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Nutrition And Diet Therapy 8th Ed By Whitney – Test Bank
Chapter 6 – Metabolism, Energy Balance, and Body Composition Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question True/False T K 138 1. Fat can be made from an excess of any energy-yielding nutrient. T K 139 2. In the body, no metabolic difference exists between fasting and starving. T A 139 3. Ketones can meet some of the nervous system’s energy needs. T K 139 4. Normally, the nervous system consumes more than 50% of the total glucose used each day. T K 140 5. The body’s adaptations to fasting are sufficient to maintain life for a long period. T K 141 6. Basal metabolic needs are large compared to energy needs for activities. T K 141 7. Voluntary activities normally require less energy in a day than basal metabolism does. F K 141 8. People can change their voluntary actions to spend more or less energy in a day, but they cannot change their basal metabolic rate. T K 147 9. A smoker may weigh less than a non-smoker, but will likely have a greater waist circumference. F K 147 10. Skinfold measurements provide an inaccurate estimate of total body fat. Nutrition in Practice – Eating Disorders T K 155 11. Central to the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is a distorted body image that overestimates body fatness. T K 156 12. More men suffer from bulimia nervosa than from anorexia. Multiple Choice a K 132 1. Which of the following systems possesses the most rapidly multiplying cells?
c K 132 2. Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
- metabolizing nutrients
- manufacturing immune factors and transport proteins
- secreting insulin and glucagon
- participating in iron recycling
a K 132 3. A healthy pancreas secretes _____ into the blood between meals and _____ right after a meal.
- glucagon; insulin
- insulin; glucagon
- digestive juices; glucagon
- glycogen; digestive juices
d A 133 4. Perry’s body is not able to efficiently remove metabolic waste products from his blood, so he must receive dialysis treatments. Which organ(s) in his body is/are diseased?
- heart and blood vessels
b K 135 5. The metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is called:
b K 137 6. The production of glucose from protein or fat is called:
d K 137 7. The part of the triglyceride that can be made into glucose is:
- short-chain fatty acids.
- medium-chain fatty acids.
- all fatty acids.
c K 137 8. What percentage of fat cannot be converted to glucose at all?
c K 138 9. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles when:
- excessive fat is present in the blood.
- vigorous muscular activity has just ended.
- excessive glucose is present in the blood.
- excessive cholesterol is present in the blood.
a K 138 10. Surplus dietary carbohydrate is first stored as:
c K 138 11. When carbohydrate consumption is in excess of body needs, the excess glucose is:
- not absorbed from the small intestine.
- excreted in the feces.
- stored as glycogen and fat.
- stored as glycogen only.
a A 138 12. Alcohol contributes to obesity because it:
- diminishes the body’s use of fat for fuel.
- has as many kcalories as fat.
- increases appetite.
- encourages storage of body protein.
c K 138 13. Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of alcohol on body weight?
- Alcohol yields no energy so it does not affect body weight.
- Alcohol is low in kcalories and has very little effect on body weight.
- Alcohol slows down the body’s use of fat, causing more fat to be stored.
- Alcohol speeds up the body’s metabolism and discourages the storage of body fat.
c K 138 14. Of all the nutrients, which is the easiest for the body to store as fat?
a K 138 15. When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and:
- stored as fat.
- excreted in the feces.
- stored as amino acids.
- stored as glycogen and fat.
a K 138 16. Energy is stored in the body for future use as:
- fatty acids.
a K 139 17. Within a day of beginning a fast, most of the body’s stores of _____ are depleted.
- amino acids
- fatty acids
b K 137, 139 18. The part of a triglyceride that can be made into glucose is:
- the saturated fatty acids.
- the glycerol backbone..
- the unsaturated fatty acids.
- the long-chain fatty acids.
c K 139 19. In the first few days of fasting, body protein is used primarily to:
- rebuild tissue.
- replace worn out cells.
- provide glucose.
- stabilize fluid balance.
d K 139 20. Which of the following is/are an acidic, fat-related compound(s) formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available?
