden-and-build hypothesis, Aisha is more likely to solve the problem set
|a.||in creative ways.|
|c.||using what she learned last week.|
|d.||by relying on her classmates for the answers.|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- Following the terrorist attacks on 9/11, Josh was very afraid of the possibility of future attacks. How could Josh’s fear influence his perception of his environment?
|a.||Josh is also generally afraid of other potential risks, even those unrelated to terrorism.|
|b.||Josh is afraid of risks from terrorism but not other types of potential risks.|
|c.||Josh is more likely to feel positive and optimistic about his everyday situations.|
|d.||Josh will not be affected by his fear of terrorist attacks.|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- Which of the following examples provides the best evidence for the broaden-and-build hypothesis of how emotions influence cognition?
|a.||People who watch an amusing film clip rate themselves as more similar to outgroup members.|
|b.||People who are in a bad mood are more creative when working on complicated tasks.|
|c.||People who are given a bag of candy rate their life satisfaction as higher.|
|d.||People who unexpectedly find a dollar on the floor are in a better mood.|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Mary tells Halima about a situation that happened to their mutual friend. This friend’s beloved pet cat was run over last week, and rather than waste the corpse, their friend decided to cook the cat and eat it. Even though she knows that their friend did not harm the cat before it died and that their friend felt fine afterward, Halima still feels like this behavior was wrong. Halima is experiencing
|b.||moral dumbfounding.||d.||moral neglect.|
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- John had an enjoyable sexual encounter with his sister last week and decides to tell his friend Mark about it. According to the social intuitionist model, what is the first step in Mark’s moral reasoning about John’s experience?
|a.||First, Mark has a quick emotional reaction that this is wrong.|
|b.||First, Mark thinks about whether the behavior did harm to John or his sister.|
|c.||First, Mark uses conscious reasoning to decide whether John’s behavior is wrong.|
|d.||First, Mark disregards his emotional reaction that this is wrong.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- Which is NOT one of the universal moral domains described in Haidt’s moral foundations theory?
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Rob is a conservative Republican. Based on your reading, about which moral domain is Rob LESS likely to be concerned?
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social CognitionOBJ: 6.4A MSC: Applying
- The concept of duration neglect refers to which of the following phenomena?
|a.||Immediate reports of pleasure are unrelated to overall reports of pleasure.|
|b.||The beginning of an event exerts a stronger impact on overall reports of pleasure.|
|c.||The length of a pleasurable experience is unrelated to overall reports of pleasure.|
|d.||The number of peak moments during an event has no effect on overall reports of pleasure.|
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5DMSC: Understanding
- Steve is undergoing a medical procedure that only takes twenty minutes but will be very painful at the end. Deborah is undergoing a medical procedure that takes over two hours and will be very painful at the beginning, but the pain tapers off over the rest of the time. Afterward, which one will remember experiencing more pain?
|a.||Deborah will remember more pain, because her procedure lasted longer.|
|b.||Steve will remember more pain, because his procedure was more painful at the end.|
|c.||Steve and Deborah will remember equal amounts of pain.|
|d.||Pain memory is impossible to predict.|
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5DMSC: Applying
- Research on affective forecasting suggests that people tend to
|a.||overestimate the emotional impact of negative life events.|
|b.||underestimate the emotional impact of negative life events.|
|c.||be accurate at predicting the emotional impact of negative life events.|
|d.||be overly optimistic about their abilities to cope with negative life events.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Understanding
- Which of the following biases best explains the pattern of findings yielded by research on affective forecasting?
|b.||emotion congruence||d.||immune neglect|
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Understanding
- We may be bad at affective forecasting because of ________, the tendency to focus too much on a central aspect of an event while ignoring the possible impact of associated factors or other events.
|b.||immune neglect||d.||affective forecasting|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Remembering
- What are the two measurable components of happiness?
|a.||communion with God; life satisfaction|
|b.||life satisfaction; emotional well-being|
|c.||emotional well-being; hedonic experience|
|d.||hedonic experience; communion with God|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5AMSC: Remembering
- Davidson studied the effects of mindful meditation for Tibetan monks. Which of the following best summarizes the results of this research?
|a.||Monks who meditated more were more introspective and less likely to show affective forecasting biases.|
|b.||The Tibetan monks showed greater activity in the left frontal lobes, regions associated with positive emotions.|
|c.||The Tibetan monks showed greater activity in the right frontal lobes, regions associated with negative emotions.|
|d.||Meditation did not seem to affect happiness.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5CMSC: Understanding
- ________ is the tendency to experience more positive emotions than negative emotions and is a key component of happiness.
|a.||Emotional well-being||c.||Hedonic experience|
|b.||Life satisfaction||d.||An action tendency|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5AMSC: Remembering
- Gilbert and colleagues (1998) asked people in a relationship (“Luckies”) to predict how they would feel if they broke up. They compared these estimates with the happiness levels of people who had recently ended a relationship (“Leftovers”). What did they find?
|a.||Luckies estimated they would be happier compared to Leftovers.|
|b.||Luckies estimated they would be less happy compared to Leftovers.|
|c.||There was no difference between the estimated happiness of Luckies and Leftovers.|
|d.||The unhappier the Luckies thought they would be, the less likely they were actually to break up with their relationship partners.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Understanding
- According to John Gottman’s research, which married couples are most likely to have long-lasting relationships?
|a.||those with a higher ratio of positive to negative emotions|
|b.||those with few negative emotions|
|c.||those with many high arousal positive emotions like excitement|
|d.||those with many low arousal positive emotions like contentment|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5AMSC: Understanding
- Bill thinks that if he could find a wonderful wife, his entire life would be ideal. He thinks of all the great times he will have but never considers the difficulties that are bound to arise. Bill is engaging in
|b.||duration neglect.||d.||immune neglect.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Applying
- Lois has just won a lottery that netted her a great deal of money. According to research on happiness, Lois should be ________ as a result.
|b.||not much happier, especially if she has attended college|
|d.||happier only if she already lives in a wealthy nation|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5CMSC: Applying
- Bill and Janet want to take their children on a backpacking trip. Research suggests that if they want to increase the probability that their children will look back on the trip and think it was great fun, Bill and Janet should try to make sure that
|a.||the trip is as long as possible.|
|b.||peak moments during the trip are emotional.|
|c.||the entire trip is consistently fun.|
|d.||the end of the trip is extremely fun.|
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5DMSC: Applying
- The concept of immune neglect suggests that we ________ our capacity to be resilient in responding to negative life events, and therefore ________ the extent to which a negative event will reduce our well-being.
