INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS The Economy of Nature 6th Edition By Robert E. Ricklefs – Test Bank Sample Questions Name Test Bank Chapter 06DescriptionInstructions The year 2009 is a significant anniversary in the history of science. CharlesDarwin, chief architect of the theory of evolution by natural selection, was bornon February 12, 1809, sharing that birth date with Abraham Lincoln. On theOrigin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published 50 years later, in1859, making 2009 the bicentennial of Darwin’s birth and the sesquicentennial ofhis most significant publication. Celebrations of these events will take placearound the world, and the administration of State University has decided tosponsor a special lecture series in honor of Charles Darwin. The detailedplanning for this lecture series has fallen to the Biology Club, of which you arepresident. As you begin thinking about speakers to invite, you decide to seekscientists who are conducting cutting-edge research in evolutionary biology. Tostimulate discussion, you ask each member of your small club (you and six othermembers!) to submit a question to you about some evolutionary topic. You willthen research each question, using your answer to that question as the basis foridentification of a topic and potential speaker. What follow are the questionsgenerated by club members. Please answer each question, and, where possible,identify a researcher who might speak on that topic.Question 1EssayQuestion The Galápagos archipelago and its unique species were animportant source of inspiration for Charles Darwin’s development of his theoryof evolution by natural selection. Can you identify an example of currentevolutionary research being carried out in the Galápagos archipelago?Answer The research carried out by Peter and Rosemary Grant would be mostappropriate. For many years, the Grants have studied populations ofDarwin’s finches in the Galápagos. In one study, they showed thatbeak size of the medium ground finch, Geospiza fortis, increasedduring periods of drought associated with La Niña years. Thisevolutionary change resulted from the scarcity of seeds during thedrought. As seeds became scarcer and the softer seeds wereconsumed, only hard-shelled seeds remained. Medium ground fincheswith larger beaks were better able to crack these seeds and thusexperienced better survival and left more progeny. The result was anevolutionary change in the average beak size of the population. You’redelighted with this example, because it ideally “fits the bill,” so tospeak, for the lecture series.Question 2EssayQuestion Evolution sometimes occurs as the result of natural selectionimposed by biotic agents, like parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Can youoffer an example of evolution resulting from selection imposed by such anagent?Answer A recent study conducted in the Hawaiian Islands by Marlene Zukshowed that males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, hadlargely ceased emitting mating calls. Upon further investigation, shedemonstrated that this was an evolutionary change. The selectiveagent was a parasitoid fly that had been recently introduced. Becausethe fly locates its victims by homing in on their mating calls, there wasstrong selection for silent male field crickets.Question 3Essay 1 pointsQuestion Reaction norms may be modified by evolution to improveperformance under the particular conditions experienced by a population. Canyou provide an example illustrating this phenomenon?Answer Ayres and Scriber demonstrated this phenomenon in a careful study ofgrowth rates of caterpillars of a swallowtail butterfly, Papiliocanadensis, collected in Michigan and Alaska. These caterpillars growmore rapidly at higher temperatures, irrespective of the populationsource. However, caterpillars from northern populations grow morerapidly at low temperatures than their counterparts from southernpopulations. The reverse is true at high temperatures, wherecaterpillars from southern populations grow faster than their northerncounterparts.Question 4EssayQuestion Can you identify an example of an evolutionary change resultingfrom artificial selection imposed by humans?Answer In the early twentieth century, citrus growers in California beganfumigating their orchards with cyanide gas, an effective control forscale insects. However, after several years, they found that suchfumigation was no longer effective, and scale insects once againbecame serious pests. On further investigation, researchers found thatcyanide resistance has a genetic basis, and that fumigation hadselected for cyanide-resistant populations by favoring those individualswith alleles conferring resistance to the cyanide gas.Question 5EssayQuestion Can you offer an example of directional selection on a naturalpopulation?Answer Perhaps the best-known example of directional selection on a naturalpopulation comes from the work of H. B. D. Kettlewell in the 1950s.Kettlewell’s research is famous for its documentation of directionalselection on coloration of adults of the peppered moth, Bistonbetularia. Typical individuals of this moth are light-colored, and theyblend well with the bark of trees on which they rest during daytimehours. As a result, these moths are not readily detected and eaten bybirds. In areas where air pollution had darkened the bark of trees,Kettlewell discovered that the moth populations consistedpredominantly of dark-colored, or melanistic individuals. Because colorof these moths is under genetic control, Kettlewell concluded that theshift in coloration in polluted areas was the result of selection favoringdark-colored individuals. He was also able to demonstrate thatindividuals with coloration matching their background were less likelyto be taken by birds than contrasting individuals.Question 6EssayQuestion Can you also offer an example of disruptive selection on a naturalpopulation?Answer Research conducted by T. B. Smith on an African finch revealed abimodal distribution in beak size, the result of disruptive selectionimposed by the availability of two different kinds of seeds in the habitatof these finches. Genetic variation in the population was maintainedbecause individuals with large beaks could crack the hard seeds of acommon species of sedge. However, large-beaked individuals wereless efficient at cracking the soft seeds of another common species ofsedge.Question 7EssayQuestion What is evolution?Answer In its broadest sense, evolution is any change in a population’s genepool. Although we usually think of evolution as changes in allelicfrequencies resulting from natural selection, other processes, such asmutation and genetic drift, can also result in changes in the gene pool.Question 8EssayQuestion What are the prerequisites for evolution by natural selection?Answer There are three prerequisites or “ingredients” for evolution by naturalselection. First, there must be variation among the individuals in apopulation for a particular trait. Second, the variation must beheritable—it must have a genetic basis. Third, variation in the traitmust have consequences for the fitness of individuals, resulting indifferences in survival and reproductive success.Question 9EssayQuestion What is the genetic basis of continuously varying phenotypic traits,and what is the typical frequency distribution of these traits?Answer Many traits vary continuously because they are affected by theexpression of many genes, each of which has a relatively small effecton a given trait. Such traits often take on a normal distribution, with thebulk of trait values concentrated near the trait’s mean.Question 10EssayQuestion Directional selection acts to remove genetic variation frompopulations. Given that directional selection is a potent force leading toevolutionary change, why doesn’t the genetic variation in a population graduallydwindle away until only a single, highly fit genotype remains?Answer There are many other forces that act to maintain genetic diversity inpopulations. Mutations continue to occur, introducing new alleles orreintroducing old ones that have been eliminated. In certain situations,the fitness of heterozygotes may be superior to that of homozygotes,resulting in retention of allelic diversity. Another process maintaininggenetic diversity is frequency-dependent selection, in which therelative fitness of genotypes incorporating rare alleles is enhanced.Finally, it is important to keep in mind that both biotic and abioticenvironments are subject to continual change. The relative fitnesses ofvarious genotypes are constantly changing as the environmentalbackground against which they are tested also changes.Question 11EssayQuestion What useful lessons can ecologists learn from studies of populationgenetics?Answer Ecologists can draw many useful lessons from studies of populationgenetics. First, most natural populations contain substantial geneticvariation maintained and enhanced by a number of importantprocesses. It is this store of genetic variation, and the continualgeneration of new genetic variation, that provides resiliency forpopulations faced with continually changing environmental challenges.Second, changes in selective pressures in the environment will be metwith evolutionary responses leading to shifts in genotypic frequencieswithin populations. In other words, evolution is an ongoing process.Third, human intervention can overwhelm the capability of naturalsystems to respond to environmental challenges. By fosteringsituations in which genetic diversity is depleted (as is the case insmall, fragmented populations), humans reduce the inherent resiliencyof populations. By causing extremely rapid changes in the physicalenvironment or by rapidly altering the biotic makeup of naturalcommunities (through introductions, extinctions, etc.), humans createsituations that can overwhelm the capacity of populations to respondthrough evolutionary change, leading to further extinctions and, in theworst case, collapse of entire ecosystems.Question 12EssayQuestion Although individual organisms cannot evolve, they can undergochanges that enable them to adapt to a changing environment. Please explain,using an example.Answer Most organisms have some capacity to respond to environmentalvariation, and we refer to this as phenotypic plasticity. The cactuswren, a resident of deserts of the southwestern United States andnorthern Mexico, illustrates phenotypic plasticity through its selectionof microhabitats on a daily basis. In the early morning, when airtemperatures are low, cactus wrens forage in a variety ofmicrohabitats. As air temperatures increase toward midday, the wrensincreasingly spend time in cooler microhabitats, particularly theshaded interiors of small trees and large shrubs. By selecting thecooler microhabitats, the birds minimize their need for evaporativecooling and thus conserve precious water.Question 13EssayQuestion Cactus wrens have an extended breeding period (March throughSeptember) in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. The most successfulbreeders build nests with entrances facing away from the prevailing winds inearly spring, but during summer they orient their nests such that the entrancesface the prevailing afternoon winds. Why?Answer The nest microenvironment must remain