- amino acids
- carbon dioxide
- ketone bodies
- ammonia and urea
b K 139-140 21. As the body shifts to partial dependence on ketones for energy during prolonged fasting:
- the body increases its energy output.
- the body conserves its lean tissue.
- the body increases its metabolism.
- the body’s loss of lean tissue increases.
d K 140 22. Changes that take place in the body during fasting include all of the following except:
- wasting of lean tissue.
- disturbances of fluid and electrolyte balance.
- impairment of disease resistance.
- increased body temperature.
a K 140 23. Fasting results in:
- degradation of lean body tissue.
- safe, quick, and easy loss of fat tissue.
- immediate loss of energy and mental alertness.
- cleansing of toxins from the body.
d K 141 24. For every _____ kcalories a person eats in excess of kcalorie expenditures, a pound of body fat is stored.
c K 141 25. BMR is lowest during:
- physical activity.
- sedentary activity.
a K 141 26. The energy needed to maintain life when a person is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest is termed:
- basal metabolism.
- the kcalorie.
- physiological fuel value.
- heat of combustion.
a K 142 27. Basal metabolic rate is lowered by:
- loss of lean body mass.
- stress or fever.
- high thyroid gland activity.
- increase in lean body mass.
c A 142 28. Which of the following individuals would have the lowest basal metabolic rate?
- a pregnant woman
- a tall, thin person
- a person with malnutrition
- a person with a fever
b A 142 29. Which of the following individuals would have the slowest basal metabolic rate?
- a 51-year-old male
- a 20-year-old inactive woman
- a 25-year-old pregnant woman
- a 3-year-old child
b A 142 30. An individual can most easily alter his/her energy output by altering:
- the time of day he/she exercises.
- the intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise.
- his/her eating patterns.
- the combination of foods eaten at a meal.
b K 143 31. The thermic effect of food represents about _____% of the total food energy taken in.
a K 143 32. Men generally have a higher BMR than women do because:
- women have less lean body mass.
- women tend to eat less.
- men tend to eat more.
- men have less lean body mass.
c K 143 33. Men have a higher BMR than females because they:
- are more active.
- eat more.
- have more lean tissue.
- have more fat tissue.
d A 143-144 34. The basal metabolic rate slows with increasing age because:
- the elderly are malnourished.
- fat mass in the body decreases.
- digestive efficiency declines.
- lean body mass diminishes.
d A 143-144 35. Which of the following is not a factor in the variability of energy needs between individuals?
- physical activity
- food preferences
d K 145 36. What body component has the greatest variability in quantity and quality?
- bone mass
- muscle mass
- fat mass
c A 144 37. Which of the following individuals would be classified as being very active?
- a carpenter
- a teacher
- a football player
- a gardener
b A 144 38. Given that EER for women = [354 – (6.91 ´ age)] + PA ´ [(9.36 ´ wt) + (726 ´ ht)], estimate the energy requirements for Anne, an active 27 year old who is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 130 pounds. Choose the kcal range closest to your estimate.
b A 144 39. In order to calculate a person’s EER, which of the following is not required?
- percent body fat
c A 145-146 40. Calculate the BMI of a male who is 5’11” tall and weighs 210 pounds.
d K 146 41. According to BMI criteria, a person with a BMI of 24 would be considered:
- normal weight.
c K 146 42. A weakness in using BMI to assess body weight is:
- it doesn’t distinguish between male and female.
- it doesn’t distinguish between young and old.
- it doesn’t indicate where excess fat is located on the body.
- it doesn’t indicate the ideal weight for a given height.
a A 146 43. Which type of fat poses the greatest risk to health?
- visceral fat
- dietary fat
- subcutaneous fat
- lower body fat
a K 146 44. The health risk associated with central obesity has to do with:
- an imbalance in adipokines.
- the proximity of the excess fat to the gallbladder.
- an imbalance in cytokines.
- the proximity of excess fat to the small intestine.
d K 147 45. A good indicator of fat distribution on an individual is:
- body weight.
- hip circumference.