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5BMSC: Understanding SHORT ANSWER
- Describe how the appraisal processes give rise to the experience of emotion.
ANS:The appraisal process is a component of emotion in which individuals evaluate or construe events or objects in the environment in relation to their current goals. First, fast and automatic appraisals of whether the event is consistent or inconsistent with goals occurs, leading to general pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Second, more deliberative appraisals occur regarding causality, fairness, and likely courses of action. These secondary appraisals transform general feelings into more specific emotions such as fear, anger, sympathy, and so on. DIF: Moderate REF: Characterizing Emotion OBJ: 6.1AMSC: Understanding
- What is an emotion? Explain how emotions differ from other states such as moods and emotional disorders.
ANS:An emotion is a brief, specific response, both psychological and physiological, that helps people meet goals, including social goals. Emotions differ from moods and emotional disorders in their length. Emotions typically last for seconds or minutes. In contrast, moods last for hours or even days, while emotional disorders (such as depression) can last for weeks or months. DIF: Difficult REF: Characterizing Emotion OBJ: 6.1AMSC: Analyzing
- Describe the five components of emotion and give an example of each.
ANS:The appraisal process consists of patterns of construal for evaluating events and objects in the environment in relation to one’s current goals. Physiological responses include cardiovascular changes, such as sweating and blushing, and activation of parts of the brain. Expressive behavior enables people to communicate their feelings and reactions through facial expression, touch, and the voice. Subjective feelings are felt qualities of emotion, typically described with words. Action tendencies are motivations to behave in particular ways. Several examples of these five components are acceptable. DIF: Easy REF: Characterizing Emotion OBJ: 6.1AMSC: Analyzing
- Challenge the perspective that all aspects of emotion are universal. In what ways might culture influence the display or experience of emotion?
ANS:Although emotions are reliably expressed and understood in similar ways around the world, in our closest evolutionary ancestors, and even in the blind, culture can still exert an influence. Culture impacts many aspects of emotion including emotion accents, focal emotions, ideal emotions, and display rules. Emotion accents are specific ways people from different cultures display an emotion. Focal emotions are emotions that are especially common within a particular culture. Ideal emotions are emotions that promote important cultural values and come to play a more prominent role within the culture. Display rules are culturally specific rules that govern how, when, and to whom to express an emotion. Several examples of these terms are acceptable. DIF: Difficult REF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally SpecificOBJ: 6.2C MSC: Evaluating
- What does it mean to say that some emotions are “universal”? In addition, describe how researchers have tested the universality hypothesis and summarize the results of these tests.
ANS:Universal emotions are emotions that are displayed and understood the same way across cultures. If an emotion is universal, it is presumed to derive from our evolutionary history because it enabled adaptive reactions to survival-related threats and opportunities. Researchers have tested the universality of facial expressions of emotion in three ways. First, researchers have found that all people, even in remote cultures, can identify the same facial expressions of emotion and generate expressions in the same way. Second, researchers have found parallels between facial expressions of emotion in humans and those of our mammalian relatives. Third, blind individuals, who have never seen others’ facial expressions of emotion, generate similar expressions as people who have sight. DIF: Difficult REF: Emotional Expression: Universal and Culturally SpecificOBJ: 6.2A MSC: Evaluating
- Cristina and Ron see each other across the way at a bar on Saturday night. According to research on flirtation, how might Cristina and Ron behave if they are interested in each other romantically (make sure to address each phase of flirtation)?
ANS:Flirting is a pattern of behavior that communicates attraction to a potential dating partner. There are four phases of flirtation. In the initial attention-getting phase, men, like Ron, are likely to roll their shoulders, engage in exaggerated motions to show off their physical size, and raise their arms in the air to let the other person admire their bodies. Women, like Cristina, have been shown to smile coyly, preen, flip their hair, and walk with their backs arched, swaying their hips. Should these tactics work to get Cristina and Ron to notice each other, they will move on to the recognition phase. During this phase, Cristina and Ron are likely to lock their gazes on each other, expressing interest through raised eyebrows, singsong voices, and laughter. In the subsequent touching phase, Cristina and Ron are likely to move closer together and create opportunities to touch—with brushes of the arm, pats on the shoulder, or by bumping into each other. In the final keeping-time phase, if indeed interested in each other, their actions will become aligned, with glances, gestures, and laughter, mirroring each other. DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social Relationships OBJ: 6.3AMSC: Applying
- Describe how emotions can coordinate action via the modality of touch.
ANS:Different forms of touch can persuade or discourage others from one behavior or another. For example, in one study, the emotions of gratitude, sympathy, and love were all reliably communicated by touch alone. In other research, touch has been shown to induce people to behave collaboratively. For example, students who were touched by their teacher in a friendly manner were more willing to try to solve a difficult problem on the blackboard. Moreover, professional basketball teams that engaged in high fives, fist bumps, head slaps, and bear hugs performed better throughout the season. DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social Relationships OBJ: 6.3AMSC: Understanding
- Describe the four components of emotional intelligence and give an example of each.
ANS:Emotional intelligence is comprised of four skills. People high in emotional intelligence can accurately perceive others’ emotions. These individuals can also understand or interpret their own emotions. People high in emotional intelligence use their feelings to make good (versus bad) decisions. Finally, these individuals are able to manage or regulate their emotions to fit the demands of the current situation. Several examples of these skills are acceptable. DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social Relationships OBJ: 6.3BMSC: Analyzing
- Research has found that there are many forms nonverbal communication can take. Describe the five forms presented by Ekman and Friesen (1969).