within the tolerance range ofthe young wrens at all times. In early spring, when temperatures arecool, young in nests facing away from prevailing winds remainwarmer. In summer, when environmental temperatures are high,young in nests with entrances facing the prevailing winds can takebetter advantage of convective cooling.Question 14EssayQuestion You compare the abilities of two species of shrub in the genusAtriplex to acclimate to a range of temperature conditions. One species,Atriplex maritima, is found in shrublands along the northern California coast,where conditions are continuously cool. The other species, A. interior, is foundin the Great Basin Desert to the east of the range of A. maritima. Temperaturesin the Great Basin Desert vary seasonally, from very cold in winter to extremelyhot in summer. In your experiments, you discover that both species acclimatewell to a temperature of 20°C, showing equivalent photosynthetic activity.However, when acclimated to a temperature of 45°C, A. interior also performswell, whereas A. maritima exhibits reduced photosynthetic capability. Why?Answer An organism’s capacity for acclimation often reflects the range ofconditions experienced in its natural environment. A. interior normallyexperiences a wide range of temperatures, whereas A. maritima isexposed to a narrower range of temperatures, closer to the 20°Cacclimation temperature in the experiment. Because the ability toacclimate to a wide range of temperatures imposes a cost for theorganism, it is not surprising that A. maritima lacks this unnecessaryability.Question 15EssayQuestion What is a genotype-environment interaction? Please include adiscussion of the reaction norm in your answer.Answer Each genotype responds in a particular way to variations in theenvironment, resulting in the phenotypic plasticity observed in allspecies. The observed relationship between the phenotype of anindividual and its environment is called the reaction norm. Reactionnorms for different genotypes may be different, and when this is thecase there is a genotype-environment interaction. Put another way,the pattern of phenotypic response over a fixed range ofenvironmental variation will differ for two genotypes when there is agenotype-environment interaction.Question 16EssayQuestion How can reciprocal transplant experiments help us separate geneticand environmental contributions to phenotypic variation?Answer Individuals belonging to the same species may exhibit differentphenotypes when grown under different conditions, but it is impossiblewithout experimentation to determine the extent to which thephenotypic differences are caused by genetic effects, environmentaleffects, or a genotype-environment interaction. For example,reciprocal transplanting might reveal that phenotypic variation isentirely related to where an individual is growing and unrelated towhere it comes from. In this case, one would conclude that there islittle genetic basis for the phenotypic variation observed and thatvariation is attributable solely to phenotypic plasticity. If reciprocaltransplanting revealed that phenotypic variation is entirely related towhere an individual comes from, then one would conclude thatphenotype is genetically determined and insensitive to environmentalchange. Finally, when individuals are found to be responsive toenvironmental change, but the response depends on where theindividual comes from, then one would conclude that there is agenotype-environment interaction.Question 17Multiple ChoiceQuestion __________ and its biota were a source of inspiration to CharlesDarwin as he formulated his theory of evolution by natural selection. This placealso remains a mecca for biologists like Peter and Rosemary Grant who areinterested in the study of evolutionary biology.Answer AntarcticaAustraliaThe Orkney IslandsThe Galápagos IslandsThe California Channel IslandsQuestion 18Multiple ChoiceQuestion Why did average beak size increase in surviving individuals ofDarwin’s medium ground finch (and their progeny) during a period of severedrought in the Galápagos?Answer Individuals eating the harder seeds available during the droughtdeveloped larger beaks and passed this trait on to their offspring.Individuals with larger beaks could eat the harder seeds availableduring the drought and survived better than individuals withsmaller beaks.Individuals with larger beaks are always at an advantage.The observed change in beak size was purely the result ofchance.Question 19Multiple ChoiceQuestion A new protein produced by a mutant gene may or may not haveproperties different from those of the original protein. If its properties arealtered, these properties are most likely to be __________ to the individual.Answer beneficialharmfulneutralQuestion 20Multiple ChoiceQuestion The development of resistance to cyanide poisoning in Californiacitrus scale is an excellent example of evolution by natural selection. Which ofthe following characteristics of this situation were critical to the evolutionaryprocess?Answer There was variation in cyanide resistance among individuals.There was inheritance of cyanide resistance.There were differences in fitness related to variation in cyanideresistance.All of the above were critical to the evolutionary process.Question 21Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following is relevant to the evolutionary process?Answer how fast rabbits can runwhether running speed affects the ability of rabbits to leavesuccessful offspringboth A and Bneither A nor BQuestion 22Multiple ChoiceQuestion When the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, experienced strongselective pressure from a predator that used sound to locate singing males, thefrequency of males capable of producing mating calls decreased in thepopulation. Although this adaptive response was beneficial, it also had anegative consequence. What was this negative consequence?Answer Silent males are unable to attract mates.Silent males are also deaf.Silent males have defective wings and are unable to fly.Silent males are unable to attract prey.There was no negative consequence.Question 23Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the previous question, you were asked to identify a negativeconsequence for males unable to produce mating calls. What additionaladaptive response emerged in the population that offset the negativeconsequence of silence?Answer Silent males also displayed more striking coloration than theirsinging counterparts.Silent males also engaged in more active flight displays thantheir singing counterparts.Silent males also spent more time chasing receptive femalesthan their singing counterparts.Silent males also tended to aggregate around singing males thatattracted females with their calls.Silent males exhibited all of the above adaptive responses.Question 24Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following types of selection serves as a kind of genetichousekeeping, sweeping away harmful genetic variation?Answer stabilizing selectiondirectional selectiondisruptive selectionall of the abovenone of the aboveQuestion 25Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following types of selection results in the distribution ofphenotypes in a population shifting toward a new optimum?Answer stabilizing selectiondirectional selectiondisruptive selectionall of the abovenone of the aboveQuestion 26Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following types of selection can lead to a bimodaldistribution of phenotypes?Answer stabilizing selectiondirectional selectiondisruptive selectionall of the abovenone of the aboveQuestion 27Multiple ChoiceQuestion Weight at birth of human babies has a genetic component. In onelarge study, survival in a cohort of babies during the first month of life wasshown to be greatest for babies of average weight at birth and least for babieswith very low or very high weights at birth. Survivors of the first month of lifehad lower variation in weight at birth than did all babies in the cohort.Differential survival of this kind could result in __________ on genes controllingweight at birth.Answer stabilizing selectiondirectional selectiondisruptive selectionno selectionQuestion 28Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following types of selection is illustrated by the exampleof the peppered moth, Biston betularia?Answer stabilizing selectiondirectional selectiondisruptive selectionall of the abovenone of the aboveQuestion 29Multiple ChoiceQuestion In his studies of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, H. B. D.Kettlewell demonstrated that the ultimate selective agent leading to changes ingenotypic frequencies was:Answer predation by birds.poisoning of moths caused by industrial pollution.indiscriminant use of pesticides.all of the above.Question 30Multiple ChoiceQuestion An interesting and gratifying footnote to the long-term study of thepeppered moth, Biston betularia, in England has been the recent:Answer increase in the melanistic form.stabilization of the melanistic form.decline of the melanistic form.demonstration that coloration in peppered moths has noselective value.Question 31Multiple ChoiceQuestion With the advent of pollution controls, what happened to thefrequency of the melanistic form of the peppered moth in England?Answer immediate shift to a lower frequencygradual shift to a lower frequencyimmediate shift to a higher frequencygradual shift to a higher frequencyno changeQuestion 32Multiple ChoiceQuestion During the summer months, where would you expect to find a cactuswren in early afternoon?Answer in almost any available microhabitatin exposed areas with no plant coverin the deep shade cast by small trees and large shrubsin the nestQuestion 33Multiple ChoiceQuestion During the summer months, cactus wrens build nests oriented totake advantage of which of the following?Answer prevailing afternoon breezesshade cast by large saguaro cactireduced incidence of predationground cover that can break the fall of a nestling pushed fromthe nestQuestion 34Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following best defines the reaction norm?Answer the observed relationship between the phenotype of an individualand density of conspecificsthe observed relationship between the phenotype of an individualand density of predatorsthe observed relationship between the phenotype of an individualand density of preythe observed relationship between the phenotype of an individualand the environmentQuestion 35Multiple ChoiceQuestion The larvae of swallowtail butterflies are capable of surviving andgrowing over a range of temperatures. They exhibit faster growth as theenvironmental temperature increases. The responsiveness of the larvalphenotype to a range of environmental temperatures is referred to as:Answer a genotype-environment interaction.phenotypic plasticity.variation in fecundity.evolutionary fitness.none of the aboveQuestion 36Multiple ChoiceQuestion Swallowtail butterfly larvae from Alaska and Michigan each exhibitcharacteristic reaction norms for growth rate with respect to temperature.Although larvae from both populations exhibit increasing growth rate withincreasing temperature, larvae from Alaska grow faster at lower temperaturesand larvae from Michigan grow faster at higher temperatures. The specificrelationship described is referred to as:Answer a genotype-environment interaction.phenotypic plasticity.variation in fecundity.evolutionary fitness.none of the above.Question 37Multiple ChoiceQuestion When a population develops an adaptive response that results inimproved performance under the prevalent environmental conditions, a shift inthe reaction norm is likely to result in __________ performance in alternateenvironmental conditions.Answer improvedreducedsimilarQuestion 38Multiple ChoiceQuestion Acclimatization is a(n) __________ process.Answer reversibleirreversibleQuestion 39Multiple ChoiceQuestion Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve the same maximumphotosynthetic, irrespective of the temperature to which it is acclimatized?Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climateAtriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously coolclimateTidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hotclimateall of the aboveQuestion 40Multiple ChoiceQuestion Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve a higher maximumphotosynthetic when acclimatized at a low temperature?Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climateAtriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously coolclimateTidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hotclimateall of the aboveQuestion 41Multiple ChoiceQuestion Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve a higher maximumphotosynthetic when acclimatized at a high temperature?Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climateAtriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously coolclimateTidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hotclimateall of the aboveQuestion 42Multiple ChoiceQuestion Developmental responses are __________ processes.Answer reversibleirreversibleQuestion 43Multiple ChoiceQuestion Why do individuals of the African grasshopper, Gastrimargusafricanus, have pigmentation that matches the background color of theirhabitat?Answer Matching coloration helps them avoid detection by would-bepredators.Matching coloration minimizes absorption of solar radiation.Matching coloration makes them more attractive to potentialmates.Matching coloration alerts fewer competitors when food isdiscovered.Question 44Multiple ChoiceQuestion Late in the dry season, individuals of the African grasshopper,Gastrimargus africanus, are black. What habitat condition makes this colorationadaptive?Answer more intense sunlightbrowning of the vegetationblackening of the ground by firesreduction of standing water in the habitatQuestion 45Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following was an interesting outcome of the reciprocaltransplant experiments carried out by Niewiarowski and Roosenberg on fencelizards?Answer Native lizards and transplants from New Jersey performedequally well in Nebraska.Nebraska lizards performed equally well in Nebraska and inNew Jersey.New Jersey lizards performed equally poorly in New Jersey andin Nebraska.Each of the above was an interesting outcome of thisexperiment.Question 46Multiple ChoiceQuestion Highbush blueberry plants belonging to a particular species grow ina wide range of environments in North Carolina. Plants growing in acidic bogsare slower growing than plants on fertile, better-drained floodplains. In areciprocal transplant study, plants from a bog were transplanted to a floodplainand plants from a floodplain were transplanted to a bog. The transplants fromthe bog performed better in the floodplain, but not as well as plants native tothe floodplain. The transplants from the floodplain performed more poorly in thebog, about the same as plants native to the bog. What can we conclude fromthis experiment about the causes of differences in growth rate between the bogand floodplain populations?Answer They are genetically determined.They reflect phenotypic plasticity.Both of the above conclusions are correct.Question 47Fill in the BlankQuestion The outward expression of the genotype in the individual’s structureand function is called the ________.Answer phenotypeIncorrectFeedbackThe outward expression of the genotype in the individual’sstructure and function is called the phenotype.Question 48Fill in the BlankQuestion Different forms of a particular gene are referred to as ________.Answer allelesIncorrectFeedbackDifferent forms of a particular gene are referred to asalleles.Question 49Fill in the BlankQuestion A diploid individual that has two different alleles of a particular geneis said to be ________.Answer heterozygousIncorrectFeedbackA diploid individual that has two different alleles of a particulargene is said to be heterozygous.Question 50Fill in the BlankQuestion Molecules of DNA are comprised of four kinds of subunits (adenine,thymine, cytosine, and guanine) called ________.Answer nucleotidesIncorrectFeedbackMolecules of DNA are comprised of four kinds of subunits(adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) called nucleotides.Question 51Fill in the BlankQuestion Certain mutations are referred to as ________ because the mutatedcoding sequence still codes for the same amino acid as the unmutated codingsequence. Such mutations have no consequences for fitness.Answer silent or synonymousIncorrectFeedbackCertain mutations are referred to as silent or synonymousbecause the mutated coding sequence still codes for the sameamino acid as the unmutated coding sequence. Such mutationshave no consequences for fitness.Question 52Question A diploid individual who has two different alleles of a particular geneis said to be ________.Answer heterozygousIncorrectFeedbackA diploid individual who has two different alleles of a particulargene is said to be heterozygous.Question 53Question The ________ of variation is the genetic basis of evolution.Answer inheritanceIncorrectFeedbackThe inheritance of variation is the genetic basis ofevolution.Question 54Question selection can result in a bimodal distribution of phenotypes withpeaks toward both ends of the original distribution.Answer disruptiveIncorrectFeedbackdisruptive selection can result in a bimodal distribution ofphenotypes with peaks toward both ends of the originaldistribution.Question 55Question Increased frequency of the dark-colored form of the moth Bistonbetularia in England was associated with industrial development leading todarkening of tree trunks. Because of this, the increased frequency of darkmoths has been dubbed ________.Answer industrial melanismIncorrectFeedbackIncreased frequency of the dark-colored form of the moth Bistonbetularia in England was associated with industrial developmentleading to darkening of tree trunks. Because of this, the increasedfrequency of dark moths has been dubbed industrial melanism.Question 56Question Whether differences between populations are due to geneticdifferences, phenotypic plasticity, or genotype-environment interactions canoften be revealed by ________ experiments.Answer reciprocal transplantIncorrectFeedbackWhether differences between populations are due to geneticdifferences, phenotypic plasticity, or genotype-environmentinteractions can often be revealed by reciprocal transplantexperiments. Name Test Bank Chapter 07DescriptionInstructions Use the following information for Questions 1 to 5:The genus Cassina consists of ten species of mammals that occur on FarawayIsland in the central Pacific Ocean, near the equator. These species are closelyrelated and apparently diverged from a common ancestor, much like Darwin’sfinches on the Galápagos Islands. The species of Cassina are quite varied intheir sizes and habits; C. minima is the size of a mouse, whereas C. maxima isas large as a draft horse. As part of a research team studying the fauna ofFaraway Island, you have undertaken a comparative study of life histories of thevarious Cassina species.Use the following information for Questions 6 to 11:The Pacific swingtail is a colonial nesting seabird found only on an isolated coralatoll (Faraway Island) in the central Pacific Ocean, near the equator. Theswingtail feeds exclusively on adults of a large species of flying fish that it scoopsfrom just above the ocean’s surface in an acrobatic maneuver. The oceansurrounding the atoll is unproductive and essentially devoid of fish. However, asmall area of upwelling located 60 km from the atoll provides a continuous andreliable source of flying fish for the swingtail. During the breeding season, thefemale swingtail incubates her eggs and later cares for her young until they areready to fend for themselves. The female swingtail is entirely dependent on hermate to bring food to her (and eventually to the young as well) during the periodof egg incubation and juvenile care. The males fly to the area of upwelling andreturn with fish, which they carry in their bills. They share the fish with their mateand offspring before returning to fish again.Question 1EssayQuestion To begin your study of life history in Cassina, you decide to catalogthe traits for each species, including development rate, age at sexual maturity,allocation of resources to reproduction, adult mortality rate, and length of life.Before doing so, you postulate that these traits will not vary independently ofone another but will instead exhibit correlated changes along a continuum.Characterize the continuum that you anticipate.Answer For the variety of species under consideration, the traits you’vechosen to catalog will be expected to vary along a continuum bestcharacterized as “slow” to “fast.” At the “slow” end will be species withslow development, greater age at sexual maturity, relatively smallallocation of resources to reproduction, low adult mortality, and longlife (exemplified perhaps by C. maxima). These traits will graduallychange along the life-history continuum to the “fast” extreme(exemplified perhaps by C. minima), where species have traits just theopposite of those belonging to the “slow” species.Question 2EssayQuestion With your catalog complete, you begin a more detailed investigationof life history traits among the various Cassina species. All of these speciescease growing when they reach sexual maturity. However, there isconsiderable variation in age at sexual maturity and life span among thespecies. What kind of relationship between these two traits do you expect tofind? In addition, how do you expect size and age at sexual maturity to vary?Answer The expected relationship is one in which age at sexual maturityvaries in direct proportion to the life span. In other words, the longer aspecies lives, the longer its prereproductive development. In mostcases the species with delayed sexual maturity will also be largerwhen they reach maturity.Question 3EssayQuestion Closer examination of certain Cassina species reveals interestingpatterns. For example, Cassina intermedia and C. normalis are both rat-likemembers of the genus. Although quite similar in size, the two species differgreatly in their habits and life histories. C. intermedia is a long-lived nocturnalforager in closed forests and suffers relatively low adult mortality. C. normalisforages during daylight hours on open, rocky areas of the island and suffershigh adult mortality caused by predation from hawks; its life span is shorterthan that of C. intermedia. You haven’t had a chance yet to determinefecundities