**INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS**

#### The Power of Logic 5th Edition by Howard-Snyder – Test Bank

6Student: ___________________________________________________________________________1. The predicate term of the conclusion in a standard form categorical syllogism is called theA. major premise.B. minor term.C. middle premise.D. major term.2. Which of the following is not required in order for a categorical syllogism to be in standard form?A. The premises and the conclusion are true.B. The first premise contains the major term.C. The second premise contains the minor term.D. The conclusion is stated last.3. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose major premise is universal affirmative, minorpremise is particular affirmative, and conclusion is particular affirmative would beA. IAI.B. IIA.C. AII.D. III.4. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose middle term is the subject term of the majorpremise and subject term of the minor premise would beA. 1.B. 2.C. 3.D. 4.5. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified byA. its mood.B. its figure and mood.C. its figure.D. its mood, figure, and validity.6. Which of the following categorical syllogisms is in standard form?A. All dogs are mammals.Cats are not dogs.So, no cats are mammals.B. All dogs are mammals.No fish are mammals.So, no dogs are fish.C. Some mammals are small.No whales are small.So, no whales are mammals.D. No whales are mammals.Some whales are fish.So, some fish are not mammals.7. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:Some turncoats are not confederate soldiers.No confederate soldiers are abolitionists.So, some turncoats are abolitionists.A. OEI-4B. OEI-1C. IEO-1D. IAO-48. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:All excellent teachers are people who care about students.All University 101 instructors are people who care about students.So, all University 101 instructors are excellent teachers.A. AAA-3B. AAA-2C. EEE-2D. EEE-39. The Venn diagram representation of “All sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.10. The Venn diagram representation of “No sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.11. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.12. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are not pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.13. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:All minerals are rocks.All diamonds are rocks.So, all minerals are diamonds.A.B.C.D.14. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:Some ultraviolet radiation is not harmful to humans.All ultraviolet radiation is a carcinogen.So, some carcinogens are not harmful to humans.A.B.C.D.15. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:Some violinists are percussionists.Some trombonists are percussionists.So, some trombonists are violinists.A.B.C.D.16. A categorical statement has existential import if and only ifA. it is a particular statement.B. it implies that one of its terms denotes a nonempty class.C. it implies that its subject term denotes a nonempty class.D. it has importance for the nature of human existence.17. Which of the following relations on the Square of Opposition is valid, according to modern categoricallogic?A. contradictoriesB. subcontrariesC. subalterns/subalternationD. contraries18. Which of the following immediate inferences is invalid according to modern categorical logic?A. conversionB. obversionC. contrapositionD. contraposition by limitation19. An enthymeme is an argument thatA. is found to be valid when tested with a Venn diagram.B. has missing or unstated steps.C. is a standard form categorical syllogism.D. has the mood and figure AAA-1.20. When supplying unstated steps, the principles of fairness and charity require that weA. make the invalidity of the argument more apparent.B. add only true (or at least plausible) steps.C. supply premises that would improve the argument.D. not make any critical remarks.21. Which of the following is not a feature of standard-form sorites?A. Each statement in the argument is a standard-form categorical statement.B. Each premise (except the first) has a term in common with the immediately preceding premise.C. The predicate term of the conclusion occurs in the last premise.D. Each term appears twice—once in each of two different statements.22. A sorites isA. a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions are unstated.B. an argument with an unstated premise or an unstated conclusion.C. an argument comprised entirely of categorical statements.D. a chain of inferences moving from the particular to the general.23. When removing term-complements, which of the following is not a permissible change?A. changing “No S are P” to “No P are S”B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S”C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S”D. changing “Some S are P” to “Some S are not non-P”24. When removing term-complements, which of the following is a permissible change?A. changing “Some S are P” to “Some non-P are non-S”B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S”C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S”D. changing “No S are P” to “Some S are not P”25. A term is distributed in a statement whenA. it occurs in the subject position.B. it occurs in the predicate position.C. the statement says something about every member of its class.D. the statement denies something about its class.26. A fallacy of the undistributed middle is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluatingcategorical syllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼A.there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout theargument.B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise.C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion.D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.27. A fallacy of illicit minor is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluating categoricalsyllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼A.there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout theargument.B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise.C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion.D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.28. Which fallacy is committed by the following categorical syllogism?All cats are soft and furry animals.Some amphibians are not soft and furry animals.So, no cats are amphibians.A. fallacy of the undistributed middleB. fallacy of the illicit middleC. fallacy of the illicit majorD. fallacy of the illicit minor29. The predicate term of the conclusion is the major term of a standard form categorical syllogism.True False30. The term that occurs once in each premise is called the bridge term.True False31. The minor term is the subject term of the conclusion.True False32. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the minor premise always comes first.True False33. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the conclusion always comes last.True False34. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism indicates the position of the middle term.True False35. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism is an indicator of the position of the middle term inthe premises.True False36. Two different categorical syllogisms cannot have the same mood and figure.True False37. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified by its mood and figure.True False38. To show that an area of a Venn diagram is empty, we use an “x” in that area.True False39. When an area of a Venn diagram is shaded, it indicates that there is at least one thing in that area.True False40. When a syllogism contains both a universal and a particular premise, you should always diagram theuniversal first.True False41. A categorical statement has existential import when (and only when) it implies that its subject terms onlydenote classes that have at least one member (i.e., are nonempty).True False42. Aristotelian and modern logicians agree that universal categorical statements have existential import.True False43. According to modern logicians, “All elves are people with infrared vision” is equivalent to “If anything isan elf, then it is a person with infrared vision.”True False44. The only relationship on the Square of Opposition that both Aristotelian and modern logicians accept iscontradictories.True False45. An enthymeme is an argument with a true conclusion.True False46. All enthymemes are valid.True False47. When forced to choose between adding a false premise and making an enthymeme clearly invalid, weadopt the practice of adding a false premise and thereby making the syllogism valid.True False48. A sorites is a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions areunstated.True False49. In a standard form sorites, the subject term of the conclusion must occur in the first premise.True False50. Evaluating the validity of a sorites requires that we identify all its subconclusions.True False51. When reducing the number of terms (removing term complements) in a categorical syllogism, we are notpermitted to use conversion by limitation nor contraposition by limitation.True False52. The only requirement when removing term complements is that the changes we make to each statementmust produce a logically equivalent statement.True False53. A term is distributed in a categorical statement if the statement says something about every member ofthe class that term denotes.True False54. In “Some dogs are mammals,” the subject term is distributed.True False55. In a universal negative statement, both terms are distributed.True False56. In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism, the middle term must be distributed in at least onepremise.True False57. Any categorical syllogism with two negative premises is invalid.True False58. Any categorical syllogism with two affirmative premises is valid.True False59. From the standpoint of modern logic, a valid standard-form categorical syllogism with a particularconclusion can have two universal premises.True False60. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All hyperventilating iguanas are bungee-jumpers since all bungee-jumpers are pencil-pushers andsome pencil-pushers are hyperventilating iguanas.61. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No drowsy dromedaries are prized prodigies since all prized prodigies are shameless sheiks and noshameless sheiks are drowsy dromedaries.62. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No tragic actors are idiots. But some comedians are not idiots. So, some comedians are not tragicactors.63. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, because all artificial dyes are coal tar derivatives andno artificial dyes are nourishing foods.64. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some spaniels are not good hunters, though all spaniels are gentle dogs. Thus, no gentle dogs aregood hunters.65. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All professional wrestlers are good actors, because some good actors are not powerful athletes andall professional wrestlers are powerful athletes.66. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All patriotic citizens are mindless followers of the government, and all soldiers are mindlessfollowers of the government, so all soldiers are patriotic citizens.67. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Since some science professors are absent-minded persons and all philosophers are absent-mindedpersons, some scientists are not philosophers.68. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No knights are shrubberies, since no shrubberies are jousters and all jousters are knights.69. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Whereas all Klingon warriors are ferocious opponents and some Klingon warriors are not male, itmust be that some ferocious opponents are not males.70. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some tax-exempt organizations are religious associations and no tax-exempt organizations areprofitable businesses. Thus, some religious associations are not profitable businesses.71. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Since all aardvarks are CB radio operators, and no CB radio operators are Olympic champions, noOlympic champions are aardvarks.72. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some Tibetan monks are bookstore junkies, because no Ronald Reagan movie fans are bookstorejunkies and some Tibetan monks are Ronald Reagan movie fans.73. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All cartographers are Martians from outer space, and some cartographers are not agents for theCIA, whence it follows that some agents for the CIA are not Martians from outer space.74. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some Swedish water volleyball team members are not beer drinkers, because some molecularbiologists are Swedish water volleyball team members and some molecular biologists are not beerdrinkers.75. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “Some non-P are non-M. All non-Sare M. So, some S are not P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applicationsof conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.76. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “No non-M are P. Some S are non-M. So, no S are non-P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applications ofconversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.77. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “No non-P are non-M. Some M arenon-S. So, some S are P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applications ofconversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.78. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “All non-P are M. Some S are non-M. So, no non-S are P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applications ofconversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.79. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “All P are M. Some non-S are M.So, no non-S are non-P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applications ofconversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.80. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following form isvalid?All M are P.No S are M.So, no S are P.81. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following form isvalid?All M are P.All M are S.Some S are not P.82. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following form isvalid?No M are P.No S are M.All S are P.83. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following form isvalid?All P are M.Some S are M.So, some S are not P.84. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following form isvalid?All M are P.All M are S.So, all S are P.85. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Romulans are Members of the Federation. This is because all Members of the federation are peacefulraces and all Romulans are peaceful races.86. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Whereas all Klingon warriors are ferocious opponents and some Klingon warriors are not male, it must bethat some ferocious opponents are not males.87. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Starships are Ferengi inventions because all Warp-capable ships are Starships and no Ferengiinventions are Warp-capable ships.88. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Because some Makhi are Lieutenants in the Federation and no criminals are Makhi, some Lieutenants inthe Federation are not criminals.89. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some shuttle-craft are not ships with shields because some scientific vessels are shuttle-craft and somescientific vessels are not ships with shields.90. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All snakes are cold-blooded animals, so some snakes are egg-layers since some cold-blooded animals areegg-layers.91. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No tragic actors are idiots. But some comedians are not idiots. So, some comedians are not tragicactors.92. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some diamonds are not precious stones and some carbon compounds are not diamonds. Thus, somecarbon compounds are not precious stones.93. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, because all artificial dyes are coal tar derivatives and noartificial dyes are nourishing foods.94. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some parrots are not pests. All parrots are pets. Thus, no pets are pests.95. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All criminal actions are wicked deeds. All prosecutions for murder are criminal actions. Thus, allprosecutions for murder are wicked deeds.96. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No writers of lewd and sensational articles are honest and decent citizens, but some journalists are notwriters of lewd and sensational articles; consequently some journalists are honest and decent citizens.97. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some spaniels are not good hunters, though all spaniels are gentle dogs. Thus, no gentle dogs are goodhunters.98. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All professional wrestlers are good actors, because some good actors are not powerful athletes and allprofessional wrestlers are powerful athletes.99. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All storm troopers are metalheads, so some storm troopers are not ballet afficionados, since some balletafficionados are metalheads.100.Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No reticulocytes are leukocytes, but all phagocytic cells are reticulocytes. Whence it follows that nophagocytic cells are leukocytes.101.Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some calyculated planets are high-orbiting satellites. But some zoantharians are calyculated planets, sincesome high-orbiting satellites are zoantharians.102.Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Shoshoneans are Tylezian mud-dobbers, but all Shoshoneans are quixotic members of the Uto-Aztecan phylum. So, some Tylezian mud-dobbers are quixotic members of the Uto-Aztecan phylum.103.Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some Necromonicons are Talmudic doctrines, given that all Linneaen manuscripts are Necromoniconsand some Talmudic doctrines are Linneaen manuscripts.104.Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Since no hobbits are grand wizards and some grand wizards are members of the Circle of Seven, itfollows that some members of the Circle of Seven are not hobbits.105.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Because all whales are mammals, at least some aquatic animals are mammals.106.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.No fallacies are valid arguments, since no valid arguments are mistakes in reasoning.107.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Since all chickens are egg-layers, it follows that no chickens are mammals.108.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.All psychics are frauds, because all psychics are people who make false claims about their abilities.109.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.It must be that some tabloid reporters are gossipmongers because all overzealous journalists are tabloidreporters.110.Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Some arguments are sound arguments because some arguments are valid arguments and all validarguments are sound arguments.6 Key1. The predicate term of the conclusion in a standard form categorical syllogism is called theA. major premise.B. minor term.C. middle premise.D. major term.Howard – Chapter 06 #1Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure2. Which of the following is not required in order for a categorical syllogism to be in standard form?A. The premises and the conclusion are true.B. The first premise contains the major term.C. The second premise contains the minor term.D. The conclusion is stated last.Howard – Chapter 06 #2Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure3. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose major premise is universal affirmative,minor premise is particular affirmative, and conclusion is particular affirmative would beA. IAI.B. IIA.C. AII.D. III.Howard – Chapter 06 #3Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure4. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism whose middle term is the subject term of themajor premise and subject term of the minor premise would beA. 1.B. 2.C. 3.D. 4.Howard – Chapter 06 #4Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure5. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified byA. its mood.B. its figure and mood.C. its figure.D. its mood, figure, and validity.Howard – Chapter 06 #5Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure6. Which of the following categorical syllogisms is in standard form?A. All dogs are mammals.Cats are not dogs.So, no cats are mammals.B. All dogs are mammals.No fish are mammals.So, no dogs are fish.C. Some mammals are small.No whales are small.So, no whales are mammals.D. No whales are mammals.Some whales are fish.So, some fish are not mammals.Howard – Chapter 06 #6Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure7. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:Some turncoats are not confederate soldiers.No confederate soldiers are abolitionists.So, some turncoats are abolitionists.A. OEI-4B. OEI-1C. IEO-1D. IAO-4Howard – Chapter 06 #7Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure8. Identify the mood and figure of this standard-form categorical syllogism:All excellent teachers are people who care about students.All University 101 instructors are people who care about students.So, all University 101 instructors are excellent teachers.A. AAA-3B. AAA-2C. EEE-2D. EEE-3Howard – Chapter 06 #8Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure9. The Venn diagram representation of “All sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #9Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements10. The Venn diagram representation of “No sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #10Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements11. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #11Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements12. The Venn diagram representation of “Some sailors are not pirates” is which of the following?A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #12Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements13. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:All minerals are rocks.All diamonds are rocks.So, all minerals are diamonds.A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #13Subject area: 6.3 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms14. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:Some ultraviolet radiation is not harmful to humans.All ultraviolet radiation is a carcinogen.So, some carcinogens are not harmful to humans.A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #14Subject area: 6.3 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms15. Identify the Venn diagram representation of the following syllogism:Some violinists are percussionists.Some trombonists are percussionists.So, some trombonists are violinists.A.B.C.D.Howard – Chapter 06 #15Subject area: 6.3 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms16. A categorical statement has existential import if and only ifA. it is a particular statement.B. it implies that one of its terms denotes a nonempty class.C. it implies that its subject term denotes a nonempty class.D. it has importance for the nature of human existence.Howard – Chapter 06 #16Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition17. Which of the following relations on the Square of Opposition is valid, according to moderncategorical logic?A. contradictoriesB. subcontrariesC. subalterns/subalternationD. contrariesHoward – Chapter 06 #17Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition18. Which of the following immediate inferences is invalid according to modern categorical logic?A. conversionB. obversionC. contrapositionD. contraposition by limitationHoward – Chapter 06 #18Subject area: The Modern Square of Opposition19. An enthymeme is an argument thatA. is found to be valid when tested with a Venn diagram.B. has missing or unstated steps.C. is a standard form categorical syllogism.D. has the mood and figure AAA-1.Howard – Chapter 06 #19Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes20. When supplying unstated steps, the principles of fairness and charity require that weA. make the invalidity of the argument more apparent.B. add only true (or at least plausible) steps.C. supply premises that would improve the argument.D. not make any critical remarks.Howard – Chapter 06 #20Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes21. Which of the following is not a feature of standard-form sorites?A. Each statement in the argument is a standard-form categorical statement.B. Each premise (except the first) has a term in common with the immediately preceding premise.C. The predicate term of the conclusion occurs in the last premise.D. Each term appears twice—once in each of two different statements.Howard – Chapter 06 #21Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements22. A sorites isA. a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions are unstated.B. an argument with an unstated premise or an unstated conclusion.C. an argument comprised entirely of categorical statements.D. a chain of inferences moving from the particular to the general.Howard – Chapter 06 #22Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements23. When removing term-complements, which of the following is not a permissible change?A. changing “No S are P” to “No P are S”B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S”C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S”D. changing “Some S are P” to “Some S are not non-P”Howard – Chapter 06 #23Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements24. When removing term-complements, which of the following is a permissible change?A. changing “Some S are P” to “Some non-P are non-S”B. changing “All S are P” to “Some P are S”C. changing “Some S are not P” to “Some non-P are not non-S”D. changing “No S are P” to “Some S are not P”Howard – Chapter 06 #24Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements25. A term is distributed in a statement whenA. it occurs in the subject position.B. it occurs in the predicate position.C. the statement says something about every member of its class.D. the statement denies something about its class.Howard – Chapter 06 #25Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms26. A fallacy of the undistributed middle is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluatingcategorical syllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼A.there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout theargument.B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise.C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion.D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.Howard – Chapter 06 #26Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms27. A fallacy of illicit minor is a violation of which of the following rules for evaluating categoricalsyllogisms? In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism¼A.there are exactly three terms, and each term must be used with the same meaning throughout theargument.B. the middle term is distributed in at least one premise.C. a term must be distributed in the premises if it is distributed in the conclusion.D. if the conclusion is particular, then at least one of the premises must be particular.Howard – Chapter 06 #27Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms28. Which fallacy is committed by the following categorical syllogism?All cats are soft and furry animals.Some amphibians are not soft and furry animals.So, no cats are amphibians.A. fallacy of the undistributed middleB. fallacy of the illicit middleC. fallacy of the illicit majorD. fallacy of the illicit minorHoward – Chapter 06 #28Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms29. The predicate term of the conclusion is the major term of a standard form categorical syllogism.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #29Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure30. The term that occurs once in each premise is called the bridge term.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #30Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure31. The minor term is the subject term of the conclusion.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #31Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure32. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the minor premise always comes first.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #32Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure33. In a standard-form categorical syllogism, the conclusion always comes last.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #3334. The figure of a standard-form categorical syllogism indicates the position of the middle term.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #34Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure35. The mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism is an indicator of the position of the middle term inthe premises.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #35Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure36. Two different categorical syllogisms cannot have the same mood and figure.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #36Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure37. The form of a categorical syllogism is completely specified by its mood and figure.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #37Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure38. To show that an area of a Venn diagram is empty, we use an “x” in that area.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #38Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements39. When an area of a Venn diagram is shaded, it indicates that there is at least one thing in that area.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #39Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements40. When a syllogism contains both a universal and a particular premise, you should always diagram theuniversal first.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #40Subject area: 6.3 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms41. A categorical statement has existential import when (and only when) it implies that its subject termsonly denote classes that have at least one member (i.e., are nonempty).TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #41Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition42. Aristotelian and modern logicians agree that universal categorical statements have existentialimport.