ANS:Affective displays are emotional expressions, such as a smile. Emblems are nonverbal gestures that translate directly into words, such as the peace sign. Illustrators are nonverbal behaviors we use to make our speech vivid, engaging, and easy to visualize, such as raising our eyebrows. Regulators are nonverbal expressions we use to coordinate conversation, such as looking toward someone with whom we want to speak. Self-adapters are the nervous, seemingly random behaviors we engage in when we are tense, such as jiggling our legs. DIF: Easy REF: Emotions and Social Relationships OBJ: 6.3AMSC: Understanding
- Give two examples of how emotions can influence moral judgments.
ANS:According to the social intuitionist model, when faced with a moral dilemma, judgments are made on the basis of fast emotional intuitions that are later backed up with more deliberate reasoning. According to the moral foundations theory, there are five universal moral domains that are each linked to specific emotional responses. The care/harm domain focuses on the suffering of others and is linked to the emotion of sympathy. The fairness/cheating domain concerns whether others act in a justified fashion and is associated with anger. Loyalty/betrayal pertains to the commitment we make to groups. It is associated with emotions such as pride and rage. Authority/subversion concerns finding one’s place in a social hierarchy, authority, and respect. It is associated with embarrassment, fear, pride, and awe. Finally the purity/degradation domain focuses on avoiding dangerous diseases and contaminants and is associated with the emotion of disgust. Several examples of these processes are acceptable. DIF: Moderate REF: Emotions and Social Cognition OBJ: 6.4AMSC: Applying
- Describe two effects of emotion on perception that have been documented through research.
ANS:First, people perceive events in the world in ways that are consistent with what they currently feel. Second, emotions influence broader perceptions of the world such as a sense of whether the world is fair or safe. Several research studies supporting these effects are acceptable. DIF: Difficult REF: Emotions and Social Cognition OBJ: 6.4AMSC: Understanding
- Explain the concept of affective forecasting and how it is relevant to two biases—namely, immune neglect and focalism. For each bias, write a specific example of how that bias can influence how we think we will feel in response to some future event. What advice would you give to a friend who says, “If only I won the lottery, everything in my life would be great”?
ANS:Affective forecasting is predicting future emotions, such as whether an event will result in happiness or anger or sadness and for how long. Research finds that we are not very good at affective forecasting, and the biases of immune neglect and focalism help to explain why. Immune neglect is the tendency for people to underestimate their capacities to be resilient in responding to difficult life events, which leads them to overestimate the extent to which life’s problems will reduce their personal well-being. Focalism is the tendency to focus too much on a central aspect of an event while neglecting the possible impact of associated factors or other events. Several examples and forms of advice are acceptable. DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5B MSC: Creating
- Your sister comes to you because she has been feeling blue. Generate an action plan she can use to become happier. Connect your recommendations to the results of research studies showing that these work.
ANS:Several factors are known to boost happiness. These include practicing gratitude, giving time or money to others (rather than spending it on oneself), and when one does spend money on oneself, using it to buy experiences rather than material possessions. Several supportive research studies are acceptable. DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5C MSC: Creating
- Challenge the view that money buys happiness. When might this perspective hold and when does it fall short? Use research to support your position.
ANS:Money does bring happiness to the poorest people who have difficulty making ends meet. People in the poorest countries report the lowest levels of life satisfaction (one component of happiness), and within the United States, the poorest citizens also report the lowest levels of life satisfaction. These individuals also have the most difficulty when facing life challenges such as divorce or health problems. However, the impact of money on happiness is not so strong for people who are financially stable. With increases in income, poorer people report greater life satisfaction. But the ability of money to bring more and more satisfaction levels off once people are making approximately $75,000 year. Interestingly, however, when considering the daily experience of positive emotion and negative emotion (the other component of happiness), more money does continue to increase happiness beyond the $75,000/year income level. That is, money allows one to buy moment-to-moment experiences of happiness and avoid those of pain. DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5C MSC: Evaluating
- It is Jasmine’s thirtieth birthday and her friends want her to remember it as one of the happiest of her life. Design an agenda for Jasmine’s birthday that will contribute to her friends’ mission, citing research to back up your plan.
ANS:Many birthday plans are acceptable as long as they adhere to the following research findings: First, the peak moment of pleasure must be at the start of the day’s events. Second, the last bit of the day’s events must also be high in pleasure. Finally, how long the events last does not matter, as people experience duration neglect—giving relative unimportance to the length of an emotional experience in remembering the overall experience. DIF: Difficult REF: Happiness OBJ: 6.5D MSC: Creating CHAPTER 7: Attitudes, Behavior, and Rationalization MULTIPLE CHOICE
- The ________ component of an attitude consists of the degree to which the person likes or dislikes the attitude object.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1A MSC: Analyzing
- Molly knows the history of her home city of Philadelphia. There are three landmarks downtown that she always shows to friends who visit. This knowledge of Philadelphia is the ________ component of her attitude toward her city.