of the two species, but you speculate that these fecundities will bequite different. What is your speculation and what is your reasoning behind thisspeculation?Answer Cassina normalis is likely to have higher fecundity than C. intermedia.High adult mortality is typically associated with greater fecundity. Ifadults have a high probability of dying, it is to their advantage toincrease their investment in current reproductive output. Conversely,longer-lived species with lower adult mortality rates may jeopardizefuture reproduction by investing heavily in current reproduction.Question 4EssayQuestion You move into a more experimental phase of your studies ofCassina species. You determine that C. intermedia females routinely produce 4young per litter, in comparison with 10 young per litter in the more fecund C.normalis. You conduct an experiment in which you add 6 newborn C.intermedia (obtained from lab-reared animals) to each of several natural littersof C. intermedia. The C. intermedia females accept the added young andattempt to raise their newly expanded litters of 10 to maturity. What do youexpect to be the consequences of your litter supplementation experiments?Explain your answer, citing results of other workers where appropriate.Answer Litter supplementation could have far-reaching consequences. Aspredicted by David Lack and borne out by results of numerousexperiments in birds, you suspect that litter supplementation will resultin poor reproductive success, caused by inability of the female toprovide for the additional offspring. Indeed, the artificiallysupplemented litters may actually produce fewer successful youngthan the natural litters, as seen in Hogstedt’s work with magpies. Inher attempt to provide for additional young, the female C. intermediamay be in poor condition herself by the end of the breeding season,less likely to survive for subsequent breeding attempts, as seen inexperiments by Dijkstra and Daan with European kestrels.Question 5EssayQuestion In your studies of Cassina species of Faraway Island, you’ve seennumerous examples of trade-offs in life history traits. What fundamentalprocess is responsible for such trade-offs? Use your work with C. intermediaand C. normalis to illustrate your answer.Answer From an evolutionary perspective, life history traits persist becausethey contribute to reproductive success and, therefore, evolutionaryfitness. Faced with scarce resources, organisms must allocate theseresources in ways that optimize fitness. Consider the case of C.intermedia and C. normalis. Emphasis on current reproductive outputwill compromise future reproductive output. In order to allocateresources to growth and future reproductive output, currentreproductive output must be curtailed. In the case of C. normalis,emphasis on current reproductive output pays off, because futurereproductive success is unlikely anyway. With a greater expectation offuture life, C. intermedia foregoes some current reproduction toincrease the likelihood that future reproductive opportunities may beexploited.Question 6EssayQuestion During the breeding season, the female swingtail and her offspringare tied to their nesting site, whereas the male swingtail forages for food 60 kmfrom the atoll. What kind of foraging situation is this?Answer central place foragingQuestion 7EssayQuestion Several investigators have studied the economics of foraging bymale swingtails during the breeding season. They found that the foraging costto the swingtail is primarily associated with travel time (and energy expendedduring travel) to and from the upwelling area. Because of the abundance oftheir prey, swingtails spend a trivial amount of time and energy in the act offishing (searching for and capturing prey). Adult male swingtails are swift fliers,cruising at a speed of 60 km/hr when not carrying fish in their bills. Aftercatching one flying fish, their flight speed drops to 30 km/hr. Flight speeds forbirds with two and three fish in their bills are further reduced to 15 km/hr and 5km/hr, respectively. A male swingtail carrying three fish in his bill is incapable ofcapturing a fourth. How much time does a male swingtail spend in making thetrip to the upwelling area and returning with a single fish in his bill? How muchtime is required for a round trip if two fish are caught? How much time isrequired if three fish are caught?Answer The trip to the upwelling area always takes 1 hour (60 km divided by60 km/hr). A male returning with one fish takes twice as long to coverthe 60 km, 2 hours (60 km divided by 30 km/hr). Thus a male makingthe round trip and returning with one fish completes the trip in 3 hours.By similar calculations, a male returning with two fish takes 5 hours (1hour out, 4 hours back), and a male returning with three fish takes 13hours (1 hour out, 12 hours back).Question 8EssayQuestion Considering only the efficiency of foraging (hrs/fish), how many fishreturned per trip represents the most efficient use of the male swingtail’s time?Answer The efficiencies for returning with one, two, and three fish are 3, 2.5,and 4.3 hrs/fish, respectively. Thus males returning with two fish makemost efficient use of their time.Question 9EssayQuestion Swingtails are averse to flying at night. At the latitude of FarawayIsland, day length is about 12 hours. Swingtails will fly from about 2 hoursbefore sunrise to 2 hours after sunset, resulting in a 16-hour window withinwhich they will fly and fish. However, time spent feeding and grooming back atthe nest consumes about an hour of the male’s daylight hours, leaving a 15-hour window for fishing. For male swingtails making fishing trips in which theyroutinely return with one, two, or three fish, how many fish per day can theydeliver to their mate and offspring? How does total catch of fish per daycompare with fishing efficiency?Answer A male routinely returning with a single fish can make at most five tripsper day (15 hr/3 hr per trip). Thus the total catch would be five fish.Similarly, a male returning with two fish per trip could make at mostthree trips per day, for a total catch of six fish. A male routinelyreturning with three fish could only make a single trip in a day, for atotal catch of three fish. Thus the greatest catch per day is alsoassociated with the most efficient fishing behavior (return with two fishper trip).Question 10EssayQuestion From an evolutionary perspective, which foraging behavior (returnwith one, two, or three fish) would you expect to find practiced by maleswingtails feeding their mates and young? Why?Answer From an evolutionary perspective (optimal foraging theory), one wouldexpect an efficient foraging behavior leading to the greatest total catchof fish to be preferred. In the case of the swingtail, males returningwith two fish per trip maximize their total daily catch. If fishing behavioris under genetic control, alleles leading to behaviors resulting in thegreatest catch of fish would increase in the swingtail populationbecause individuals practicing such behaviors would be capable ofraising more successful offspring.Question 11EssayQuestion Researchers studying the swingtails of Faraway Island discoveredthat most males routinely return with a single fish from each fishing trip. Theresearchers were perplexed by this observation, because males returning witha single fish per trip catch slightly fewer fish (five total) in a given day thanmales returning with two fish per trip (six total). What might explain thisobservation?Answer While males returning with two fish per trip are more efficient andcatch more fish per day, they are also much slower fliers on theirreturn trips (they fly at half the speed of birds carrying a single fish).Their slower flight speed might make these birds more susceptible topredation. Increased risk of predation could easily offset the slightadvantage associated with catching more fish. In other words, theswingtails may be risk-sensitive foragers. There are other possibleexplanations for the one-fish foraging behavior. For example, perhapsthe young need to be fed small amounts more frequently to achieveoptimal growth. Or perhaps it is important for the male to returnfrequently to the nest to assure that the female and young areprotected from predators, and so forth.Question 12EssayQuestion Tropical songbirds tend to have nests with fewer eggs than birdsnesting at higher latitudes. David Lack of Oxford University first placed thisobservation in a life-history context. What were the key concepts elaborated byDavid Lack?Answer Lack recognized that life-history traits contribute to reproductivesuccess and thus to evolutionary fitness. He also proposed that lifehistorytraits are subject to natural selection, varying in predictableways with environmental factors and constraints. Finally, hehypothesized that clutch size was commensurate with availability ofresources (food, in this case) and that experimental increase of clutchsize would result in poor reproductive success.Question 13EssayQuestion Given a fixed allocation of resources to reproduction, there are stillmany possible trade-offs between the size and number of offspring produced.Consider seed-producing trees and discuss conditions that might favorproduction of few, relatively large seeds versus conditions that might favorproduction of many, relatively small seeds.Answer Trees of closed forests with little opportunity to disperse seeds intonewly created habitats might be expected to produce relatively fewlarge seeds. Each seed could be supplied with substantial reserves offood and nutrients, giving the developing seedling an opportunity tocompete successfully for limited resources. Trees of open forests withopportunities to disperse seeds into newly created habitats might beexpected to produce larger numbers of lighter seeds. Such seedsmight be more readily dispersed by wind, water, or small animals intoopen habitats. The larger numbers of seeds would also increase thechances that some seeds would land in favorable sites, andopportunities for rapid population expansion could be readily exploited.Question 14EssayQuestion Is senescence inevitable? Please explain your answer,accounting for the great variation in patterns of aging amongdifferent species.Answer Yes, it appears that all mechanisms, biological and otherwise,inevitably wear out. However, organisms differ greatly in their longevityand some apparently invest more resources in processes that preventor repair damage. The degree to which resources are allocated tosuch processes appears to be related to the hazards of life. There canbe little fitness benefit to investment in processes that prevent orrepair damage by species for which external factors (accidents,predation, bad weather) greatly reduce the likelihood of adult survival.The reproductive benefits of greater potential longevity would be rarelyexperienced by such species, and resources devoted to maintenanceand repair would detract from early fecundity. Species with greaterlikelihood of adult survival (and investing in processes that repair orprevent damage) would be more likely to reap the reproductivebenefits of extended life span, and the cost of somewhat reducedearly fecundity would be more than offset by the advantages conferredby multiple reproductive events.Question 15EssayQuestion Discuss the options available