- waist circumference.
d K 147 46. Which of the following people would be at lowest risk for the accumulation of abdominal fat?
- a smoker
- a postmenopausal woman
- a middle-aged man
- a premenopausal woman
c K 147 47. The recommended range of body fat for a woman is:
- 13 to 21%.
- 15 to 23%.
- 23 to 31%.
- 27 to 35%.
a K 147 48. A lack of body fat can result in:
- infertility in women.
- abnormal hunger regulation.
d K 149 49. About _____% of U.S. adults are overweight or obese.
b K 149 50. Obesity is officially defined as a BMI of ____ or higher.
d K 149-150 51. All of the following are health risks associated with obesity except:
- type 2 diabetes.
- sleep apnea.
a A 145-147 52. Which person is at the greatest health risk?
- a 27-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 40 inches
- a 25-year-old athlete with a BMI of 33
- a 50-year-old male with a BMI of 29 who works out every day
- a 42-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 34 inches
d K 150 53. Which of the following is not one of the three indicators established by obesity experts for evaluating health risks from overweight and obesity?
- a person’s disease risk profile
- waist circumference
- family history
Nutrition in Practice – Eating Disorders b K 157 54. A primary factor involved in the development of eating disorders is:
- the use of antidepressant drugs.
- dissatisfaction with one’s body.
- aversions to certain foods.
- an absent parent.
b K 155 55. Characteristics of individuals with anorexia nervosa include:
- they come from families of lower economic means.
- polite, controlled, rigid, unspontaneous behavior.
- they come from families that value an inner sense of worth.
- rebellious, uncontrollable behavior.
d K 155 56. Which of the following is not a criteria for a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa?
- Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimal normal weight for age and height
- Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight
- Undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation
- Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain
c A 156 57. Lindsay is 23 years old and graduated from college with honors. She is emotionally insecure and experiences considerable social anxiety. She has no close friends, is sometimes depressed, and often exhibits impulsive behavior. Lindsay has a preoccupation with food and her weight even though she is close to her ideal body weight. Lindsay most nearly fits the profile of a person with:
- anorexia nervosa.
- binge eating disorder.
- body dysmorphic disorder.
d K 157 58. The consequences of purging may include any of the following except:
- erosion of the teeth.
- a ruptured esophagus.
- dangerously low potassium concentrations.
- a ruptured appendix.
c K 157 59. One of the goals of the dietary plan to treat bulimia is to help clients:
- decrease control.
- restrict kcalorie intake.
- restore nutritional health.
- develop a set pattern of menus.
c K 157 60. Which eating disorder responds most readily to treatment?
- anorexia nervosa
- binge eating disorder
- body dysmorphic disorder
Matching Match each range to the appropriate health indicator.
|d||146||1. 18.5 or less||a. normal BMI|
|a||146||2. 18.5-24.9||b. obese BMI|
|c||146, 149||3. 25.0-29.9||c. overweight BMI|
|b||146, 149||4. 30.0 or more||d. underweight BMI|
|f||147||5. 35.0 or more||e. waist size (in inches) indicating risk in men|
|e||147||6. 40.0 or more||f. waist size (in inches) indicating risk in women|
Essay 133 1. Explain how the body maintains its constant normal temperature of 98.6° F. 138 2. Describe how fat can be made from an excess of each of the energy nutrients—carbohydrate, protein, or fat. 139-140 3. Explain why less fat may be lost during fasting than is lost when at least some food is supplied. 143 4. Define the thermic effect of food and explain its effect on energy expenditure. 143-144 5. Identify and briefly describe five factors that affect a person’s basal metabolic rate. 146-147 6. Explain why excessive abdominal fat appears to increase the risk of chronic disease. 150 7. Discuss three indicators used to identify and evaluate the health risks from overweight and obesity. 153-154 8. What are the three characteristics of the female athlete triad? Chapter 7 – Weight Management: Overweight and Underweight Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question True/False T K 161 1. Genetics influences the way the body consumes, stores, and spends energy. F A 163 2. Genetics alone determines a person’s susceptibility to obesity. T K 161 3. Some research indicates that obese people have much more lipoprotein lipase activity in their fat cells than lean people do. T K 162 4. In lean people adipose tissue tends to secrete higher amounts of adiponectin than it does in obese people. F K 162 5. Most obese people have leptin deficiency. F K 162 6. Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the stomach that acts much like leptin. T K 171 7. On a sensible weight-control program, meals and snacks should include whole-grain foods and fiber-rich vegetables. T K 164 8. Television and sedentary video and computer entertainment contribute to obesity because they have mostly replaced outdoor activity for many people. T K 165 9. Health-promoting built environments may result in a healthier and leaner population. T K 166 10. There is no such thing as cellulite. Multiple Choice c K 162 1. _____ is a hormone produced by the stomach cells that promotes positive energy balance by stimulating appetite and promoting efficient energy storage.