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1A MSC: Analyzing
- When researchers use a Likert scale to assess participants’ attitudes, they
|a.||ask participants to use numbers to indicate the extent to which they agree with a particular statement.|
|b.||record participants’ response latency to a question about their attitudes.|
|c.||code the content of participants’ spontaneous speech.|
|d.||obtain participants’ descriptions of how they would behave in a particular situation.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1B MSC: Remembering
- Jamal loves strawberry ice cream, whereas Maria does not feel strongly about strawberry ice cream. Which of them would have longer response latencies (e.g., would respond slower) to a question about his or her attitude toward strawberry ice cream?
|a.||Jamal would have a longer response latency than Maria.|
|b.||Maria would have a longer response latency than Jamal.|
|c.||They would each have a similar response latency, because they each like ice cream.|
|d.||It would be impossible to measure the response latency for an attitude such as this.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1B MSC: Applying
- A(n) ________ is an evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1A MSC: Remembering
- Researchers should make use of ________ when assessing attitudes that people may be unwilling or unable to report.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1B MSC: Understanding
- According to what you learned in this chapter, ________ attitudes tend to be stronger than ________ attitudes.
|a.||new; old||c.||negative; positive|
|b.||old; new||d.||positive; negative|
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1A MSC: Remembering
- According to research by Wilson and colleagues, why might introspecting about the reasons for an attitude decrease the association between the attitude and behavior?
|a.||Introspection decreases perceptions of control and attention to social norms.|
|b.||Introspection misleads us about our “real” attitudes.|
|c.||Introspection generates emotions that weaken one’s attitudes.|
|d.||Introspection increases ambivalence and uncertainty over our beliefs.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Understanding
- Luisa just made a dentist appointment. Although she feels terrified of the dentist, she thinks that maintaining a healthy smile is important. This example best illustrates that
|a.||if the components of an attitude are inconsistent, attitudes may not predict behavior.|
|b.||emotion can be elicited automatically without conscious awareness.|
|c.||there tends to be coherence between cognitive and affective attitude components.|
|d.||attitudes generally do a good job of predicting behavior.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- In the 1930s, a time when anti-Asian sentiments were common, Richard LaPiere toured the United States with a young Chinese couple. Together they visited numerous hotels, auto camps, restaurants, and cafes. LaPiere compared the attitudes of people who managed these various establishments with how well (or poorly) these people actually treated the Chinese couple. The text used this study to introduce an important point, namely, that the effect of ________ than people think.
|a.||attitudes on behavior is weaker|
|b.||norms on attitudes is stronger|
|c.||attitudes on behavior is stronger|
|d.||norms on attitudes is weaker|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Understanding
- Recall that Wilson and his colleagues asked students about their current romantic relationships. Participants in Group 1 were asked for an overall evaluation of their relationships, whereas partici- pants in Group 2 were additionally asked to explain why they felt the way they did. Nearly nine months later, the researchers recontacted the participants and asked them about the current status of the relationships. Which of the following statements most accurately captures the study’s results?
|a.||The attitudes of Group 1 participants better predicted current relationship status than the attitudes of Group 2 participants.|
|b.||The attitudes of Group 2 participants better predicted current relationship status than the attitudes of Group 1 participants.|
|c.||The attitudes of Group 1 participants were much more positive than those of Group 2 participants.|
|d.||The attitudes of Group 2 participants were much more positive than those of Group 1 participants.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Understanding
- Candice really likes action films. Under which condition is introspecting about why she likes action films likely to WEAKEN the association between her attitude toward action films and her intention to go to see an action film at the theater?
|a.||The basis for the attitude is easy to identify.|
|b.||The basis for the attitude is a childhood experience.|
|c.||The basis for the attitude is largely affective.|
|d.||The basis for the attitude is largely cognitive.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- For obvious reasons, department store managers strongly disapprove of shoplifters. However, some stores allow shoplifters to leave with merchandise! These stores do not want to create a scene that will disturb good patrons. This scenario illustrates the social psychological finding that
|a.||attitudes are determined by reasoned action.|
|b.||behaviors are not determined solely by attitudes.|
|c.||prevailing norms of appropriate behavior are irrational.|
|d.||attitudes prompt attitude-consistent behaviors.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- Attitudes do a good job predicting behavior when
|a.||there is discord among the affective and cognitive components of the attitude.|
|b.||attitudes are measured with Likert scales.|
|c.||attitudes and behavior are measured at the same levels of specificity.|
|d.||introspecting about an attitude that is hard to pin down.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Understanding
- Michelle just watched a film that showed several high-speed chases on city streets. On her way home from the theater, she drives much faster than normal. This example best illustrates that
|a.||attitudes do a better job predicting behavior when they are at the same level of specificity.|
|b.||when the components of attitudes mismatch, attitudes do a poor job predicting behavior.|
|c.||introspection does not always reveal our true attitudes.|
|d.||behavior can be automatic, primed by features in our environment.|
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- Although Quan believes that child safety is important, he often forgets to use a car seat when taking his toddler to day care. What does this best illustrate about the relationship between attitudes and behavior?
|a.||Attitudes are sometimes poor predictors of behavior.|
|b.||Attitudes and behavior are sometimes balanced.|
|c.||Behavior can be automatic, thereby bypassing conscious thought altogether.|
|d.||Attitudes often prime behavior.|
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- Ruben, a marketing executive for Apple, wants to predict a person’s iPod-related behavior from his or her attitude about iPods. To this end, Ruben will administer a survey asking people their attitudes about iPods. Two years later, he will ask these same people to report on their behavior related to iPods. According to research on attitude-behavior consistency, Ruben should measure people’s attitudes and behavior at the same level of specificity. Which of the following pairs of questions best satisfies this criterion?
|a.||“How positively do you feel about iPods?” and “Have you used an iPod in the last month?”|
|b.||“How do you feel about iPods?” and “Have you used an iPod in the last two years?”|
|c.||“How much do you want to buy an iPod within the next two years?” and “Have you bought an iPod in the last two years?”|
|d.||“How negative do you feel about iPods?” and “How much have you talked about iPods in the last month?”|
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Analyzing
- Although you want to chat with your friend during class, you’re worried that the professor or other students would notice. You choose not to talk to your friend. This illustrates that
|a.||your attitude toward your friend are inconsistent.|
|b.||your attitude toward class is stronger than your attitude toward your friend.|
|c.||automatic behavior can be completely separate from your attitude.|
|d.||powerful social norms can override the influence of attitude on behavior.|
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from AttitudesOBJ: 7.2A MSC: Applying
- Which of the following studies best supports Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory?