for storage of energy by migratoryversus non-migratory animals.Answer Both migratory and non-migratory species may store energy asinternal fat reserves. However, this internal storage imposes a cost,because a heavier animal will be slower and less agile, thus lesseffective at capturing prey or avoiding predation. Apart from frequentrefueling stops during migration, this is the only option available tomigratory species. Non-migratory species have an additional option,that of caching food stores in special hiding places. Whereas thesestored foods may be subject to losses caused by spoilage andutilization by other animals, external storage has the benefit of notencumbering the animal; such external caches are widely used bynon-migratory species, such as squirrels and jays.Question 16EssayQuestion Distinguish between proximate and ultimate factors as stimuli forvarious activities, such as breeding or migration. Provide an example fromeveryday human activities.Answer Proximate factors (such as day length) serve as important cues fortiming of various activities; however, such factors, in and ofthemselves, do not directly affect the well being of the organism.Ultimate factors (such as availability of food or the onset of badweather) directly affect the well-being of the organism. Humans usealarm clocks and various other devices to wake themselves atparticular times. An alarm clock, however, is simply a proximate factorused as a cue for waking. The ultimate factor associated with waking(and one that has a very real effect on the well-being of the individual)is the need to attend to an important activity, such as work orattendance in class.Question 17EssayQuestion What is risk-sensitive foraging and how can it be demonstratedexperimentally?Answer Risk-sensitive foraging is a situation in which an animal’s choice ofwhether or not to forage is conditioned by the risk of predation. A risksensitiveforager apparently has the ability to assess potential rewards(such as abundance and quality of food) and the risks (such aslikelihood of predation) associated with these rewards. The costbenefitratio must be sufficiently attractive before the animal willundertake foraging. Experiments to demonstrate risk-sensitiveforaging usually involve presenting animals with foods of variedabundance under controlled levels of predation risk (varied numbersor densities of potential predators). An excellent example is the workof Gilliam and Fraser with foraging of juvenile creek chubs.Question 18Multiple ChoiceQuestion A mature female sockeye salmon swims up to 5,000 km from herPacific Ocean feeding ground to the mouth of a coastal river in BritishColumbia and then another 1,000 km upstream to her spawning ground. Oncethere, she lays thousands of eggs in her single reproductive event andpromptly dies. The salmon’s reproductive life history is referred to as:Answer semelparousiteroparousoddparousevenparousnonparousQuestion 19Multiple ChoiceQuestion A female African elephant produces a single offspring at a time atintervals of several years, caring for her young for an extended period beforereproducing again. The elephant’s reproductive life history is referred to as:Answer semelparousiteroparousoddparousevenparousnonparousQuestion 20Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following British biologists first placed the clutch size ofbirds in an evolutionary context?Answer J. P. GrimeCharles DarwinDavid LackA. G. TansleyQuestion 21Multiple ChoiceQuestion The average European magpie’s (Pica pica) clutch size of seveneggs was manipulated by Swedish ecologist Gören Hogstedt by adding orremoving eggs, to make up clutches of five to nine eggs. What was the mostproductive clutch size (number of chicks fledged)?Answer five eggssix eggsseven eggseight eggsnine eggsQuestion 22Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following is an important component of life history?Answer age at maturityparityfecunditylongevityall of the aboveQuestion 23Multiple ChoiceQuestion The British ecologist J. P. Grime has characterized the relationshipbetween:Answer life history traits of animals and conditions of the environment.life history traits of plants and conditions of the environment.comparative life history traits of animals and plants.Question 24Multiple ChoiceQuestion In J. P. Grime’s classification of life history traits, a species with afast potential growth rate, reproduction at a relatively early age, allocation of asmall proportion of net production to seeds, and reliance on vegetative spreadfits the profile of a:Answer stress tolerator.ruderal.competitor.Question 25Multiple ChoiceQuestion In J. P. Grime’s classification of life history traits, a species with aslow potential growth rate, reproduction at a relatively late age, allocation of asmall proportion of net production to seeds, and reliance on vegetative spreadfits the profile of a:Answer stress tolerator.ruderal.competitor.Question 26Multiple ChoiceQuestion When researchers added two young to typical kestrel nests, oneresult was:Answer reduction in survival of chicks from the norm of 98% to 81%.increase in survival of chicks from the norm of 81% to 98%.no change in the survival rate of chicks.Question 27Multiple ChoiceQuestion When researchers added two young to typical kestrel nests, oneresult was:Answer reduction in survival of parents to the next breeding season.increase in survival of parents to the next breeding season.no change in survival of parents to the next breeding season.Question 28Multiple ChoiceQuestion By breeding at an earlier age, an organism will reap the obviousbenefit of increased fecundity at that age.Is there any potential cost associatedwith breeding at an earlier age?Answer There is no cost associated with breeding at an earlier age.Yes, there is a cost: reduced survival to older ages.Yes, there is a cost: reduced fecundity at older ages.Both B and C are reasonable expectations.Question 29Multiple ChoiceQuestion Storm-petrels live 30 to 40 years. Thrushes rarely live beyond 3 to 4years. Even if you knew nothing more about the life histories of these twospecies, could you make an educated guess about which species has thelonger prereproductive period?Answer Yes, the longer-lived species (storm-petrel) probably has thelonger prereproductive period.Yes, the shorter-lived species (thrush) probably has the longerprereproductive period.No, information about maximum age is insufficient backgroundfor an educated guess.Question 30Multiple ChoiceQuestion For birds, age at maturity:Answer varies directly with annual survival rates of adults.varies inversely with annual survival rates of adults.is unrelated to annual survival rates of adults.Question 31Multiple ChoiceQuestion When adults have a low probability of survival from one year to thenext, and offspring survival is relatively good, the best adult strategy (tomaximize fitness) is:Answer increase fecundity at the expense of adult survival.increase adult survival at the expense of fecundity.maintain a balance of fecundity and adult survival.Question 32Multiple ChoiceQuestion When adults have a high probability of survival from one year to thenext, and offspring survival is relatively poor, the best adult strategy (tomaximize fitness) is:Answer increase fecundity at the expense of adult survival.increase adult survival at the expense of fecundity.maintain a balance of fecundity and adult survival.Question 33Multiple ChoiceQuestion For fish living a fairly long time (10 or more years), what would youpredict to be the optimal allocation of resources to fecundity versus growth?Answer high fecundity versus slow growthlow fecundity versus rapid growthequal allocation of resources to fecundity and growthQuestion 34Multiple ChoiceQuestion When David Reznick compared populations of guppies experiencingboth low and high predation rates, he found an expected shift under highpredation to:Answer smaller mature size for males.allocation of greater body mass to reproduction for females.production of more offspring.production of smaller offspring.all of the aboveQuestion 35Multiple ChoiceQuestion Although different in almost every imaginable respect, agaves(century plants) resemble sockeye salmon in that both are __________.Answer semelparousiteroparousoddparousevenparousnonparousQuestion 36Multiple ChoiceQuestion Agaves and yuccas often grow side by side in desert habitats.Although superficially similar, members of these two groups differ markedly intheir life histories. How?Answer Agaves are annuals; yuccas are perennials.Agaves are perennials; yuccas are annuals.Agaves are semelparous; yuccas are iteroparous.Agaves are iteroparous; yuccas are semelparous.Question 37Multiple ChoiceQuestion One possible explanation of the different life histories of agaves andyuccas is related to:Answer differences in acquisition of soil nutrients.differences in acquisition of soil moisture.differences in acquisition of carbon.All of the above are equally plausible explanations.Question 38Multiple ChoiceQuestion Bamboos are semelparous organisms. Synchronous breeding inlarge populations of bamboo may benefit these populations by:Answer facilitating wind pollination.overwhelming seed predators.Both A and B are potential benefits.Question 39Multiple ChoiceQuestion “Bet hedging” (spreading reproduction over both good and badyears) has been proposed as an advantage to which of the following lifehistories?Answer iteroparitysemelparityboth A and Bneither A nor BQuestion 40Multiple ChoiceQuestion Lobelia telekii and its relative, L. keniensis, both grow on MountKenya in Africa. L. telekii grows on dry rocky slopes on which resources forreproduction (particularly moisture) are highly variable in time and space. L.keniensis is found in moist valley bottoms with more stable moisture regimes.Which species is semelparous?Answer Lobelia telekiiLobelia keniensisQuestion 41Multiple ChoiceQuestion Researchers Abraham Miller-Rushing and Richard Primack compileddata on first flowering time of plants in Concord, Massachusetts, collected byHenry David Thoreau and others. When they graphed average date of firstflowering against mean spring temperature (which had increased by 2.4oC from1852 to 2006), they found which of the following?Answer All species responded to temperature change in the same way.Closely related species exhibited similar responses to thewarming temperatures.All species flowered at least slightly earlier.There was a general trend across the common species towardearlier flowering as temperatures increased over the period ofthe study.Question 42Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following statements about senescence of organisms istrue?Answer Mechanisms preventing and repairing damage caused by wearand tear are not under genetic control.Prolonging the life span by postponing senescence is unlikely toaffect fecundity in the early reproductive years.Senescence is an inevitable consequence of wear and tear.Question 43Multiple ChoiceQuestion Across a wide range of bird and mammal species, the rate of aging(senescence) is:Answer positively related to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes(accidents, predators, weather).negatively related to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes(accidents, predators, weather).unrelated to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes (accidents,predators, weather).Question 44Multiple ChoiceQuestion Many chaparral shrubs have large, woody root crowns that are fireresistant.When periodic fires sweep through the chaparral ecosystem, theseroot crowns enable the shrubs to resprout rapidly. This is an example of whichof the following adaptations to the onset of unfavorable conditions?Answer migrationstoragedormancynone of the aboveQuestion 45Multiple ChoiceQuestion Fall diapause in Daphnia (water fleas) is under control of day length.When fall temperatures are warm and population densities low, Daphniaundergo diapause under shorter daylengths than they would if densities werehigher or temperatures were cooler. Why?Answer This altered response extends their active period whenconditions are favorable.This altered response extends their active period whenconditions are unfavorable.This altered response has no plausible explanation.Question 46Multiple ChoiceQuestion Many animals undergo a dramatic metamorphosis from larval toadult (sexually mature) forms.Poorly nourished animals cannot grow as fast aswell-nourished animals and therefore do not reach a given mass as quickly astheir well-nourished counterparts. If metamorphosis occurs when a specific,minimum body mass is reached, which of the following costs is most likelyincurred by a poorly nourished animal?Answer longer period of risk prior to reproductionreduced reproductive output as an adultQuestion 47Multiple ChoiceQuestion Many animals undergo a dramatic metamorphosis from larval toadult (sexually mature) forms.Poorly nourished animals cannot grow as fast aswell-nourished animals and therefore do not reach a given mass as quickly astheir well-nourished counterparts. If metamorphosis occurs when a specific,minimum age is reached, which of the following costs is most likely incurred bya poorly nourished animal?Answer longer period of risk prior to reproductionreduced reproductive output as an adultQuestion 48Multiple ChoiceQuestion Research on frogs has shown that poorly nourished animals maturein which of the following ways, compared to their well-nourished counterparts?Answer at the same size but at a much later ageat the same age but at a much smaller sizeat a somewhat later age and at a somewhat smaller sizeQuestion 49Multiple ChoiceQuestion The relationship between age and size at metamorphosis underdifferent feeding regimes is the __________ of metamorphosis with respect toage and size.Answer evolutionary fitnessevolutionary costreaction normparityspecializationQuestion 50Multiple ChoiceQuestion Alex Kacelnik of Oxford University trained starlings to feed at artificialstations where the birds obtained mealworms dispensed by a mechanicaldevice. Each successive mealworm fed to a given bird during a single visitarrived after a progressively longer interval. Why did Kacelnik design hisexperiment in this way?Answer He wanted to test the patience of his birds.He did not want his birds to depend only on artificial foodsources.He wanted to expose his birds to some risk of predation.He wanted to mimic the timing of natural feeding events.Question 51Multiple ChoiceQuestion What happened to the amount of food starlings carried in their billswhen scientist Alex Kacelnik increased their round-trip travel time from nests toforaging areas?Answer Starlings increased the amount of food carried.Starlings decreased the amount of food carried.Starlings did not alter the amount of food carried.Question 52Fill in the BlankQuestion One of the remarkable facts of nature is that, on average, eachorganism produces ________ offspring that lives to reproduce.Answer oneIncorrectFeedbackOne of the remarkable facts of nature is that, on average, eachorganism produces one offspring that lives to reproduce.Question 53Fill in the BlankQuestion The schedule of an individual’s life—age at maturity, number ofoffspring, life span—makes up what ecologists call the________ of theindividual.Answer life historyIncorrect The schedule of an individual’s life—age at maturity, number ofFeedback offspring, life span—makes up what ecologists call the lifehistory of the individual.Question 54Fill in the BlankQuestion An individual organism cannot dedicate scarce energy or materialresources used for one function to another. In other words, the organism isfaced with a problem of ________.Answer allocationIncorrectFeedbackAn individual organism cannot dedicate scarce energy ormaterial resources used for one function to another. In otherwords, the organism is faced with a problem of allocation.Question 55Question The number of offspring produced per reproductive episode is anindividual’s ________.Answer fecundityIncorrectFeedbackThe number of offspring produced per reproductive episodeis an individual’s fecundity.Question 56Question The number of reproductive events in an organism’s lifetime isreferred to as its ________.Answer parityIncorrectFeedbackThe number of reproductive events in an organism’s lifetimeis referred to as its parity.Question 57Question In J. P. Grime’s comprehensive classification of plant life histories,”weedy” species are referred to as ________.Answer ruderalsIncorrectFeedbackIn J. P. Grime’s comprehensive classification of plant lifehistories, “weedy” species are referred to as ruderals.Question 58Question Many plants and invertebrates, plus some lower vertebrates, do nothave a characteristic adult size and may continue to grow throughout their adultlives. This condition is referred to as ________ growth.Answer indeterminateIncorrectFeedbackMany plants and invertebrates, plus some lower vertebrates, donot have a characteristic adult size and may continue to growthroughout their adult lives. This condition is referred to asindeterminate growth.Question 59Question Adult female salmon arrive exhausted at their upstream spawninggrounds, convert a large portion of their remaining resources to eggs, then die,in a process of ________.Answer programmed deathIncorrectFeedbackAdult female salmon arrive exhausted at their upstreamspawning grounds, convert a large portion of their remainingresources to eggs, then die, in a process of programmed death.Question 60Question Humans are capable of multiple reproductive events through theirlifetime and are thus considered ________.Answer iteroparousIncorrectFeedbackHumans are capable of multiple reproductive events throughtheir lifetime and are thus considered iteroparous.Question 61Question The spread of bamboos by vegetative or asexual reproduction isalso referred to as ________ growth.Answer clonalIncorrectFeedbackThe spread of bamboos by vegetative or asexual reproductionis also referred to as clonal growth.Question 62Question Virtually all animals, humans included, exhibit a deterioration ofphysiological function, or ________, with increasing age.Answer senescenceIncorrectFeedbackVirtually all animals, humans included, exhibit a deterioration ofphysiological function, or senescence, with increasing age.Question 63Question Dormancy in insects is referred to as ________.Answer diapauseIncorrect Feedback Dormancy in insects is referred to as diapause.Question 64Question Perhaps the most extreme response to an unfavorable change in theenvironment is to become inactive or ________, simply “riding out” the periodof unfavorable conditions.Answer dormantIncorrectFeedbackPerhaps the most extreme response to an unfavorable change inthe environment is to become inactive or dormant, simply “ridingout” the period of unfavorable conditions.Question 65Question Ecologists studying foraging behavior in animals determine carefullythe time spent capturing and ingesting a prey once it has been located. Thecombined time spent capturing and ingesting prey is sometimes referred to as________ time.Answer handlingIncorrectFeedbackEcologists studying foraging behavior in animals determinecarefully the time spent capturing and ingesting a prey once it hasbeen located. The combined time spent capturing and ingestingprey is sometimes referred to as handling time.Question 66Question The particular kind of foraging observed by Alex Kacelnik inEuropean starlings is called ________ foraging.Answer central placeIncorrectFeedbackThe particular kind of foraging observed by Alex Kacelnik inEuropean starlings is called central place foraging. Name Test Bank Chapter 09DescriptionInstructions You are a senior biology major in your last semester at State University. Nextyear you plan to attend graduate school in your specialty area, social behaviorsof animals. At mid-semester the State University Biology Club hosts its semiannualmixer for all biology majors. You are enjoying this large and boisterousparty when you meet one of your friends, an underclassperson. Your friend iscurrently taking an introductory ecology course and is quite excited aboutrecently presented material on social behaviors. A small group of students hasgathered around your friend to discuss this topic, and you join in the debate. Youquickly determine that your friend’s understanding of social behaviors issomewhat flawed, and you feel obliged to intervene occasionally to set therecord straight.Question 1EssayQuestion You sense immediately that your friend is confused about thedifference between cooperative and altruistic behaviors, using the two termsinterchangeably. How do you clarify the difference between these behaviors forthe group?Answer Behaviors have donors and recipients. Cooperative and altruisticbehaviors are similar in that both result in benefit to their recipients.However, these two behaviors differ considerably in their effects ondonors. Cooperative behaviors benefit donors, whereas altruisticbehaviors are performed at a cost to donors.Question 2EssayQuestion Your friend also appears to be confused about the differencebetween selfish and spiteful behaviors, using these terms interchangeably.Once again you feel compelled to intervene, clarifying the difference betweenthese behaviors for the group. What do you tell them?Answer Selfish and spiteful behaviors are similar in that both result in costs totheir recipients. However, these two behaviors differ considerably intheir effects on donors. Selfish behaviors benefit donors, whereasspiteful behaviors are performed at a cost to donors.Question 3EssayQuestion Your friend claims to have seen several examples of spitefulbehaviors performed by various nonhuman animals. You are quite skeptical ofthis claim, given your understanding of the evolutionary basis for behaviors.Why are you skeptical and what kind of behavior do you suspect your friendhas actually observed?Answer Behaviors have a genetic basis and are subject to natural selection.For alleles governing a particular behavior to increase in a population,the behavior must increase the fitness of its donors. Because spitefulbehaviors, by definition, do not benefit either their donors or theirrecipients, there appears to be no circumstance under which theywould be favored by natural selection. Quite probably your friend hasbeen observing selfish behaviors, which benefit their donors at a costto their recipients.Question 4EssayQuestion The conversation moves to the topic of altruistic behaviors. Yourfriend is of the opinion that truly altruistic behaviors cannot exist because theyare performed at a cost to their donors. You ask your friend if the ecologycourse