b K 162-163 2. The development of excess fat cells is most likely to occur:
- when you eat a large breakfast.
- during late childhood and early puberty.
- if you are inactive.
- around the age of 40.
d K 163 3. The theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls is referred to as the _____ theory.
- environmental stimuli
- learned behavior
d K 163-165 4. Which of the following is not an environmental stimulus that contributes to obesity?
- the abundance of food available
- an increase in portion sizes
- energy-dense fast food
- the year-round availability of fresh fruits and vegetables
d K 164 5. Fast food contributes to obesity because it generally provides:
- nutrient-dense foods.
- smaller portions.
- plenty of low-kcalorie choices.
- large portions and energy-dense foods.
b K 164, 165 6. The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
b K 164 7. Which of the following is the best example of the link between food behavior and emotions?
- someone who eats fast food for lunch every day
- someone who would rather sit home and eat than ask a friend to go to a movie and risk rejection
- someone who always eats popcorn while watching a movie
- a pregnant women who craves pickles
c A 164 8. Susie has been overweight for many years. She tends to eat when she is not really hungry and eats more food when she is angry or depressed. Which of the following theories could explain Susie’s problem of overweight?
- lipoprotein lipase
- set-point theory
- learned behavior
d K 165 9. The question of whether a person should lose weight depends on all of the following except:
- the extent of overweight.
- basal metabolic rate.
a K 166 10. _____ is an amphetamine-like substance once available over the counter for weight loss that was banned by the FDA due to many ill effects reported by consumers.
d K 166-167 11. Which of the following statements is true regarding weight loss?
- Laxatives promote weight loss.
- Hot baths speed up metabolism.
- Grapefruit juice melts body fat.
- Unwise weight-loss techniques can be dangerous.
b K 168 12. _____ is a prescription drug that works on the brain’s neurotransmitters to suppress appetite.
a K 168 13. _____ is a prescription drug used to treat obesity that reduces the absorption of fat.
c K 168 14. The surgical approach to weight loss can often be justified in cases of:
- BMI 25-30.
- uncontrolled diabetes.
- clinically severe obesity.
- peptic ulcer disease.
a K 168 15. Weight-loss surgeries:
- reduce the capacity of the stomach.
- are dangerous and should be avoided.
- have no complications.
- worsen existing health conditions associated with obesity.
c K 168-169 16. Complications from weight-loss surgery include all of the following except:
- nutritional deficiencies.
- the development of diabetes.
- psychological problems.
a K 168 17. The long-term safety and effectiveness of gastric surgery depend largely on:
- compliance with dietary instructions.
- avoidance of all fats.
- following recommended food combining patterns.
- regular monitoring of blood glucose levels.
a A 169-172 18. The secret to safe and permanent weight loss is a sensible approach involving:
- physical activity and a healthy, low-kcalorie diet.
- hormones and diet pills.
- a very-low-kcalorie diet combined with excessive exercise.
- herbal supplements and a low-kcalorie diet.
d K 169-170 19. Severe kcalorie restriction and rapid weight loss can result in all of the following except:
- excessive loss of lean tissue.
- a lower basal metabolism.
- rapid regain of weight.