|a.||a study showing that voters express more support for their candidate right before voting than they do right after voting|
|b.||a study showing that people value academic achievement more strongly after reading education-related words than after reading sports-related words|
|c.||a study showing that people express more confidence in a bet right after making it than they do right before making it|
|d.||a study showing that introspection leads to less attitude-behavior consistency than does an absence of introspection|
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Analyzing
- According to research on cognitive dissonance theory, people betting on horses at the racetrack should feel ________ after placing their bets than before placing their bets.
|a.||more anxious||c.||less happy|
|b.||more confident||d.||less tired|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Understanding
- Kitayama and colleagues (2004) conducted an investigation comparing cognitive dissonance across Japanese and Canadian participants. All participants were asked to rank CDs. Participants in one condition were asked to choose one CD to keep among their middle two rankings, while participants in another condition were given a CD without choice. While completing these study procedures one group of participants was exposed to a poster with faces, designed to prime the concept of other people. Results showed that the poster manipulation ________ cognitive dissonance for ________ participants.
|b.||amplified; both Japanese and Canadian|
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3D MSC: Understanding
- Recall that Festinger and Carlsmith gave participants either $1 or $20 for telling others that an experiment was fun and interesting. The experiment entailed turning pegs on a pegboard one quarter turn at a time. Thus, in actuality, the experiment was tedious and boring. Study results showed that
|a.||neither $1 nor $20 could induce participants to tell other people that the experiment was interesting.|
|b.||after telling people that the experiment was interesting, participants in the $1 condition tended to express a more favorable attitude toward the experiment.|
|c.||after telling people that the experiment was interesting, participants in the $20 condition tended to express a more favorable attitude toward the experiment.|
|d.||participants in the $1 condition were less likely to follow the experimenter’s instructions.|
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Understanding
- Recall that in one study, the experimenter showed children a set of five toys and asked them how much they liked each one. Then the experimenter told each child that he or she was free to play with any of the toys except for the child’s second favorite toy. In the “mild threat” condition, children were told that the experimenter would be “annoyed” if they played with the forbidden toy. In the “severe threat” condition, children were told that the experimenter would be “very angry” if they played with the forbidden toy, and that the child would never see any of the toys ever again. The experimenter then left the room, and each child was covertly observed. Later on, the experimenter asked each child to reevaluate the toys. Consistent with cognitive dissonance theory, results showed that children in the
|a.||“mild threat” condition tended to view the toy less favorably than children in the “severe threat” condition.|
|b.||“severe threat” condition tended to view the toy less favorably than children in the “mild threat” condition.|
|c.||“mild threat” condition were less likely to play with the toy while the experimenter was away from the room.|
|d.||“severe threat” condition were less likely to play with the toy while the experimenter was away from the room.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Understanding
- Claude Steele’s research suggests that people given the opportunity to engage in ________ are ________ likely to experience cognitive dissonance.
|a.||self-affirmation; more||c.||self-perception; more|
|b.||self-affirmation; less||d.||self-perception; less|
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3C MSC: Remembering
- According to the concept of effort justification,
|a.||experiencing hazing should increase one’s allegiance to a fraternity.|
|b.||working too hard for a promotion should lead one to underestimate its attractiveness.|
|c.||feeling overwhelmed should prompt a person to give up.|
|d.||receiving tutoring free of charge should increase one’s motivation to study.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Analyzing
- Consider the following saying: “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.” According to cognitive dissonance theory, trying again should ________ how much you value the outcome of your efforts.
|b.||decrease||d.||increase confusion over|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Applying
- Let’s say a company that makes a consumer product such as laundry detergent asks customers to write a testimonial about the product in exchange for a small chance of winning a small prize. What does cognitive dissonance theory predict will happen to consumers who participate and write the testimonial?
|a.||They will feel positive emotions.|
|b.||They will feel negative emotions.|
|c.||They will come to hold more positive attitudes toward the product.|
|d.||They will come to hold more negative attitudes toward the product.|
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Applying
- Getting paid a lot of money to do things that violate one’s core values—as compared to getting no money to violate one’s values—should
|a.||not produce much dissonance.|
|b.||produce a lot of dissonance.|
|c.||lead to attitude change.|
|d.||prompt confusion over one’s true attitude.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3B MSC: Understanding
- After doing poorly on his biology exam, Jim reminds himself that he is a good artist and a loving boyfriend. Thus, Jim is using ________ to cope with a potential threat to his self-esteem.
|a.||cognitive dissonance||c.||effort justification|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3C MSC: Applying
- If engaging in a behavior inconsistent with an attitude ________, East Asians are ________ likely to experience cognitive dissonance than Westerners.
|a.||when alone; more||c.||when tired; more|
|b.||when alone; less||d.||when tired; less|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3D MSC: Understanding
- Laureano has a strong preference for Honda over all other car brands. When it came time to buy a new car, there was a promotion on Nissans and Laureano elected to buy one, even though he likes Hondas better. According to the research described in the textbook, why would this scenario increase dissonance in the wake of Laureano’s attitude-inconsistent behavior?
|a.||The behavior was based on introspection.|
|b.||There was sufficient justification for the behavior.|
|c.||The behavior has long-term negative consequences.|
|d.||The behavior was freely chosen.|
ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3B MSC: Applying
- Jeff believes in saving the environment but finds himself throwing away aluminum cans because his college campus does not recycle. He may experience an aversive emotional state due to the inconsistency between his attitudes and his behavior. This is an example of
|a.||the elaboration likelihood model.|
|b.||induced compliance theory.|
|d.||cognitive dissonance theory.|
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Analyzing
- Research on cognitive dissonance teaches a broad and important lesson about how to influence someone else’s attitudes. Specifically, if you want people to ________ the broader value or message behind what you got them to do, then you should use the ________ amount of incentive or coercion necessary to induce compliance.
|a.||reject; smallest||c.||accept; smallest|
|b.||ignore; largest||d.||accept; largest|
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3B MSC: Applying
- Carol, a student from China, is good friends with Tanja, a student from Germany. According to research on cognitive dissonance, when is Carol more likely to experience dissonance than Tanja?
|a.||Carol and Tanja will respond similarly across conditions.|
|b.||when Carol chooses between two necklaces for herself|
|c.||when Carol chooses between two pairs of shoes as a gift for her mother|
|d.||when Carol listens to loud music while shopping|
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3D MSC: Applying
- Theories that emphasize uniformity between the components of attitudes and between attitudes and behavior are called ________ theories.