has covered kin selection yet. When you discover that the course hasnot yet covered this topic, you propose to the group that altruism can evolveunder certain circumstances. What do you propose (in a general, nonmathematicalway)?Answer You propose that altruistic behaviors can arise when they areperformed among close relatives. The fundamental idea is that analtruistic behavior can increase the inclusive fitness of its donor,because alleles shared by the donor and recipient increase infrequency when the donor behaves in a way that benefits therecipient, even when there is some direct fitness cost to the donor. Inother words, altruistic behaviors can evolve by way of kin selection.Question 5EssayQuestion Your friend talks excitedly about cooperative behaviors, whichbenefit both donors and recipients. Several others in the group begin to arguethat cooperative behaviors should evolve commonly among unrelatedindividuals in large populations because of the mutual benefits involved.Indeed, several members of the discussion group suggest that cooperativebehaviors should increase in populations to the complete exclusion of selfishbehaviors. You are less optimistic about this possibility. How do you explainyour reservations to the group (in a general, non-mathematical way)?Answer Cooperative strategies are indeed the best all around from a socialperspective. However, a population structured solely by cooperativebehaviors is evolutionarily unstable because it is readily invaded bygenotypes exhibiting selfish behaviors. In a population of cooperators,an individual who behaves selfishly derives great personal benefit,which translates into increased fitness for selfish genotypes comparedto cooperative ones. Selfish genotypes will thus rapidly expand inpopulations comprised primarily of cooperative genotypes.Question 6EssayQuestion You and your sister are both married and each of you have twochildren. You have both decided that the number of children you ultimatelyhave will be governed by your respective abilities to send these children tocollege. You have investments that will be worth $300,000 when your twochildren are ready to go to college. You reckon that a college education willcost $100,000 per child. You are contemplating having a third child when yoursister approaches you with a proposition. She also has two children and hasinvestments that will be worth $200,000 when her children are ready to go tocollege. She would like to have three children. She asks if you will foregohaving a third child and give her the extra $100,000 so she can have a thirdchild and send him or her to college. From an evolutionary perspective, do youfind this altruistic venture to be attractive?Answer From an evolutionary perspective, the cost (C) to the donor of analtruistic act relative to its benefit (B) to the recipient must be less thanthe coefficient of relationship (r) of the donor and recipient. Yourcoefficient of relationship to your sister (assuming she is not anidentical twin) is 0.5. In this simplistic scenario, you would be giving upone offspring to enable your sister to have one offspring. The ratio ofC/B is thus 1.0, which exceeds the coefficient of relationship. Thusfrom an evolutionary perspective you would decline this offer as anunattractive one. In general, you should only be willing to foregohaving an additional offspring if your altruistic act enables your siblingto produce more than two additional offspring.Question 7EssayQuestion How does kin selection constrain the evolution of selfish behaviorsamong close relatives? Please answer this question with explicit considerationof costs, benefits, and genetic relatedness.Answer The theory of kin selection considers the cost (C) of a selfish behaviorto its recipient relative to the benefit (B) of that behavior to its donor.For a selfish behavior to evolve, the cost, benefit, and coefficient ofrelationship (r) must conform to the relationship B > Cr. In other words,the benefit to the donor must exceed the cost to the recipientdiscounted by the coefficient of relationship. Among close relatives,where r is high, selfish behaviors will only evolve when theircost:benefit ratio is relatively small (less than 1/r).Question 8EssayQuestion One might presume that a cooperative behavior among unrelatedindividuals would evolve only when the benefit of the act to the donor exceedsthe cost of the same behavior to the donor. In natural populations, wesometimes observe cooperative behaviors in which the donor’s cost appears toexceed the donor’s benefit. For example, the cost (increased predation risk) toan individual of serving as a group’s sentinel might outweigh the benefit to theindividual (reduced predation risk) when others serve as sentinels. What mightbe an evolutionary explanation for the persistence of such behaviors?Answer It is likely that such behaviors have an altruistic component. There issome degree of genetic relatedness among the individuals within anypopulation, especially if the population is small and to some extentinbred. Donors can tolerate some excess of personal costs relative topersonal benefits, if benefits also accrue to recipients who arerelatives.Question 9EssayQuestion Studies of white-fronted bee-eaters in Africa have revealed thatbehaviors among individuals belonging to extended families are structured bythe degree of relatedness of these individuals. In other words, close relativesare treated better than distant relatives. What very important ability does thisfinding suggest?Answer Bee-eaters must be capable of determining and discriminatingamong different degrees of genetic relatedness.Question 10EssayQuestion Male peacocks often perform their elaborate mating displays ingroups. Recent research has shown that large group displays are moreattractive to females than displays performed by individuals or small groups.However, when a female is attracted to a group of males, only the dominantmale of the group mates with her. This raises an interesting question: how donon-mating males benefit by contributing their displays (presumably at somecost) to a group in which they cannot mate?Answer These males would have little chance of mating if they left the groupand attempted to display individually to females. Yet there must besome benefit to displaying in groups. There are several possibilities.First, the males in a group may be closely related, suggesting theoperation of kin selection. Indeed, studies have shown that malesdisplaying in groups are often brothers. Another possibility is that thedeath of the dominant male in a group would create an immediatemating opportunity for another male in the group. Such benefits mustoutweigh the costs of foregoing reproduction, at least temporarily.Question 11EssayQuestion When Alan Krakauer studied male turkeys, he found that asubordinate male did not mate when he teamed up with a dominant sibling incourtship displays. However, the subordinate male benefited from inclusivefitness to an extent that would offer an evolutionary explanation for the origin ofsuch altruistic “team play.” Please elaborate on Krakauer’s findings.Answer A subordinate male would have little chance of mating if he left thegroup and attempted to display individually to females, siring, onaverage, 0.9 offspring. Forgoing reproduction would thus represent afitness cost (C) to the subordinate male of only 0.9 offspring. However,dominant coalition males sired an average of 6.9 offspring, a benefit(B) that can be factored into the inclusive fitness of the subordinatemale. Finally, Krakauer found that the average coefficient ofrelationship between dominant and subordinate males was 0.42.Given these findings, Krakauer concluded that the situation met thecriterion of C/B < r (0.9/6.1 < 0.42) for evolution of an altruisticbehavior.Question 12Multiple ChoiceQuestion Part of the research by Sinervo and Lively on side-blotched lizard(Uta stansburiana) dealt with proportions of males of the orange, blue, andyellow morphs in a population of this species. What did they find?Answer Individuals of the large, aggressive orange morph were alwaysmost numerous.Individuals of the smaller, vigilant blue morph were always mostnumerous.Individuals of the female-mimic yellow morph were always mostnumerous.There was a predictable cycling in frequencies of the threemorphs.Question 13Multiple ChoiceQuestion The spatial organization of flocks or herds may be related to socialrank of individuals. How does this principle apply to flocks of wood pigeons?Answer Dominant individuals tend to be at the periphery of the flock, wherethey can serve as lookouts.Dominant individuals tend to be at the center of the flock, wherethey can feed relatively undisturbed.Dominant individuals tend to spread themselves evenly throughoutthe flock, so as to avoid confrontations with other dominantindividuals.Dominant individuals tend to be spread randomly throughout theflock, because flocks of wood pigeons have no spatial structure.Question 14Multiple ChoiceQuestion When two spiders meet to contest a potential web site, which of thefollowing will predispose the two individuals to fight?Answer high quality web site and spiders of similar sizehigh quality web site and spiders of dissimilar sizelow quality web site and spiders of similar sizelow quality web site and spiders of dissimilar sizeQuestion 15Multiple ChoiceQuestion Game theory analysis is based on:Answer understanding outcomes that depend on probabilities of differentevents.understanding outcomes that depend on the behaviors of players.understanding outcomes that depend on current weatherconditions.understanding outcomes of human gambling habits.Question 16Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following comes closest to constituting a true socialgroup?Answer flies attracted to a dung patcattle attracted to a desert watering holegoldfinches flocking to feed together on seed heads of plantsgrowing in open fieldsoak seedlings aggregated because of the failure of seeds todisperseQuestion 17Multiple ChoiceQuestion Flocking behavior in European goldfinches has costs and benefits.Which of the following would be considered a cost associated with increasingflock size?Answer fewer head jerks per minute for individualsincreased total vigilance rate for the entire flockreduced food handling time for individualsincreased flight time between food plants for individualsQuestion 18Multiple ChoiceQuestion A crow attacks a red-tailed hawk flying nearby. Which of these twobirds is the donor of the attacking behavior?Answer the crowthe red-tailed hawkQuestion 19Multiple ChoiceQuestion A blue jay attempts to displace a cardinal from a small bird feeder.The cardinal stands its ground and the blue jay backs off. Which bird is therecipient of the second behavior?Answer the blue jaythe cardinalQuestion 20Multiple ChoiceQuestion A lioness kills an old gazelle. Just as she begins to eat the gazelle,she is chased away by a male lion, that then proceeds to eat his fill. Which ofthe following behaviors is illustrated by the male lion in this example?Answer cooperativealtruisticselfishspitefulQuestion 21Multiple ChoiceQuestion A man runs into his burning home to rescue his young son. Which ofthe following behaviors is illustrated in this example?Answer cooperativealtruisticselfishspitefulQuestion 22Multiple