- excessive loss of fat tissue.
c K 170, 177 20. In order to lose one pound per week, you would need to reduce your food intake by _____ kcalories per day.
b K 171 21. Women following a weight-loss diet may need supplements of _____.
- amino acids and/or essential fatty acids
- iron and/or calcium
- sodium and/or potassium
- vitamin C and/or calcium
a A 170-171 22. Donna currently weighs 160 pounds. How many kcalories should Donna consume daily in order to lose weight while also meeting her nutritional needs?
c A 170 23. Jill currently weighs 180 pounds and has asked to be placed on a weight-loss diet to allow her to lose two pounds a week. You tell Jill that she must cut _____ kcalories/day in order to achieve this goal.
b K 170 24. Nutritional adequacy is difficult to achieve on fewer than _____ kcalories a day.
d A 170, 173 25. Sarah is trying to lose 10 pounds. Which of the following would you suggest?
- Reduce your kcalorie intake by 100-200 kcalories a day and engage in 15 minutes of exercise per day.
- Ask your physician for a prescription for orlistat.
- Replace two meals a day with a bowl of cereal.
- Reduce your kcalorie intake by 300-500 kcalories a day and engage in at least 250 minutes of physical activity per week.
a K 171 26. On a sensible weight-loss plan, the nutrient from which most kcalories should be consumed is:
d K 171 27. Compared to refined foods, high-fiber, unprocessed, or lightly processed foods aid in weight loss because they provide:
- less absorption, resulting in fewer kcalories.
- a faster transit time through the intestinal tract.
- the same number of kcalories in a larger amount of food.
- bulk and satiety for fewer kcalories.
c A 172 28. An appropriate food to consume before a meal to increase one’s feeling of fullness is:
- a cup of cream of chicken soup.
- an unbuttered roll.
- a cup of vegetable soup.
- a breadstick dipped in olive oil.
a A 172 29. Which food has the lowest energy density?
- 15 fresh grapes
- ½ cup rice
- ½ cup ice cream
- 16 baked chips
b K 172 30. The average U.S. diet delivers an estimated _____ kcalories a day from sweetened beverages.
c K 173-174 31. The benefits of physical activity include all of the following except:
- it speeds up basal metabolism.
- it reduces abdominal obesity.
- it lowers basal metabolism.
- it may help to counteract the negative effects of excess body weight on health.
d K 173 32. The benefits of regular physical activity in weight loss include all of the following except:
- appetite control.
- a long-term increase in basal metabolism.
- stress reduction.
- loss of lean body mass.
c K 173-174 33. Benefits of physical activity in a weight-control program include:
- it helps a person to not think about food.
- it decreases energy expenditure.
- it speeds up basal metabolism.
- it helps one “spot reduce.”
d K 173 34. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends _____ minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week for weight gain prevention.
c K 173 35. Basal metabolism remains elevated for _____ after intense and prolonged activity.
- 30 minutes
- 1 hour
- several hours
- 72 hours
a A 174-175 36. A good way to begin a safe and effective weight-loss program is to:
- keep a food and activity diary.
- reduce energy intake to 800 kcalories per day.
- start on a Monday.
- recognize that the feelings of starvation are inevitable.
d K 174 37. The best form of physical activity for a person who is trying to lose weight is:
- running 5 miles at least 3 times a week.
- walking 2 miles in 30 minutes.
- a daily workout at the gym.
- something he or she enjoys and will do regularly.
b A 175 38. Lucie is practicing good cognitive skills for weight loss when she tells herself:
- “I shouldn’t have eaten that ice cream yesterday… no wonder I’m fat.”
- “I was able to walk on the treadmill 15 minutes longer today than I could 2 weeks ago… my fitness level is improving.”
- “I really, really want to lose weight; I just can’t seem to succeed no matter how hard I try.”
- “I need to remember to stop by the grocery store and pick up some more fresh vegetables for salads, and some light vinaigrette.”
c K 176 39. A key to preventing weight regain is to:
- only check weight once a month.
- avoid thinking thoughts that promote self-efficacy.