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Remembering
- Many people who choose not to have children suspect that homebound, sleep-deprived, and financially strapped parents are fooling themselves when they say that nothing in life brings them more pleasure. In other words, these childless people suggest that parents put a lot of energy into ________ in order to decrease cognitive dissonance.
|b.||effort justification||d.||arousing thoughts|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Applying
- Induced compliance is a form of behavior that
|a.||is inconsistent with one’s beliefs, attitudes, or values.|
|b.||increases confidence in one’s self-perceptions.|
|c.||harms other people.|
|d.||elicits positive impressions from authority figures.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Understanding
- Making hard decisions triggers negative emotion, which in turn triggers processes of rationalization that make us comfortable with our decisions. This statement captures the phenomenon explained by ________ theory.
ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Analyzing
- Mark cannot decide which video game to purchase. After thinking it over, he buys the latest fighting game rather than a soccer game he liked just as much. As he leaves the store, he feels an uncomfortable tension. In order to resolve this tension, Mark must engage in
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3A MSC: Applying
- When a person takes stock of his or her strengths and accomplishments he or she is engaging in ________ , which ________ the experience of cognitive dissonance.
|a.||system justification; increases|
|b.||system justification; decreases|
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Attitudes from BehaviorOBJ: 7.3C MSC: Understanding
- Self-perception processes are most likely to occur when prior attitudes are
|b.||about extremely important matters.|
|d.||Both a and c are correct.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Remembering
- The self-perception processes posited by Daryl Bem are particularly likely to be invoked when
|a.||behavior is inconsistent with attitudes that are relatively vague.|
|b.||behavior is inconsistent with attitudes that are highly resistant to persuasion attempts.|
|c.||attitudes are inconsistent with behaviors that are valued by the culture in which one lives.|
|d.||attitudes are inconsistent with behaviors that people rarely perform in everyday life.|
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Understanding
- To learn whether responses in cognitive dissonance experiments are the product of self-perception processes, Daryl Bem asked participants to
|a.||write a detailed description of one condition of a dissonance experiment and to predict how other participants would respond to that description.|
|b.||read a detailed description of each of the conditions of a dissonance experiment and to indicate how they, themselves, would behave in each of the conditions.|
|c.||read a detailed description of one condition of a dissonance experiment and to predict the attitude of the person depicted in the description.|
|d.||write a detailed description of each of the conditions of a dissonance experiment and to then tell other study participants that this exercise was fun (even though it was really boring).|
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Understanding
- Consider the following quote: “How do I know what I think until I hear what I say?” The sentiment expressed in this quote captures the essence of
|a.||the self-fulfilling prophecy.||c.||self-perception theory.|
|b.||cognitive dissonance theory.||d.||self-affirmation theory.|
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Katerina loves to read books. Her parents think that reading books is important, so they reward her with $5 every time she reads a book. Over time, Katerina decides that she does not really love books all that much. This is an example of the
|a.||impact of locus of control on attitude formation.|
|b.||consistency between parents’ attitudes and children’s behavior.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Applying
- Dissonance theory suggests that people ________ their attitudes as a result of dissonance, whereas self-perception theory suggests that people ________ their attitudes from observing their behaviors.
|a.||infer; change||c.||strengthen; weaken|
|b.||change; infer||d.||change; change|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Lenora’s parents always taught her that she ought to “put on a happy face” even when she is not. According to research on self-perception theory, what effect does this behavior have on her corresponding internal state?
|a.||It makes her seem like a fake.|
|b.||It works—behaving as if she is happy can actually make Lenora feel happier.|
|c.||It does not work and actually makes some people even unhappier.|
|d.||None of the above are correct.|
ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4B MSC: Applying
- George listens to music while studying for his biology test. While he studies, he nods his head in time to the music. Over time, George realizes he likes biology a lot more than he initially did. Why is this?
|a.||George’s nonverbal head nods to the music while studying biology were an indication of approval that he then associated with the subject.|
|b.||It is because George put so much effort into studying.|
|c.||George’s nonverbal head nods to the music while studying biology served a self-verification function.|
|d.||The nonverbal head nods induced dissonance.|
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4B MSC: Applying
- Cacioppo and colleagues have examined how arm movements can influence attitudes by asking participants to view Chinese characters while either extending an arm away from or flexing an arm toward themselves. Which of the following best sums up the results of this research?
|a.||The arm movements did not affect participants’ attitudes toward the different Chinese characters.|
|b.||The participants had more favorable attitudes toward the characters they viewed while extending an arm away, compared with flexing an arm toward.|
|c.||The participants had more favorable attitudes toward the characters they viewed while flexing an arm toward, compared with extending an arm away.|
|d.||Participants who nodded their heads showed the most positive attitudes toward the characters.|
ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4B MSC: Applying
- According to Daryl Bem’s self-perception theory,
|a.||people reflect on their attitudes, which then lead to behaviors that reflect these attitudes.|
|b.||people infer their own attitudes from their behaviors and the context in which these behaviors occur.|
|c.||people influence each other’s self-concept through mutual mimicry and positive reinforcement.|
|d.||a person’s sense of self is determined by his or her values, beliefs, and preferences.|
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Understanding
- Cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory differ in that self-perception theory emphasizes that ________ influence(s) our attitudes.
|a.||aversive physiological arousal|
|c.||experiences with other people|
|d.||inference processes about our behaviors|
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception TheoryOBJ: 7.4A MSC: Analyzing
- Lucy’s family is poor. Although they wish they were more prosperous, they take comfort in the love and support they provide to each other and consider themselves quite happy. As a result, Lucy’s family does not endorse proposed changes to the laws that would provide them with better health insurance. Their behavior can be explained by ________ theory.