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #42Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition43. According to modern logicians, “All elves are people with infrared vision” is equivalent to “Ifanything is an elf, then it is a person with infrared vision.”TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #43Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition44. The only relationship on the Square of Opposition that both Aristotelian and modern logicians acceptis contradictories.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #44Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition45. An enthymeme is an argument with a true conclusion.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #45Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes46. All enthymemes are valid.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #46Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes47. When forced to choose between adding a false premise and making an enthymeme clearly invalid, weadopt the practice of adding a false premise and thereby making the syllogism valid.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #47Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes48. A sorites is a chain of syllogisms in which the final conclusion is stated but the subconclusions areunstated.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #48Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements49. In a standard form sorites, the subject term of the conclusion must occur in the first premise.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #49Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements50. Evaluating the validity of a sorites requires that we identify all its subconclusions.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #50Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements51. When reducing the number of terms (removing term complements) in a categorical syllogism, we arenot permitted to use conversion by limitation nor contraposition by limitation.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #51Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements52. The only requirement when removing term complements is that the changes we make to eachstatement must produce a logically equivalent statement.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #52Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements53. A term is distributed in a categorical statement if the statement says something about every member ofthe class that term denotes.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #53Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms54. In “Some dogs are mammals,” the subject term is distributed.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #54Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms55. In a universal negative statement, both terms are distributed.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #55Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms56. In a valid standard-form categorical syllogism, the middle term must be distributed in at least onepremise.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #56Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms57. Any categorical syllogism with two negative premises is invalid.TRUEHoward – Chapter 06 #57Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms58. Any categorical syllogism with two affirmative premises is valid.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #58Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms59. From the standpoint of modern logic, a valid standard-form categorical syllogism with a particularconclusion can have two universal premises.FALSEHoward – Chapter 06 #59Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms60. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All hyperventilating iguanas are bungee-jumpers since all bungee-jumpers are pencil-pushersand some pencil-pushers are hyperventilating iguanas.AIA-4Howard – Chapter 06 #60Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form61. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No drowsy dromedaries are prized prodigies since all prized prodigies are shameless sheiksand no shameless sheiks are drowsy dromedaries.AEE-4Howard – Chapter 06 #61Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form62. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No tragic actors are idiots. But some comedians are not idiots. So, some comedians are nottragic actors.EOO-2Howard – Chapter 06 #62Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form63. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, because all artificial dyes are coal tar derivativesand no artificial dyes are nourishing foods.EAE-3Howard – Chapter 06 #63Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form64. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some spaniels are not good hunters, though all spaniels are gentle dogs. Thus, no gentle dogsare good hunters.OAE-3Howard – Chapter 06 #64Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form65. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All professional wrestlers are good actors, because some good actors are not powerful athletesand all professional wrestlers are powerful athletes.OAA-2Howard – Chapter 06 #65Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form66. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All patriotic citizens are mindless followers of the government, and all soldiers are mindlessfollowers of the government, so all soldiers are patriotic citizens.AAA-2Howard – Chapter 06 #66Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form67. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Since some science professors are absent-minded persons and all philosophers are absentmindedpersons, some scientists are not philosophers.AIO-2Howard – Chapter 06 #67Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form68. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: No knights are shrubberies, since no shrubberies are jousters and all jousters are knights.EAE-4Howard – Chapter 06 #68Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form69. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Whereas all Klingon warriors are ferocious opponents and some Klingon warriors are notmale, it must be that some ferocious opponents are not males.OAO-3Howard – Chapter 06 #69Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form70. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some tax-exempt organizations are religious associations and no tax-exempt organizations areprofitable businesses. Thus, some religious associations are not profitable businesses.EIO-3Howard – Chapter 06 #70Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form71. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Since all aardvarks are CB radio operators, and no CB radio operators are Olympic champions,no Olympic champions are aardvarks.AEE-4Howard – Chapter 06 #71Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form72. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its moodand figure: Some Tibetan monks are bookstore junkies, because no Ronald Reagan movie fans arebookstore junkies and some Tibetan monks are Ronald Reagan movie fans.EII-1Howard – Chapter 06 #72Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form73. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: All cartographers are Martians from outer space, and some cartographers are not agents for theCIA, whence it follows that some agents for the CIA are not Martians from outer space.AOO-3Howard – Chapter 06 #73Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form74. Rewrite the following argument as a standard-form categorical syllogism; then identify its mood andfigure: Some Swedish water volleyball team members are not beer drinkers, because some molecularbiologists are Swedish water volleyball team members and some molecular biologists are not beerdrinkers.Answers will varyHoward – Chapter 06 #74Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form75. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “Some non-P are non-M. Allnon-S are M. So, some S are not P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements viaapplications of conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.Some non-P are non-M.No non-S are non-M. (obversion)So, some non-P are not non-S. (contraposition)Howard – Chapter 06 #75Subject area: Removing term-complements76. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “No non-M are P. Some Sare non-M. So, no S are non-P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements viaapplications of conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.All P are M. (conversion, obversion)Some S are not M. (obversion)So, all S are P. (obversion)Or:No non-M are P.Some S are non-M.So, all S are P. (obversion)Howard – Chapter 06 #76Subject area: Removing term-complements77. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “No non-P are non-M. SomeM are non-S. So, some S are P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements viaapplications of conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.All non-P are M. (obversion)Some M are not S. (obversion)So, some S are not non-P. (obversion)Howard – Chapter 06 #77Subject area: Removing term-complements78. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “All non-P are M. Some Sare non-M. So, no non-S are P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements viaapplications of conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.No non-P are non-M. (obversion)Some non-M are not non-S. (conversion, obversion)So, all non-S are non-P. (obversion)Howard – Chapter 06 #78Subject area: Removing term-complements79. The following categorical argument form has more than three terms: “All P are M. Some non-S are M.So, no non-S are non-P.” Reduce the terms to three by removing term-complements via applicationsof conversion, obversion, and/or contraposition.All non-M are non-P. (contraposition)Some non-S are not non-M. (obversion)So, no non-S are non-P.Or:All P are M.Some non-S are M.So, all non-S are P. (obversion)Howard – Chapter 06 #79Subject area: Removing term-complements80. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following formis valid?All M are P.No S are M.So, no S are P.Rule 3 (fallacy of illicit major)Howard – Chapter 06 #80Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms81. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following formis valid?All M are P.All M are S.Some S are not P.Rules 4 and 5Howard – Chapter 06 #81Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms82. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following formis valid?No M are P.No S are M.All S are P.Rule 4Howard – Chapter 06 #82Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms83. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following formis valid?All P are M.Some S are M.So, some S are not P.Rules 2 (fallacy of undistributed middle) and 4Howard – Chapter 06 #83Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms84. Which of the five rules for evaluating syllogisms can you use to determine whether the following formis valid?All M are P.All M are S.So, all S are P.Rule 3 (fallacy of illicit minor)Howard – Chapter 06 #84Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms85. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Romulans are Members of the Federation. This is because all Members of the federation arepeaceful races and all Romulans are peaceful races.AAE-2, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #85Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms86. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Whereas all Klingon warriors are ferocious opponents and some Klingon warriors are not male, itmust be that some ferocious opponents are not males.OAO-e, validHoward – Chapter 06 #86Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms87. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Starships are Ferengi inventions because all Warp-capable ships are Starships and no Ferengiinventions are Warp-capable ships.EAE-4, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #87Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms88. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Because some Makhi are Lieutenants in the Federation and no criminals are Makhi, some Lieutenantsin the Federation are not criminals.EIO-4, validHoward – Chapter 06 #88Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms89. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some shuttle-craft are not ships with shields because some scientific vessels are shuttle-craft and somescientific vessels are not ships with shields.OIO-2, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #89Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms90. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All snakes are cold-blooded animals, so some snakes are egg-layers since some cold-blooded animalsare egg-layers.IAI-1, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #90Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms91. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No tragic actors are idiots. But some comedians are not idiots. So, some comedians are not tragicactors.EOO-2, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #91Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms92. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some diamonds are not precious stones and some carbon compounds are not diamonds. Thus, somecarbon compounds are not precious stones.OOI-1, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #92Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms93. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, because all artificial dyes are coal tar derivatives and noartificial dyes are nourishing foods.EAE-3, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #93Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms94. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some parrots are not pests. All parrots are pets. Thus, no pets are pests.OAE-3, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #94Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms95. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All criminal actions are wicked deeds. All prosecutions for murder are criminal actions. Thus, allprosecutions for murder are wicked deeds.AAA-1, validHoward – Chapter 06 #95Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms96. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No writers of lewd and sensational articles are honest and decent citizens, but some journalists arenot writers of lewd and sensational articles; consequently some journalists are honest and decentcitizens.EOI-1, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #96Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms97. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some spaniels are not good hunters, though all spaniels are gentle dogs. Thus, no gentle dogs are goodhunters.OAE-3, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #97Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms98. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All professional wrestlers are good actors, because some good actors are not powerful athletes and allprofessional wrestlers are powerful athletes.OAA-2, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #98Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms99. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.All storm troopers are metalheads, so some storm troopers are not ballet afficionados, since someballet afficionados are metalheads.IAO-2, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #99Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms100. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No reticulocytes are leukocytes, but all phagocytic cells are reticulocytes. Whence it follows that nophagocytic cells are leukocytes.EAE-1, validHoward – Chapter 06 #100Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms101. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some calyculated planets are high-orbiting satellites. But some zoantharians are calyculated planets,since some high-orbiting satellites are zoantharians.III-4, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #101Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms102. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.No Shoshoneans are Tylezian mud-dobbers, but all Shoshoneans are quixotic members of theUto-Aztecan phylum. So, some Tylezian mud-dobbers are quixotic members of the Uto-Aztecanphylum.AEI-3, invalidHoward – Chapter 06 #102Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms103. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Some Necromonicons are Talmudic doctrines, given that all Linneaen manuscripts areNecromonicons and some Talmudic doctrines are Linneaen manuscripts.IAI-4, validHoward – Chapter 06 #103Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms104. Put the following categorical syllogism into standard form and identify its mood and figure.Since no hobbits are grand wizards and some grand wizards are members of the Circle of Seven, itfollows that some members of the Circle of Seven are not hobbits.EIO-4, validHoward – Chapter 06 #104Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms105. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Because all whales are mammals, at least some aquatic animals are mammals.All W are M.Some A are W.So, some A are M.ValidHoward – Chapter 06 #105Subject area: Enthymemes106. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.No fallacies are valid arguments, since no valid arguments are mistakes in reasoning.No V are M.All F are M.So, no F are V.ValidHoward – Chapter 06 #106Subject area: Enthymemes107. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Since all chickens are egg-layers, it follows that no chickens are mammals.All C are E.No E are M.So, no C are M.ValidHoward – Chapter 06 #107Subject area: Enthymemes108. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.All psychics are frauds, because all psychics are people who make false claims about theirabilities.All C are F.All P are C.So, all P are F.ValidHoward – Chapter 06 #108Subject area: Enthymemes109. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.It must be that some tabloid reporters are gossipmongers because all overzealous journalists aretabloid reporters.Answers will varyHoward – Chapter 06 #109Subject area: Enthymemes110. Identify the missing step in the following argument (remember the principles of charity and fairness!). Then put the argument into standard form. To cut down on writing, use capital letters to abbreviateEnglish terms.Some arguments are sound arguments because some arguments are valid arguments and all validarguments are sound arguments.Answers will varyHoward – Chapter 06 #110Subject area: Enthymemes6 SummaryCategory # of QuestionsHoward – Chapter 06 110Subject area: 6.1 Standard Form, Mood, and Figure 16Subject area: 6.2 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Statements 6Subject area: 6.3 Venn Diagrams and Categorical Syllogisms 4Subject area: 6.4 The Modern Square of Opposition 6Subject area: 6.5 Enthymemes 5Subject area: 6.6 Sorites and Removing Term-Complements 9Subject area: 6.7 Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms 11Subject area: Enthymemes 6Subject area: Putting syllogisms into standard form 15Subject area: Removing term-complements 5Subject area: Rules for evaluating syllogisms 5Subject area: The Modern Square of Opposition 1Subject area: Venn diagrams and categorical syllogisms 20 7Student: ___________________________________________________________________________1. In (A ⋁ B) → [B • (C ⋁ ~D)], what is the main logical operator?A. the first occurrence of ⋁B. •C. →D. the second occurrence of ⋁2. Which of the following is an atomic statement?A. Sailing is an enjoyable sport.B. Sewing and cross-stitch require good eyesight.C. The Cincinnati Reds did not win their last game.D. Either Sue or Karen will get the high score.3. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” thestatement “Neither Fred nor Lou likes ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).4. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” thestatement “Either Fred or Lou doesn’t like ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).5. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” the statement “Freddoesn’t like ice cream only if Lou doesn’t like ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).6. The “⋁” sign is used to symbolizeA. “Either . . . or . . . but not both.”B. “If . . . then . . .”C. “Both . . . and . . .”D. “Either . . . or . . . or both.”7. In A → B,A. A provides a necessary condition for B.B. B provides a sufficient condition for A.C. A provides a sufficient condition for B.D. A provides both a necessary and sufficient condition for B.8. Which of the following is not a condition for a symbolic expression to be a well-formed formula (WFF)?A. If p is a WFF, then so is ~(p).B. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p • q).C. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p ⋁ q).D. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p → q).9. Which of the following is not a well-formed formula (WFF)?A. (~A → B ⋁ C)B. ~A → (B ⋁ C)C. ~(A → B) ⋁ CD. (~A → B) ⋁ C10. A compound statement is truth-functional ifA. more than one atomic statement is a component.B. its truth value is a function of the content of its component atomic statement(s).C. in most contexts it functions as a true statement.D. its truth value is a function of the truth value of its component atomic statements.11. On which assignment of truth values does the sentence A → ~B turn out to be false?A. A is true, and B is true.B. A is true, and B is false.C. A is false, and B is true.D. A is false, and B is false.12. Under which assignment of truth values does the sentence A ↔ (B • ~C) turn out to be true?A. A is true, B is false, and C is false.B. A is false, B is true, and C is false.C. A is false, B is false, and C is false.D. A is true, B is false, and C is true.13. Under which assignment of truth values does the sentence (A ↔ ~B) • ~C turn out to be true?A. A is true, B is false, and C is false.B. A is true, B is true, and C is false.C. A is false, B is false, and C is false.D. A is true, B is false, and C is true.14. The truth table for a symbolized argument containing four statement letters will haveA. 4 rows.B. 8 rows.C. 12 rows.D. 16 rows.15. Using a truth table, we can tell that an argument is valid ifA. there is at least one row where the premises and conclusion are all true.B. there is no row where the premises are true and the conclusion is false.C. there is no row where the conclusion is false.D. there is at least one row where the premises are all true and the conclusion is false.16. A compound statement is a tautology ifA. it is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic sentences that compose it.B. its truth value is a function of the truth values of its component atomic sentences.C. it is true regardless of the truth values assigned to its component atomic sentences.D. its truth value is a function of the placement of its parentheses.17. A compound statement is a contradiction ifA. it is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic sentences that compose it.B. its truth value is a function of the truth values of its component atomic sentences.C. it is true regardless of the truth values assigned to its component atomic sentences.D. its truth value is a function of the placement of its parentheses.18. When two statements are logically equivalent, the columns in the truth table under their main logicaloperatorsA. show neither statement is contingent.B. are exactly alike.C. are exactly opposite.D. show both statements are tautologies.19. An atomic statement is a statement that has no other statement as a component.True False20. A compound statement is one that has at least one atomic statement as a component.True False21. “Chocolate is not nutritious” is an atomic statement.True False22. “All roses are red flowers” is a compound statement.True False23. In A • B, the statement constants are called disjuncts.True False24. The symbol for disjunction represents inclusive “or.”True False25. In A → B, the consequent is B.True False26. The statement ~A ⋁ B is a negation.True False27. A sufficient condition is a condition that, if lacking, guarantees that a statement is false (or that aphenomenon will not occur).True False28. A necessary condition is a condition that guarantees that a statement is true (or that a phenomenon willoccur).True False29. The consequent of a true conditional statement provides a necessary condition for the truth of theantecedent.True False30. The English phrase “if and only if” is symbolized with the “↔”.True False31. A statement variable is a lower case letter that serves as a placeholder for any statement.True False32. (A → B ⋁ C) is a well-formed formula.True False33. (A → (B ⋁ C) ⋁ D) is a well-formed formula.True False34. In A ⋁ (B • C), the main logical operator is the “⋁”.True False35. In (A ⋁ (B) • (D ⋁ C), the main logical operator is the “⋁”.True False36. A compound statement is truth functional if its truth value is completely determined by the truth value ofthe atomic statements that compose it.True False37. A conjunction is true if either one of its conjuncts is true; otherwise, it is false.True False38. A disjunction is false if both its disjuncts are false; otherwise it is true.True False39. A material conditional is false if its antecedent is true and its consequent is false; otherwise, it is true.True False40. A material biconditional is true when its two constituent statements have different truth values;otherwise, it is true.True False41. An argument is valid when it is not possible for its conclusion to be false when all of its premises aretrue.True False42. The truth table for an argument that has three component atomic statements will have six rows.True False43. The abbreviated truth table method can be used to prove that an argument is valid.True False44. If there is any assignment of truth values in which the premises are all true and the conclusion is false,then the argument is invalid.True False45. A tautology is a statement that is necessarily false—that is, it is false regardless of the truth valuesassigned to the atomic statements that compose it.True False46. A statement that is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic statements that compose it isa contradiction.True False47. Any argument with logically inconsistent premises will be valid yet unsound.True False48. A statement that is true in at least one row of the truth table and false in at least one row is contingent.True False49. Two statements are logically equivalent when each validly implies the other.True False50. Two statements are logically equivalent when the biconditional connecting them is a tautology.True False51. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: A • CTrue False52. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: B • ~CTrue False53. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: D ⋁ BTrue False54. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: C → ~(C • B)True False55. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: A ↔ (C ⋁ D)True False56. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: B → ~(A • B)True False57. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: (A • B) → (A ⋁ ~(C ⋁ B))True False58. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: ~(A • B) ↔ (A → (C ⋁D))True False59. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: ~(A → C) • (C ⋁ ~D)True False60. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value (trueor false) of this compound statement: ~(A ⋁ C) ↔ (B • ~(A ⋁ C))True False61. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: You canvote in the Democratic primary election only if you are a registered member of the Democratic Party.(V: You can vote in the Democratic primary election; R: You are a registered member of the DemocraticParty.)62. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It’s not thecase that Sally is in love with James, though James is in love with Sally. (S: Sally is in love with James; J:James is in love with Sally.)63. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Thepresence of H2O on Mars is sufficient for the production of life-forms. (H: H2O is present on Mars; P:Life-forms are produced on Mars.)64. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Susan willbe able to go to the graduate school of her choice unless she scores very poorly on her GRE. (C: Susan isable to go to the graduate school of her choice; P: Susan scores very poorly on her GRE.)65. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: UnlessSharon passes her final, she will get a C in the class. (P: Sharon passes her final; C: Sharon gets a C in theclass.)66. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: AlthoughStephen scored high on the LSAT, he did not get into the law school of his choice. (S: Stephen scoredhigh on the LSAT; L: Stephen got into the law school of his choice.)67. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Both Al andBob failed to come to the party. (A: Al came to the party; B: Bob came to the party.)68. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Neither Jeannor Ron is allergic to shellfish. (J: Jean is allergic to shellfish; R: Ron is allergic to shellfish.)69. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It is not thecase that neither ostriches nor turkeys can fly. (O: Ostriches can fly; T: Turkeys can fly.)70. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Jones winsonly if Smith and Brown both lose. (J: Jones wins; S: Smith wins; B: Brown wins.)71. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Assumingthat Susie is at the horse show, Dee Dee is either at home or at work. (S: Susie is at the horse show; H:Dee Dee is at home; W: Dee Dee is at work.)72. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: A necessarycondition for Adonis to go camping is that he behave and not bark at other dogs. (C: Adonis goescamping; B: Adonis behaves; O: Adonis barks at other dogs.)73. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Nathan’sattendance in class is both a necessary and sufficient condition for his passing this class. (A: Nathanattends class; P: Nathan passes class.)74. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: BothPatricia and Scott are prepared for the test, but Henry is not. (P: Patricia is prepared for the test; S: Scottis prepared for the test; H: Henry is prepared for the test.)75. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: EitherAbigail and Dieter both go to the dance or neither does. (A: Abigail goes to the dance; D: Dieter goes tothe dance.)76. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It will eitherrain or snow, but not both. (R: It will rain; S: It will snow.)77. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It will snowif and only if it is below 32° out and the humidity is greater than 60 percent. (S: It will snow; B: It isbelow 32° out; H: The humidity is greater than 60 percent.)78. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: If there’s toomuch rain in the early spring and not enough during the summer, the tomato crop will not be very good.(S: There is too much rain in the spring; I: There is enough rain during the summer; G: The tomato crop isvery good.)79. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: If theargument has all true premises and a false conclusion, then the argument is not valid. (P: The argumenthas all true premises; C: The argument has a true conclusion; V: The argument is valid.)80. Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Nathan willgo to the Cayman Islands for spring break if and only if he gets an A on his geology mid-term, finisheshis English research paper, and does not lose his job. (C: Nathan will go to the Cayman Islands for springbreak; G: Nathan gets an A on his geology midterm; E: Nathan finishes his English research paper; J:Nathan loses his job.)7 Key1. In (A ⋁ B) → [B • (C ⋁ ~D)], what is the main logical operator?A. the first occurrence of ⋁B. •C. →D. the second occurrence of ⋁Howard – Chapter 07 #1Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments2. Which of the following is an atomic statement?A. Sailing is an enjoyable sport.B. Sewing and cross-stitch require good eyesight.C. The Cincinnati Reds did not win their last game.D. Either Sue or Karen will get the high score.Howard – Chapter 07 #2Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments3. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” thestatement “Neither Fred nor Lou likes ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).Howard – Chapter 07 #3Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments4. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” thestatement “Either Fred or Lou doesn’t like ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).Howard – Chapter 07 #4Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments5. Where “F” stands for “Fred likes ice cream” and “L” stands for “Lou likes ice cream,” thestatement “Fred doesn’t like ice cream only if Lou doesn’t like ice cream” is best symbolized byA. ~F ⋁ ~L.B. ~F • ~L.C. ~F → ~L.D. ~(F • L).Howard – Chapter 07 #5Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments6. The “⋁” sign is used to symbolizeA. “Either . . . or . . . but not both.”B. “If . . . then . . .”C. “Both . . . and . . .”D. “Either . . . or . . . or both.”Howard – Chapter 07 #6Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments7. In A → B,A. A provides a necessary condition for B.B. B provides a sufficient condition for A.C. A provides a sufficient condition for B.D. A provides both a necessary and sufficient condition for B.Howard – Chapter 07 #7Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments8. Which of the following is not a condition for a symbolic expression to be a well-formed formula(WFF)?A. If p is a WFF, then so is ~(p).B. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p • q).C. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p ⋁ q).D. If p and q are WFFs, then so is (p → q).Howard – Chapter 07 #8Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments9. Which of the following is not a well-formed formula (WFF)?A. (~A → B ⋁ C)B. ~A → (B ⋁ C)C. ~(A → B) ⋁ CD. (~A → B) ⋁ CHoward – Chapter 07 #9Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments10. A compound statement is truth-functional ifA. more than one atomic statement is a component.B. its truth value is a function of the content of its component atomic statement(s).C. in most contexts it functions as a true statement.D. its truth value is a function of the truth value of its component atomic statements.Howard – Chapter 07 #10Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables11. On which assignment of truth values does the sentence A → ~B turn out to be false?A. A is true, and B is true.B. A is true, and B is false.C. A is false, and B is true.D. A is false, and B is false.Howard – Chapter 07 #11Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables12. Under which assignment of truth values does the sentence A ↔ (B • ~C) turn out to be true?A. A is true, B is false, and C is false.B. A is false, B is true, and C is false.C. A is false, B is false, and C is false.D. A is true, B is false, and C is true.Howard – Chapter 07 #12Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables13. Under which assignment of truth values does the sentence (A ↔ ~B) • ~C turn out to be true?A. A is true, B is false, and C is false.B. A is true, B is true, and C is false.C. A is false, B is false, and C is false.D. A is true, B is false, and C is true.Howard – Chapter 07 #13Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables14. The truth table for a symbolized argument containing four statement letters will haveA. 4 rows.B. 8 rows.C. 12 rows.D. 16 rows.Howard – Chapter 07 #14Subject area: 7.3 Using Truth Tables to Evaluate Arguments15. Using a truth table, we can tell that an argument is valid ifA. there is at least one row where the premises and conclusion are all true.B. there is no row where the premises are true and the conclusion is false.C. there is no row where the conclusion is false.D. there is at least one row where the premises are all true and the conclusion is false.Howard – Chapter 07 #15Subject area: 7.3 Using Truth Tables to Evaluate Arguments16. A compound statement is a tautology ifA. it is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic sentences that compose it.B. its truth value is a function of the truth values of its component atomic sentences.C. it is true regardless of the truth values assigned to its component atomic sentences.D. its truth value is a function of the placement of its parentheses.Howard – Chapter 07 #16Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence17. A compound statement is a contradiction ifA. it is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic sentences that compose it.B. its truth value is a function of the truth values of its component atomic sentences.C. it is true regardless of the truth values assigned to its component atomic sentences.D. its truth value is a function of the placement of its parentheses.Howard – Chapter 07 #17Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence18. When two statements are logically equivalent, the columns in the truth table under their main logicaloperatorsA. show neither statement is contingent.B. are exactly alike.C. are exactly opposite.D. show both statements are tautologies.Howard – Chapter 07 #18Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence19. An atomic statement is a statement that has no other statement as a component.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #19Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments20. A compound statement is one that has at least one atomic statement as a component.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #20Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments21. “Chocolate is not nutritious” is an atomic statement.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #21Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments22. “All roses are red flowers” is a compound statement.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #22Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments23. In A • B, the statement constants are called disjuncts.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #23Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments24. The symbol for disjunction represents inclusive “or.”TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #24Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments25. In A → B, the consequent is B.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #25Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments26. The statement ~A ⋁ B is a negation.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #26Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments27. A sufficient condition is a condition that, if lacking, guarantees that a statement is false (or that aphenomenon will not occur).FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #27Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments28. A necessary condition is a condition that guarantees that a statement is true (or that a phenomenonwill occur).FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #28Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments29. The consequent of a true conditional statement provides a necessary condition for the truth of theantecedent.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #29Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments30. The English phrase “if and only if” is symbolized with the “↔”.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #30Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments31. A statement variable is a lower case letter that serves as a placeholder for any statement.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #31Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments32. (A → B ⋁ C) is a well-formed formula.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #32Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments33. (A → (B ⋁ C) ⋁ D) is a well-formed formula.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #33Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments34. In A ⋁ (B • C), the main logical operator is the “⋁”.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #34Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments35. In (A ⋁ (B) • (D ⋁ C), the main logical operator is the “⋁”.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #35Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments36. A compound statement is truth functional if its truth value is completely determined by the truth valueof the atomic statements that compose it.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #36Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables37. A conjunction is true if either one of its conjuncts is true; otherwise, it is false.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #37Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables38. A disjunction is false if both its disjuncts are false; otherwise it is true.