- view weight maintenance as a lifestyle, not a goal.
- skip breakfast every day.
b K 178 40. A person trying to gain weight should:
- avoid any form of exercise.
- eat energy-dense foods.
- eat faster.
- consume fewer beverages.
a A 178 41. James is trying to gain weight. Which of the following would you suggest to help James with his goal?
- Choose milkshakes instead of milk.
- Drink black coffee.
- Skip beverages.
- Skip dessert.
d K 178 42. David has a difficult time gaining weight. Your recommendations to him include:
- “Eat all you want and avoid physical activity.”
- “Limit low-kcalorie foods like fruits and vegetables.”
- “Ask your doctor for a prescription for orlistat.”
- “Consume energy-dense foods and engage in weight training.”
a A 178 43. Zachary is trying to gain weight. He complains that he has a hard time eating a lot of food at one meal. You advise him to:
- eat energy-dense snacks between meals.
- eat more slowly.
- drink less water.
- eat a salad before his meal.
b A 179 44. For someone who is trying to gain weight, an easy way to add kcalories is to:
- drink a lot of water.
- increase consumption of caloric beverages.
- use fat-free salad dressings freely.
- add more salt to food.
Nutrition in Practice – Fad Diets c K 184 45. Which of the following statements is true regarding fad diets?
- They are based on credible scientific research.
- The FDA requires proof that they work and are safe.
- They usually offer distorted bits of legitimate research, which makes them sound feasible.
- Scientists have overlooked the obvious facts and a lay person has figured out the key to successful weight loss.
d K 185 46. Quite simply, the key to weight loss is:
- combining foods correctly at meals.
- not eating desserts.
- eating less carbohydrate.
- consuming fewer kcalories.
a K 185 47. Despite claims that each new fad diet is different and offers a new approach to weight loss, most fad diets
- cut kcalories.
- eliminate animal foods.
- encourage skipping meals.
- are individualized.
a A 186 48. Of the fat diets compared in the textbook, which one comes closest to meeting dietary standards for health?
- Ornish Diet
- Atkins Diet
- Sonoma Diet
- Cheater’s Diet
b K 186 49. The major drawback of most fad diets is:
- They promote false information about weight loss.
- They do not create lifestyle changes to support long-term weight control.
- They create false hopes among those who try them.
- They usually require the purchase of dietary supplements.
b K 187 50. The minimum number of kcalories provided by a weight-loss diet should be:
c A 187 51. Warning signs of an unsound weight-loss program include:
- a diet that provides at least 1200 kcalories.
- recommendations to consume ordinary foods.
- requirements to purchase their brand of foods/supplements.
- encouragement to pursue physical activity.
|i||163||1. adiponectin||a. an enzyme mounted on the surface of fat cells that hydrolyzes triglycerides in the blood into fatty acids and glycerol for absorption into the cells.b. the buildings, roads, utilities, homes, fixtures, parks, and all other man-made entities that form the physical characteristics of a community.c. a hormone produced by fat cells that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure.d. a hormone produced primarily by the stomach cells that signals the hypothalamus of the brain to stimulate appetite and food intake.e. supposedly, a lumpy form of fat; actually, a fraud.f. the physiological need to eat, experienced as a drive to obtain food.g. the psychological desire to eat.h. the theory that proposes that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls.i. a protein produced by the fat cells that inhibits inflammation.|
|g||164, 165||2. appetite|
|b||165||3. built environment|
|e||166, 167||4. cellulite|
|f||164, 165||6. hunger|
|a||161||8. lipoprotein lipase|
|h||163||9. set-point theory|
Essay 162-163 1. Briefly describe the following theories for the cause of obesity:
- set-point theory.
- fat cell development.
163-165 2. Discuss the role of environmental stimuli in the development of obesity. 168-169 3. Discuss the pros and cons of gastric bypass and gastric banding surgeries for weight loss. 172-174 4. Describe why physical activity is very important in a weight-loss program. 178-179 5. Describe strategies for successful weight gain.