ANS: C DIF: ModerateREF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader Rationalization OBJ: 7.5AMSC: Analyzing
- Why is it a good idea for incumbent politicians to campaign for maintaining the safety and security of their countries?
|a.||because it allows people to maintain balance|
|b.||because people are motivated to maintain the status quo, particularly when their own mortalities are made salient|
|c.||because it helps people justify their efforts|
|d.||because it facilitates self-perception processes, particularly when their own mortalities are made salient|
ANS: B DIF: ModerateREF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader Rationalization OBJ: 7.5AMSC: Applying
- Bradley narrowly escapes a head-on collision while driving from home. Once he arrives, he turns on the television and sees a political ad for the challenger in the local mayoral race, which focuses on how the challenger will change city policies if elected. According to research on terror management, how will he evaluate this ad?
|a.||He will reject the candidate more emphatically.|
|b.||He will have the same opinion of the candidate as he had before the near miss.|
|c.||He will become a strong supporter of the challenger.|
|d.||He will throw his hat into the ring and run for mayor, too.|
ANS: A DIF: DifficultREF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader Rationalization OBJ: 7.5AMSC: Applying
- ________ theory states that people are motivated to see the existing sociopolitical setup as fair, desirable, and legitimate.
|a.||System justification||c.||Cognitive dissonance|
ANS: A DIF: EasyREF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader Rationalization OBJ: 7.5AMSC: Remembering SHORT ANSWER
- Define attitude and describe the components of an attitude.
ANS:An attitude is an evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion. Attitudes are comprised of three components: affect (how much someone likes or dislikes the object), cognition (thoughts about the object), and behavior (tendencies to approach or avoid the object). DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1A MSC: Remembering
- Describe three ways that researchers measure attitudes.
ANS:Researchers measure attitudes in many ways. First, they can ask participants to report their attitudes on simple self-report measures (composed of questions on likert scales). Researchers can measure the accessibility of attitudes, how easily they come to mind, using response latency. The longer it takes a participant to respond to a question, presumably the less accessible the attitude is. Researchers can also measure the centrality of the attitude to the person’s belief system by measuring a variety of attitudes within a domain and calculating how strongly each one is linked to the others. If a particular belief is important, it should correlate with attitudes about other issues. Finally, researchers can utilize implicit attitude measures, such as the implicit association test, when measuring attitudes on which participants are unable or unwilling to report. DIF: Easy REF: Components and Measurement of AttitudesOBJ: 7.1B MSC: Understanding
- Janet has received two job offers, one from SimpCo and another from JebCo, both companies for which she would be thrilled to work. Janet thinks a lot about each offer and ends up accepting JebCo’s offer, even though she thought highly of both. Analyze the effects of Janet’s decision on her later attitudes and behavior relating to both SimpCo and JebCo. To do this, draw directly on social psychological theory and research findings.
ANS:Janet may wonder, if she liked SimpCo so much (a positive attitude) why she did not accept its offer (a behavior). In this way, an inconsistency between attitudes and behavior are likely, which will lead to the experience of postdecision dissonance. To reduce this dissonance, Janet is likely to rationalize her decision. She may emphasize the positive attributes of her chosen job at JebCo, thereby seeing the job in even more positive ways. Likewise, she may emphasize the negative attributes of the position she did not choose at SimpCo, thereby seeing the job in more negative ways. Such attitudinal changes are likely to mitigate her feelings of dissonance. DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Behavior from Attitudes OBJ: 7.2AMSC: Applying
- Attitudes often fail to predict behavior with the accuracy we might expect. Explain how this failure could result from the level of specificity in which the attitudes and behaviors are measured.
ANS:Attitudes are often measured at a very general level, while behaviors are measured at a specific level. This mismatch is one reason why attitudes do a poor job predicting behavior. For example, attitudes about many categories, including types of people, are often formed around a prototype of the category. If we encounter a member of the category that deviates from the prototype, our attitudes will do a poor job of predicting our behavior toward that member. Research finds that specific attitudes do a better job of predicting specific behaviors, while general attitudes do a good job of predicting general behaviors across a range of situations. DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from Attitudes OBJ: 7.2AMSC: Evaluating
- Challenge the widely held belief that attitudes do a good job of predicting a person’s behavior.
ANS:Most people assume that attitudes do a good job of predicting behavior and can think of many supporting examples. Research finds, however, that often people do not act on their attitudes. This is likely the case for a few different reasons. First, there are many other powerful determinants of behavior with which attitudes might conflict, such as social norms. Second, the components of attitudes, affect and cognition, may be inconsistent, for example, feeling negatively toward an attitude object but having positive cognitions. Third, people may have difficulty discerning the real reasons for their attitudes. Fourth, attitudes and behaviors are often measured at different levels of specificity. General attitudes do not do a good job of predicting specific behaviors. Finally, many aspects of behavior are automatic and bypass consciously held attitudes. DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Behavior from Attitudes OBJ: 7.2AMSC: Evaluating
- Describe the relationship between introspection and attitudes. Why might introspecting lead an individual to misconstrue his or her attitudes?
ANS:It is often difficult to explain the reasons we have for holding a particular attitude. When we introspect about an attitude, we may come up with the easily identifiable reasons for liking or disliking something rather than accessing the real reasons for our attitudes. In this way, the attitudes we have incorrectly inferred through such introspection processes may do a poor job of predicting our behavior. DIF: Easy REF: Predicting Behavior from Attitudes OBJ: 7.2AMSC: Understanding
- Describe the conditions under which attitude-behavior inconsistency is most likely to produce dissonance.