ChoiceQuestion Which of the following kinds of behavior cannot be favored by naturalselection under any circumstance?Answer cooperativealtruisticselfishspitefulQuestion 23Multiple ChoiceQuestion What is the coefficient of relationship (probability of identity bydescent) of a human individual to one of its grandparents?Answer 1.00.722.214.171.124Question 24Multiple ChoiceQuestion If C is the cost of a particular behavior for the donor, B is the benefitof the behavior to the recipient, and r is the coefficient of relationship, whatdoes the equation C < Br describe?Answer conditions under which a selfish behavior will increase in thepopulationconditions under which a selfish behavior will decrease in thepopulationconditions under which an altruistic behavior will increase in thepopulationconditions under which an altruistic behavior will decrease inthe populationQuestion 25Multiple ChoiceQuestion When Alan Krakauer studied courtship displays in male turkeys, hefound that males often displayed in pairs. What was true of the malesbelonging to a given pair?Answer They were more closely related than two males drawn at randomfrom the population.They were less closely related than two males drawn at randomfrom the population.They were related to about the same extent as two males drawnat random from the population.Krakauer was unable to determine the degree of relatednessamong these males.Question 26Multiple ChoiceQuestion The meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a social mongoose of southernAfrica, has been studied carefully to determine whether or not its guardingbehavior is altruistic. Which of the following statements is not correct?Answer Meerkats will undertake guarding behavior only after eatingwell.Larger groups of meerkats are more likely to be protected byguarding individuals.Guarding incurs a high cost to those meerkats who undertakethis risky activity.Most of the individuals in a meerkat group are close relatives.Question 27Multiple ChoiceQuestion When a social organization consists of cooperative individuals,selection will always favor individuals that increase their personal reproductivesuccess by __________.Answer becoming more cooperativeperforming altruistic behaviorsperforming spiteful behaviorscheatingQuestion 28Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the hawk-dove game, the hawk:Answer always behaves selfishly in conflict situations.always behaves cooperatively in conflict situations.always wins in conflict situations.always receives the same payoff, regardless of the behavior of itsopponent.Question 29Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the hawk-dove game, the dove:Answer always behaves selfishly in conflict situations.always behaves cooperatively in conflict situations.always wins in conflict situations.always receives the same payoff, regardless of the behavior of itsopponent.Question 30Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the hawk-dove game, a world of hawks:Answer cannot be invaded by the dove strategy.is difficult to invade by the dove strategy.is easily invaded by the dove strategy.Question 31Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the hawk-dove game, a world of doves:Answer cannot be invaded by the hawk strategy.is difficult to invade by the hawk strategy.is easily invaded by the hawk strategy.Question 32Multiple ChoiceQuestion What must be true for doves to invade a world of hawkssuccessfully?Answer The potential reward or benefit must be less than twice the cost ofconflict.The potential reward or benefit must be more than twice the cost ofconflict.The potential reward or benefit must be equal to the cost ofconflict.There is no combination of benefit and cost that would permitdoves to successfully invade a world of hawks.Question 33Multiple ChoiceQuestion The interests of parents and their offspring are generally compatible.However, parent-offspring conflicts may arise when:Answer accumulation of resources by one offspring increases the overallfecundity of its parents.accumulation of resources by one offspring has no effect upon theoverall fecundity of its parents.accumulation of resources by one offspring reduces the overallfecundity of its parents.Question 34Multiple ChoiceQuestion From a parent’s perspective, all offspring are equivalent, having acoefficient of relationship of 0.5 to the parent. Parents should thus compare thebenefit (B) of providing additional care to an offspring to the cost (C) of forgoingsome future reproductive success. When the benefit:cost (B:C) ratio falls belowone of the following values a parent will cease providing care to an offspring infavor of producing a new one. Which value is it?Answer 2.01.00.50.25Question 35Multiple ChoiceQuestion From an offspring’s perspective, its siblings are not as valuable asitself, because its siblings have a coefficient of relationship of 0.5 (compared toits coefficient of relationship to itself of 1.0). Offspring should thus compare thebenefit (B) of accepting additional care from their parents to the cost (C) thiscare represents for future reproductive success (production of more fullsiblings) of their parents. When the benefit:cost (B:C) ratio falls below one ofthe following values an offspring will cease to accept additional care from itsparents. Which value is it?Answer 2.01.00.50.25Question 36Multiple ChoiceQuestion As an offspring matures and becomes better able to care for itself,the benefit:cost (B:C) ratio—benefit to the offspring of continued parental carerelative to cost in reproductive output to the parents—decreases. Over whatrange of B:C ratios is there a period of conflict between interest of parents andoffspring?Answer 0.0 – 0.250.25 – 0.50.5 – 1.01.0 – 2.0Question 37Multiple ChoiceQuestion Each of the following groups except one has examples of eusociality.Which is the exception?Answer termites (Isoptera)ants, bees, and wasps (Hymenoptera)mammalshydroids, corals, bryozoans, and many other colonial aquaticanimalsQuestion 38Multiple ChoiceQuestion The worker caste in bees consists entirely of:Answer reproductive males.reproductive males in an arrested stage of development.reproductive females.reproductive females in an arrested stage of development.Question 39Multiple ChoiceQuestion In the Hymenoptera, there is a strong asymmetry in the geneticrelatedness of siblings. Of particular interest is the coefficient of relationship ofa female worker to her siblings, __________.Answer 1.00.7126.96.36.199Question 40Question Female workers in the Hymenoptera forgo their own reproductionand instead lavish care on their siblings, which are predominantly sisters. Whyis this?Answer Caring for siblings requires less energy than caring for their ownbroods.Caring for siblings requires less time than caring for their ownbroods.Workers achieve higher inclusive fitness by caring for siblingsthan they would by caring for their own broods.There is no evolutionary explanation for this behavior.Question 41Question A ________ is any area defended by an individual against intrusionby others.Answer territoryIncorrectFeedbackA territory is any area defended by an individual againstintrusion by others.Question 42Question A ________ is sometimes also referred to as a “pecking order.”Answer dominance hierarchyIncorrectFeedbackA dominance hierarchy is sometimes also referred to as a”pecking order.”Question 43Question When a behavior is directed toward another individual, that individualis referred to as the ________ of the behavior.Answer recipientIncorrectFeedbackWhen a behavior is directed toward another individual, thatindividual is referred to as the recipient of the behavior.Question 44Question In typical sexually reproducing species, an individual’s highestcoefficient of relationship (aside from that with itself) is with its ________.Answer full siblings (or parents or offspring)IncorrectFeedbackIn typical sexually reproducing species, an individual’s highestcoefficient of relationship (aside from that with itself) is with itsfull siblings (or parents or offspring).Question 45Question The total fitness of a gene responsible for a particular behavior isreferred to as its ________ fitness.Answer inclusiveIncorrectFeedbackThe total fitness of a gene responsible for a particularbehavior is referred to as its inclusive fitness.Question 46Question A ________ is a gathering of males within a traditional arena toattract females.Answer lekIncorrectFeedbackA lek is a gathering of males within a traditional arena toattract females.Question 47Question Despite human wishes to the contrary, a world of cooperativeindividuals (“doves”) cannot resist evolutionary invasion by selfish (“hawkish”)behavior. Thus we say that dove behavior is not an evolutionarily ________strategy.Answer stableIncorrectFeedbackDespite human wishes to the contrary, a world of cooperativeindividuals (“doves”) cannot resist evolutionary invasion by selfish(“hawkish”) behavior. Thus we say that dove behavior is not anevolutionarily stable strategy.Question 48Question Continuing parental care of offspring presents benefits and costs toboth parents and offspring. As offspring mature and become more selfsufficient,the benefit:cost ratio (B:C) declines. The period of maturationbetween B:C values of 1.0 and 0.5 represents a period of ________.Answer parent-offspring conflictIncorrectFeedbackContinuing parental care of offspring presents benefits and coststo both parents and offspring. As offspring mature and becomemore self-sufficient, the benefit:cost ratio (B:C) declines. Theperiod of maturation between B:C values of 1.0 and 0.5represents a period of parent-offspring conflict.Question 49Question The highest “grade” of sociality in the animal world is referred to as________.Answer eusocialityIncorrectFeedbackThe highest “grade” of sociality in the animal world isreferred to as eusociality.Question 50Question In eusocial species, an individual or group of individuals thatperforms a specific task (queen, worker, etc.) is said to belong to a specific________.Answer casteIncorrectFeedbackIn eusocial species, an individual or group of individuals thatperforms a specific task (queen, worker, etc.) is said to belongto a specific caste.Question 51Question In the Hymenoptera, males develop from unfertilized eggs andappear in colonies only as reproductive ________ that leave the colony to seekmates.Answer dronesIncorrectFeedbackIn the Hymenoptera, males develop from unfertilized eggs andappear in colonies only as reproductive drones that leave thecolony to seek mates.Question 52Question Argentine ants have been effective at displacing native ant speciesin the United States by forming networks of connected colonies. Individualsfrom different colonies of Argentine ants fail to recognize colony differencesand thus cooperate with one another. The reduced genetic variability thatpermits this inter-colony cooperation appears to have resulted from a________.Answer genetic bottleneckIncorrectFeedbackArgentine ants have been effective at displacing native ant speciesin the United States by forming networks of connected colonies.Individuals from different colonies of Argentine ants fail torecognize colony differences and thus cooperate with one another.The reduced genetic variability that permits this inter-colonycooperation appears to have resulted from a genetic bottleneck.