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #38Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables39. A material conditional is false if its antecedent is true and its consequent is false; otherwise, it istrue.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #39Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables40. A material biconditional is true when its two constituent statements have different truth values;otherwise, it is true.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #40Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables41. An argument is valid when it is not possible for its conclusion to be false when all of its premises aretrue.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #41Subject area: 7.3 Using Truth Tables to Evaluate Arguments42. The truth table for an argument that has three component atomic statements will have six rows.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #42Subject area: 7.3 Using Truth Tables to Evaluate Arguments43. The abbreviated truth table method can be used to prove that an argument is valid.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #43Subject area: 7.4 Abbreviated Truth Tables44. If there is any assignment of truth values in which the premises are all true and the conclusion is false,then the argument is invalid.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #44Subject area: 7.4 Abbreviated Truth Tables45. A tautology is a statement that is necessarily false—that is, it is false regardless of the truth valuesassigned to the atomic statements that compose it.FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #45Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence46. A statement that is false regardless of the truth values assigned to the atomic statements that composeit is a contradiction.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #46Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence47. Any argument with logically inconsistent premises will be valid yet unsound.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #47Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence48. A statement that is true in at least one row of the truth table and false in at least one row iscontingent.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #48Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence49. Two statements are logically equivalent when each validly implies the other.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #49Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence50. Two statements are logically equivalent when the biconditional connecting them is a tautology.TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #50Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence51. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: A • CFALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #51Subject area: Determining truth values52. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: B • ~CTRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #52Subject area: Determining truth values53. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: D ⋁ BTRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #53Subject area: Determining truth values54. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: C → ~(C • B)TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #54Subject area: Determining truth values55. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: A ↔ (C ⋁ D)FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #55Subject area: Determining truth values56. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: B → ~(A • B)FALSEHoward – Chapter 07 #56Subject area: Determining truth values57. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: (A • B) → (A ⋁ ~(C ⋁ B))TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #57Subject area: Determining truth values58. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: ~(A • B) ↔ (A → (C ⋁D))TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #58Subject area: Determining truth values59. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: ~(A → C) • (C ⋁ ~D)TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #59Subject area: Determining truth values60. Making the assumption that A is true, B is true, C is false, and D is false, determine the truth value(true or false) of this compound statement: ~(A ⋁ C) ↔ (B • ~(A ⋁ C))TRUEHoward – Chapter 07 #60Subject area: Determining truth values61. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Youcan vote in the Democratic primary election only if you are a registered member of the DemocraticParty. (V: You can vote in the Democratic primary election; R: You are a registered member of theDemocratic Party.)V → RHoward – Chapter 07 #61Subject area: Symbolizing62. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It’s notthe case that Sally is in love with James, though James is in love with Sally. (S: Sally is in love withJames; J: James is in love with Sally.)~S • JHoward – Chapter 07 #62Subject area: Symbolizing63. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Thepresence of H2O on Mars is sufficient for the production of life-forms. (H: H2O is present on Mars; P:Life-forms are produced on Mars.)H → PHoward – Chapter 07 #63Subject area: Symbolizing64. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Susanwill be able to go to the graduate school of her choice unless she scores very poorly on her GRE. (C:Susan is able to go to the graduate school of her choice; P: Susan scores very poorly on her GRE.)C ⋁ PHoward – Chapter 07 #64Subject area: Symbolizing65. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: UnlessSharon passes her final, she will get a C in the class. (P: Sharon passes her final; C: Sharon gets a C inthe class.)C ⋁ PHoward – Chapter 07 #65Subject area: Symbolizing66. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: AlthoughStephen scored high on the LSAT, he did not get into the law school of his choice. (S: Stephen scoredhigh on the LSAT; L: Stephen got into the law school of his choice.)S • ~LHoward – Chapter 07 #66Subject area: Symbolizing67. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Both Aland Bob failed to come to the party. (A: Al came to the party; B: Bob came to the party.)~A • ~BHoward – Chapter 07 #67Subject area: Symbolizing68. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: NeitherJean nor Ron is allergic to shellfish. (J: Jean is allergic to shellfish; R: Ron is allergic to shellfish.)~J • ~R or ~(J ⋁R)Howard – Chapter 07 #68Subject area: Symbolizing69. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It is notthe case that neither ostriches nor turkeys can fly. (O: Ostriches can fly; T: Turkeys can fly.)~(~O • ~T)Howard – Chapter 07 #69Subject area: Symbolizing70. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Joneswins only if Smith and Brown both lose. (J: Jones wins; S: Smith wins; B: Brown wins.)J → (~S • ~B)Howard – Chapter 07 #70Subject area: Symbolizing71. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided:Assuming that Susie is at the horse show, Dee Dee is either at home or at work. (S: Susie is at thehorse show; H: Dee Dee is at home; W: Dee Dee is at work.)S → (H ⋁W)Howard – Chapter 07 #71Subject area: Symbolizing72. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Anecessary condition for Adonis to go camping is that he behave and not bark at other dogs. (C: Adonisgoes camping; B: Adonis behaves; O: Adonis barks at other dogs.)C → (B • ~O)Howard – Chapter 07 #72Subject area: Symbolizing73. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Nathan’sattendance in class is both a necessary and sufficient condition for his passing this class. (A: Nathanattends class; P: Nathan passes class.)A ↔ PHoward – Chapter 07 #73Subject area: Symbolizing74. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: BothPatricia and Scott are prepared for the test, but Henry is not. (P: Patricia is prepared for the test; S:Scott is prepared for the test; H: Henry is prepared for the test.)(P • S) • ~HHoward – Chapter 07 #74Subject area: Symbolizing75. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: EitherAbigail and Dieter both go to the dance or neither does. (A: Abigail goes to the dance; D: Dieter goesto the dance.)(A • D) ⋁ ~(A ⋁ D)Howard – Chapter 07 #75Subject area: Symbolizing76. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It willeither rain or snow, but not both. (R: It will rain; S: It will snow.)(R ⋁ S) • ~(R • S)Howard – Chapter 07 #76Subject area: Symbolizing77. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: It willsnow if and only if it is below 32° out and the humidity is greater than 60 percent. (S: It will snow; B:It is below 32° out; H: The humidity is greater than 60 percent.)S ↔ (B • H)Howard – Chapter 07 #77Subject area: Symbolizing78. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: If there’stoo much rain in the early spring and not enough during the summer, the tomato crop will not be verygood. (S: There is too much rain in the spring; I: There is enough rain during the summer; G: Thetomato crop is very good.)(S • ~I) → ~GHoward – Chapter 07 #78Subject area: Symbolizing79. Symbols listYou may use the list below to copy-and-paste the symbols into your answer as needed.→; ↔; •; ~; ⋁;Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Ifthe argument has all true premises and a false conclusion, then the argument is not valid. (P: Theargument has all true premises; C: The argument has a true conclusion; V: The argument is valid.)(P • ~C) → ~VHoward – Chapter 07 #79Subject area: Symbolizing80. Translate the following statement into symbols, using the schemes of abbreviation provided: Nathanwill go to the Cayman Islands for spring break if and only if he gets an A on his geology mid-term,finishes his English research paper, and does not lose his job. (C: Nathan will go to the CaymanIslands for spring break; G: Nathan gets an A on his geology midterm; E: Nathan finishes his Englishresearch paper; J: Nathan loses his job.)Answers will varyHoward – Chapter 07 #80Subject area: Symbolizing7 SummaryCategory # of QuestionsHoward – Chapter 07 80Subject area: 7.1 Symbolizing English Arguments 26Subject area: 7.2 Truth Tables 9Subject area: 7.3 Using Truth Tables to Evaluate Arguments 4Subject area: 7.4 Abbreviated Truth Tables 2Subject area: 7.5 Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency, and Logical Equivalence 9Subject area: Determining truth values 10Subject area: Symbolizing 20