ANS:According to Aronson, inconsistency between attitudes and behavior is likely to produce dissonance if the inconsistency implicates our core self or values, challenging the assumption that we are rational, moral, upright, and worthy. Our core self is particularly likely to be implicated if 1) the behavior was freely chosen, 2) the behavior was not sufficiently justified, 3) the behavior had negative consequences, and 4) the negative consequences were foreseeable. DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from Behavior OBJ: 7.3BMSC: Understanding
- Your friend asks you for advice on how she can encourage her son to clean his room regularly. Generate a plan, based on the principle of insufficient justification, to get her son to clean his room more often. How can she avoid the overjustification effect?
ANS:Your friend might consider providing her son with a reward (e.g., allowance, privileges) for cleaning his room. In doing so, however, she should utilize the smallest possible reward that will get himto do so. If the reward is small, but he cleans his room anyway, he is likely to experience cognitive dissonance. That is, he does not like cleaning his room (i.e., his attitude) but he cleaned his room anyway (i.e., his behavior), and there was not sufficient justification for doing so (i.e., the reward was small). To reduce this experience of dissonance, her son is likely to change his attitude—if he cleaned his room for such a small reward, he must actually like a clean room. The overjustification effect is the tendency to devalue those activities we perform to get something else. In this case, your friend’s son might devalue his intrinsic love of cleaning/a clean room if he is cleaning his room just to get a reward. If he is not cleaning his room to begin with, however, your friend can probably assume that he did not enjoy cleaning for intrinsic reasons, and as such, his intrinsic interest in the activity is unlikely to be undermined with rewards. DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from Behavior OBJ: 7.3BMSC: Creating
- Challenge the assumption that the experience of cognitive dissonance emerges in similar ways across cultures.
ANS:There are cross-cultural differences in the experience of cognitive dissonance. Namely, East Asians are less likely to experience dissonance than Westerners, unless their actions are observed by others. This may be because East Asians tend to be more attuned than Westerners to other people and their reactions. DIF: Difficult REF: Predicting Attitudes from Behavior OBJ: 7.3DMSC: Evaluating
- What are self-affirmations and how can they be used to ward off cognitive dissonance?
ANS:Self-affirmations are attempts to take stock of one’s positive qualities and core values. Inconsistencies between attitudes and behaviors are likely to produce cognitive dissonance, particularly when the inconsistency implicates a person’s core self or values. Rather than feeling better about oneself by changing attitudes to be consistent with behavior, people can instead engage in self-affirmation. This should restore self-esteem and bypass the need for such dissonance-reduction tactics. DIF: Moderate REF: Predicting Attitudes from Behavior OBJ: 7.3CMSC: Understanding
- Compare and contrast Leon Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory with Daryl Bem’s self-perception theory.
ANS:Both cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory make predictions about what is likely to occur when people experience inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior. Cognitive dissonance theory says that such inconsistencies are unpleasant, catalyzing negative arousal. To reduce this arousal, people are likely to change their attitudes to make them more consistent with their behaviors. In contrast, self-perception theory argues that people infer their attitudes from observing their own behaviors. When a behavior occurs, people do not experience a negative arousal state; rather, they engage in a rational inference process. They do not change their attitudes but infer what their attitudes must be by observing their behaviors. A key difference between these two theories is the experience of arousal when attitudes and behaviors do not cohere. Research has found that when preexisting attitudes are clear and important, arousal does occur and leads to dissonance-reducing responses. In contrast, self-perception processes are likely to occur when attitudes are vague or unimportant. DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception Theory OBJ: 7.4AMSC: Analyzing
- Explain the embodied nature of emotion and cognition and describe two research studies that show the relation between bodily movements and attitudes.
ANS:A variety of physical actions (e.g., smiling, pushing, nodding) are important parts of our attitudes. When induced to engage in those physical actions, the corresponding attitudes, beliefs, or emotions may be brought to mind. Several demonstrative studies are acceptable. For example, participants reported greater agreement with editorials that they read while nodding their heads up and down, rather than while shaking their heads side to side. DIF: Moderate REF: Self-Perception Theory OBJ: 7.4BMSC: Understanding
- In what ways does self-perception theory fall short in explaining the relationship between attitudes and behaviors?
ANS:Self-perception theory argues that people infer their attitudes from observing their own behaviors. When a behavior occurs, people do not experience a negative arousal state (i.e., cognitive dissonance); rather, they engage in a rational inference process. They do not change their attitudes but infer what their attitudes must be by observing their behaviors. Research has found, however, that people indeed experience a negative arousal state when their attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent, particularly when their attitudes are clear and important. Thus, researchers have concluded that self-perception processes are only invoked when attitudes are vague or unimportant. DIF: Difficult REF: Self-Perception Theory OBJ: 7.4AMSC: Evaluating
- Describe the basics of terror management theory. Describe two situations in which this theory might be useful in explaining people’s attitudes or behaviors.
ANS:Terror management theory argues that people may experience crippling anxiety when reflecting on the inevitability of death. To manage this anxiety, people strive for symbolic immortality by preserving a valued cultural worldview and believing they have lived up to its standards. Several situations are acceptable if students link awareness of death to a tendency to cling to and bolster the groups to which one belongs. DIF: Moderate REF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader RationalizationOBJ: 7.5A MSC: Applying
- Describe system justification theory. What common observations seem to support this perspective?
ANS:System justification theory states that people are motivated to see the existing sociopolitical system as desirable, fair, and legitimate. This derives from the need to feel well of the groups to which we belong. People who do not benefit from the system, such as people who experience economic hardship, do not have a financial incentive to defend the system. Yet, they still may do so for psycho- logical reasons. Believing the world is fair but experiencing inequality may lead to dissonance, which can be reduced by extolling the virtues of the system. This is an easier tack to take than engaging in activities (e.g., protest) to change the system. Many common observations are acceptable, such as the fact that women often report feeling like they deserve lower pay than men. DIF: Easy REF: Beyond Cognitive Consistency to Broader RationalizationOBJ: 7.5A MSC: Understanding